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Full text of "A gazetteer of Vermont, containing descriptions of all the counties, towns, and districts in the state; and of all its principal mountains, rivers, waterfalls, harbors, islands, and curious places. To which are added, statistical accounts of its agriculture, commerce and manufactures; with ... other useful information"

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Author of «'The New England Gazetteer," "Book of ReUgions," &c 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. 

/- '■■' 




Gazetteers, and other works descriptive of any part of New- 
England, have become so necessary to travellers and men of busi- 
ness, that it behooves those who prepare them, if they value their 
reputation, to guard, with all their might, against eiTors ; and to 
use every proper effort to procure, from time to time, such cor- 
rections and additions as that favored country requires in its rapid 
advances in all the moral and physical improvements known to 
civilized man. 

In that respect, the editor of this volume can only say, that he 
has devoted his whole time and talents, for some years, to this liis 
favorite pursuit ; that his means of acquiring information are con- 
stantly increasing, so as to enable him to perform his labors with 
greater ease and fidelity ; and that, while he enjoys the good will 
and confidence of an intelligent community, he shall feel no dispo- 
sition to relinquish it. 

The Rev. Zadock Thompson, of Burlington, Vermont, has re- 
cently published a History of that State, Natural, Civil, and Sta- 
tistical. Tliis is a work of great merit, and valuable to every 
American citizen ; but of peculiar interest to all those, at home 
and abroad, Avho claim any alliance to that band of patriots, The 
Green Mountain Boys, whose fame is celebrated in story, and 
is intimately connected with our country's reputation. 


From that work the editor has been permitted to take much of 
what is valuable in this volume ; and for this favor he shiill con- 
sider Mr. Thompson one of the greatest contributors to his series 
of New England Gazetteers, which will soon be completed, and 
which, with the kind assistance of many friends, he flatters him- 
self will be found worthy of a place in the libraries of many of 
the sons and daughters of that land, whose green hills and bloom- 
ing vales exhibit the united power of industry and skill ; and on 
the borders of whose beautiful streams the arts and sciences have 
erected monuments of renown as enduring as its granite moun- 
tains ; — a land from whose ports and harbors American com- 
merce first spread its canvas to the breeze, and which now whitens 
every sea ; — a land where Liberty first unfurled her banner, and 
on which her first battle was fought. 

To his learned friend, the Rev. Dr. Jenks, of Boston, for his 
estimable introductory remarks to this volume ; — to the Hon. 
James McM. Shafter, of Burlington, Secretary of the State of 
Vermont, for important documents ; — to Henry Stevens, Esq., of 
Barnet, for much valuable antiquarian and historical lore, and to 
many others who have favored the editor in his complicated task, 
he tenders the homage of a grateful heart. 




Agriculture and Manufactui-es, . 190 
Allen, Ethan, . . . . 171 
Asylum for the Insane, . .188 

Banks, 190 

Bays, Harbors, Capes, Points of 

Land, &c., . . . . 167 
Bennington, Battle of, . .211 
Bidwell, George, . . . 118 
Bloody Brook, .... 94 
Boring for Salt Water, . . 88 

Boundaries. — See Descriptions of 

Boundaries and Extent, . .184 
Brave Fellow, ... 102 

Cannon heard at a great distance, 23 

taken at Bennington, . 216 

Cascades, .... 69 

Cattle, number of, . .169 

CaA^erns and Caves, 21,30,48,49, 

53, 55, 69, 80, 83, 87. 100, 131, 

141, 163, 199 
Censuses, from 1791 to 1840, 145, &c. 
Chittenden, Thomas, . . 138 
Chief Justices, Succession of, . 186 
Climate and Indian Summer, 198 
Colbum, Zera, .... 39 
Colleges, . . ... 194 

Commerce and Navigation, . 193 
Common Schools, . . . 194 
Congressional Districts, . .187 
Constitution of Vermont, . 200 
Copperas, Manufacture of, . .119 
Counties, area of, . . . 1 70 
County Table, . . .169, &c. 
Courts. — See Counties. 
Crown Point, .... 34 
Curious Dwelling-place, . . 112 

Meeting-house, . .104 

Way of Naming a Tovm, 24 

Places, 43, 70, 87, 90, 94, 

111, 122, 163 


Dairies, Large, .... 

Destructive Worms, 

Distances. — See Descriptions of 

Dutchman's Point, 
Education, .... 
Elevated Ponds, . . 81 

Farm of a Kevolutionary Hero, 
Fidelity of a dog, 
Finances, .... 
First Bridge across Connecticut 

River, 105 

First Ministers. — See Description of 

First Settlers. — See Description of 

Fish, Transferring, . 
Floating Land, . 
Four Boys at a birth, 
Frog, old, .... 
Gallantry and Female Spirit, 
Galusha, Jonas, . 
General Wait, a brave soldier. 
Gores of Land, . 
Government and Judiciary, 
Governors, Succession of, . 
Grand List for 1848, 
Grain, bushels of, 
Great Girl of her age, . 

Distance to go to mill, 










Gulf Road, . . . .138 

Hay, tons of, . . . • 170 
Hardships of the First Settlers, 51, 
63, 67, 68, 71, 73, 83, 92, 97, 101, 

112, 126, 131 
Horses, number of, . . . 169 
Ice beds, .... 99,129 
Incorporation of Counties, date of, 1 69 
Indian Captives, . . .32, 77 

Depredations, . . 77, 102 

ReUcs, . . 85,94,117 









Industry and Bravery rewarded, 

Introduction, .... 

Lakes and Ponds, . 

Land Slides, .... 

Large Families, 

Light Houses, .... 

Longevity, . . 84, 122, 124, 

Loss of a toe, by frost, in June, . 

Lyon, Matthew, Colonel, 


Manufactures, &c., p. 190. — See 
Description of Towns. 

Minerals, 24, 32, 33, 42, 47, 48, 

50, 52, 53, 56, 70, 76, 81. 83, 85, 

87, 96, 99, 107, 108, li6, 121, 

122, 125, 

Mineral Springs, 36, 37, 48, 68, 
70, 74, 91, 96, 99, 100, 137, 

Mountains, .... 

Mutual Fire Insurance Companies, 

Name of the State, 

Natural Bridges, 63, 78, 81, 86, 


Oath of Allegiance, . 

Paper from bass wood bark, . 

Personal Estate, value of. — See 
Grand List. 

Plot against the Indians, . 

Polls, number of. — See Grand List. 

Ponds and Lakes, 

Population Table, . 

Porcelain earth, .... 

Post Villages, .... 

Potatoes, bushels of, . 

Probate Courts, 

Productions of the Soil. — See De- 
scription of Toums. 

PubHc Buildings, . . 88, 141, 




















Quail John, . . . .123 
Railroads, . . . . 196 
Real Estate, value of. — See Grand 

Rivers, Creeks, and Brooks, . 153 
Rogers Rangers, . . . 24, 161 
Runaway Fond, .... 64 
Scotch Farmers, and good fare, 109 
Sheep, number of, . . .170 
Stark, General, . . . 213 
State House, .... 187 

Prison, . . , . 188 

Senatorial Districts, . .187 

Statistical Tables, ... 169 
Stockbridge Indians, ... 84 
Successful Female Midwife, . 84 

Sugar, pounds of, . ... 170 
Swine, number of, . . . 170. 
Taxable Property, amount of. — 

See Grand List. 
Toniadoes, . . . 73,100,102 

Towns, number of. 

Shire, distance of from 


Towns, Shire, Latitude and Lon- 
gitude of, .... 

Travelling on Connecticut River, 
in 1763, 

Wait, General, 

Warner, General, 

Water-cure Establishment, 

Waterfalls and Cataracts, 44, 59, 

72, 78, 82, 86, 90, 105, 117, 125, 


Windmill Point, 

Wool, pounds of, . 

Wreck of Arnold's Fleet, . 

Yankee Enterprise, . 








The territory which is now included in the State of Yermont, and which 
lies between Lower Canada, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and New York, 
was, for a long time after the surrounding settlements were made, in great 
measure imexplored by Europeans. In its vicinity, Canada was the first 
kno^vn. and peopled by them, and a settlement was then made by the Dutch 
at Aurania, now Albany, and at the mouth of the Hudson. Then followed 
the settlements along the New England shores ; but a considerable period 
elapsed befoi'e they penetrated the interior, and, consequently, that interior was 
hardly marked but by marauding parties of Indians, and the footsteps of their 
unfortunate captives. 

It is not found that any large body of the natives was cantoned within the 
present limits of the State. There was, indeed, a tribe bearing the name of 
Coossucks in the north-east part of it;* but these were inconsiderable in 
number, and hardly known in the records of warfare, being surrounded, 
although at no little distance, by larger tiibes. These tribes consisted, in the 
first place, of the Five or Six Confederated Nations, at the head of whom 
figured the Mohawks. Among the French they bore the name of Iroquois, 
and had at an early period become their enemies, connecting themselves suc- 
cessively with the Dutch and English of New York, and adhering to their 
interests with great fidelity for more than a century and a half. The territory 

* See a description of this tribe of Indians in Mr. Thompsons very valuable " History of 
Vermont, Natural, Civil, and Statistical," from which, with his obliging permission, several 
items of information are derived in the following pages. 

8 Vermont. 

occupied by them, although denominated Canadian by Golden, in 1747, was 
included within the present boundaries of New York, being south of the St. 
Lawrence and the Lakes, although their conquests extended far to the north 
and north-west. They Avere the teiTor of other tribes, yet seem never to have 
settled to the eastward of the Hudson, and the beautiful lake which was once 
denominated from them, but now has the name of Champlain.* 

The Indians who were in alliance with the French of Canada were princi- 
pally the Algonkins, otherwise called Adirondacks, a tribe between whom and 
the Iroquois there were frequent wars, tlie result of hostilities previous to 
the arrival of Europeans.! Whether or not tlie tribe denominated of St. 
Francis, as residing on the banks of that river, \vere of Algonkin or more east- 
em dcrivjttion, or whether connected with the Coossucks or not, is not clear. 
Charlevoix describes them as Abenakis, who had left their brethren of the 
east, and migrated to Canada for the benefit of an alliance with the French. 

On the south-east and soutli, the Indians of the other New England States, 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, inhabited 
mostly the sea coast, and appear to have greatly dreaded the warlike character 
and prowess of the Mohawks. On the east were the Abenakis, Etechemins, 
and Micmacs, attracted also to the sea shore, doubtless by the facility of pro- 
curing thence a portion of their provisions. 

Thus it would seem, that the interior country which now forms Vermont 
was, as it were, a thoroughfare between powerful contending Indian nations or 
tribes, without being conspicuous as the seat of any considerable body of na- 
tives. It was traversed, rather than settled by them ; its water conveyances 
Horth and south admitting also an easy navigation by their canoes ; and hence 
in the remote periods of native history has little that requires or can repay 
research. This is an observable peculiarity. 

Another circumstance which still more strikingly characterizes the country, 
is the history of the claims made on its territory, by the States with which it 
is environed. To enter minutely into this history, is no aim of the present 
Introduction. But without adverting to it, our account would be exceedingly 
incomplete, as it tended not a little to mould the character of the inhabitants. 
For. in the process of settling the country, the lamentable conflicting of claims, 
as will be seen, imposed severe hardships on the enterprising men who ventured 
to leave the older settlements, and form in the wilderness homes for their 
growing families. Many a town contains in its rural burying place the re- 
mains of 

'■ Some Tillage Hampden, who, with dauntless breast, 
The httle tyrant of his fields withstood ; " 

since, as successive claimants pressed their demands, the inhabitants were 
compelled to re-purchase their farms, or leave them ; suffering over again the 

* Holmes's Annals, Tol. I., p. 141. This name was given in 1611, three years after Cham- 
plain had founded Quebec. See aho Dutilap's Hist, of N. Y., Vol. I., p. 19. 

t See Colcfen, Hist, of the Five Nations, Part I., and the excellent " Synopsis of the In- 
iian Tribep," by the Hon. Mr. Gallatin, published in the CoU. of the Amer. Antiq. Soc., 
Vol. II., where the Adirondacks are characterized as of the " family" of Algonkin-Lenape. 


j^rtevariccs which disgraced the government of Andros, and ended in liis 
seizure and coniincment by the injured and enraged people* His arbitrary 
capidity, in which lie but too faithfully imitated his worthless master, the big- 
oted and tyrannical James II., set an unhappy example, which yet was follow- 
ed, and produced a hardihood of opposition that nerved the men of Vermont 
to glaring actions^ 

When the country which fonns tlie sea coast of New England began to be 
settled from Europe, the claim of IMassachusetts to temtory was extended to 
'• three miles north of the River Merrimac." Casting one's eye on the map, it 
is easy to perceive, that a line drawn due west from this northern boundary, as 
it is formed by the bend of the river toward the north, not far from its mouth, 
would cut off a considerable f)ortion of the southern part of what now consti- 
tutes VeiTTiont. The Massachusetts government, theixifore, Avhen it extended 
its cares to the security of the nortiiern frontiers against the Indians of Can- 
ada, without any hesitation or doubt, as it seems, formed in 1723 a lodgement 
in wdiat is now Brattlchoiough, on the w^cstei^n bank of Connecticut River. 
There, during the distressiv.g war with the n&tives, aided by the French, their 
instigators, wliicli spread such terror and desolation along the borders of the 
f ettlements of ]\Iaine and New Hampshire, as well as Massachusetts, a fort was 
constructed by Lieutenant-Governor Ddmmer, of the latter State, which re- 
ceived his name ; and the next year a settlement followed. This was the first 
English settlement within the limits of Vermont.f 

But ahhough the frontier toward Canada was thus extended, and, under the 
ehelter of a fort, the labors of clearing and cultivating the land apjjeared -prac- 
ticable, yet the country was by no means in a state of security. We must 
never forget that American colonists w^ere from different nations. Spaniards, 
■«re know, })eopled the southern part of the continent, or oven-an it with their 
merciless troops, at an early period after its discoveiy by Ooldmbus. And, 
jealous as they ever were of any encroachment on their power, wealth, or 
influence, they would not have left " the bleak, inhospitable north " to France, 
ov England, each of which nations took a portion of it, had they discovered in 
it any goid, which, as the commodity most available for immediate use, and 
soonest adapted to the gratification of eager avarice, they chiefly sought. By 
papal permission and decree, they claimed all Am.erica. But France resisted 
this claim, and labored to form there an empire of her own ; and Charlevoix, 
the historian of it, boasts its extent as "greater than all Europe,"'^ although 
the proud Spaniard termed it " of nothing worth." § This empire she exerted 
hers^if to establish and enlarge, by all practicable means. Among these was 
the employment of a religious influence over the minds of the natives. Hence, 
in no inconsiderable degree, the efforts of her able, sagacious, indefatigable 
missionaries, most if not all of Avhom were Jesuits, bound to an implicit obe- 
dience to their head, eager to extend to heathen nations the papal sway, which 
had sufiered so much from Luther and the Reformation, and expecting to 

* See Hutchinson'' s Hist. Mass., &c. t Holmes's Amer. Annals, I., p. 531. 

t Hist, de la Ifouv. France, t. I., p. 1. § The import of the name " Canada." 


merit everlasting life by their exertions and sacrifices in spreading the triumphs 
of their faith ; at the same time looking on the English as heretics, beyond the 
pale of the church, and so doomed to everlasting perdition. Eeligious bigotry, 
and hatred, and contempt, were all combined in their almost unmitigated hos- 
tility ; the full spirit of which seemed imparted to their native converts, in 
addition to their own savage propensities and habits. Can we wonder, then, at 
the dread of Indian warfare that pervaded tlje frontier settlements of New Eng- 
land on the north ? 

It must, however, be observed, that if treachery and cunning marked the 
Indian, as sensible of his disadvantages in open warfare with his foes of Euro- 
pean origin ; and breach of promise, and cruelty, and revenge, too often distin- 
guished the Romanist, and led him also to connive at and permit in his Indian 
subjects and allies atrocities at which Christian civilization shudders ; there 
was yet no disposition in the puritans of Xew England to view with favor the 
character or conduct of a papist. The very name was odious. 

Vermont, then, as a " thoroughfai-e " between nations of different origin, 
pursuits, and interests, attractive as it was from its fertility and adaptedness to 
the purposes of agriculture and grazing, could not be occupied by peaceful 
farmers while the sun-ounding populations were struggling for mastery. Nor 
did the impediments end even here. 

The French, in 1731, erected a fort on the eastern side of Lake Champlain, 
towards its southern extremity ; but they soon demolished it, and chose a 
position on the western side, where they built the celebrated fortress generally 
called Crown Point, although named by themselves Fort St. Frederic. Their 
object was, to facilitate their Avay to the Six Nations, whether for war or prose- 
lytism, and to their own possessions on the Mississippi beyond them ; in order 
to environ ultimately the English colonists, and confine them to the Atlantic 
coast. The lake and its water communications were familiar to them, there- 
fore, and highly valued. But on the land it would seem, they had not leisure 
to make permanent settlements ; nor, perhaps, any present inducement, at 
8uch distance from their capital, and under other circumstances of the case. 
Meanwhile, as the lands of Connecticut and Massachusetts became occupied 
by the posterity of the first settlers, new fields of labor were sought. Appli- 
cations were therefore made to the government of the latter State, by several 
of its inhabitants who associated for the purpose, and a grant Avas made them 
to the northward of Fort Dummer, and on the eastern side of Connecticut 
River. This was in 1735, and the settlement took the name of No. 4, after- 
wards called Charlestown. But not ten years elapsed before war was again rife 
between England and France ; and in 17.46 this settlement was attacked by 
Canadian Indians,* and, for the time, ruined. Nevertheless the spirit of the 
early settlers was unbroken. They returacd, builded again, cultivated their 
lands afresh, although Avith their weapons beside them ; were again and again 
attacked, waylaid, several of them made captives and sold in Canada ; and 
thus persevered, with unabated zeal and bravery, through all their severe trials, 

* See its interesting liistorj- in the Collections made by Farmer and Moore, <cc. 


nnul their efforts were, in the good providence of the God of their fathers, 
crowned with success. 

It is almost impracticable, in these times of ease and security, to appreciate 
justly the hardships undergone by those who " made the wilderness to smile 
and blossom." Especially may this remark be made in i-eference to Vermont, 
although applicable far more extensively. 

But, added to the hardships attending the subduing of the soil, and to " the 
sword of the wilderness," in the "peril" of which they often "gat their 
bread," the disputes concerning titles to the land itself, to which we have before 
alluded, occasioned peculiar trouble. The boundary line between Massachu- 
setts and New Hampshire was not settled until March 5, 1740, when it was 
established by GtEORge II., to whom applications had been made for that pur- 
pose, in the manner i^ which it has since been preserved, and now exists.* 
On the establishment of this line, it appeared but reasonable to all parties that 
New Hampshire should extend on the west as Massachusetts extended in that 
quarter; and hence her claim to the lands west of the Connecticut, and north 
of the Massachusetts line. Grants were therefore made by the governor of 
New Hampshire without scruple, and as the courage or necessities of settlers 
might prompt their applications. In this manner the territory of Bennington t 
was granted, in 1749; and other grants followed. 

Again, however, war intervened ; and, from 1754 until the final conquest of 
Canada by the British arms, in 1760, it raged with various success, but with 
great sacrifices and sufferings on the part of frontier settlers, exposed as they 
necessarily were, and furnishing no small number of the provincial troops. 

The return of peace brought with its blessing still another trouble, in the 
claims that arose from a new quarter. The State of New York, settled, as we 
have seen, by the Dutch, a few years after | the French had planted themselves 
in Canada, had indeed long since passed under the dominion of England, 
being finally subdued in 1664. But the Dutch had made a small establish- 
ment for trading with the nations on the Connecticut ; and, for a considerable 
period, stoutly disputed the possession with the settlers from the jurisdictions 
of both Plymouth and Massachusetts.^ Indeed they seem to have honestly 
purchased from the natives a right to the soil, with as much scrupulousness as 
the very puritans at the east of them. Their claim, of a nature like that of 
the English, was made to extend, says Dunlap,|| " from Cape Cod to Dela- 
ware Bay, on the Atlantic, including the islands of the sea coast j the River 
St. Lawrence seems to have bounded it on the north ; on the south, some un- 

* See Belknap''s N. H., Hutchinson's Mass., and WUliams''s Hist. Vermont, 2d ed. 

t See the article in the following Gazetteer. 

% That is, in 1609, at the commencement of then- twelve years' truce with Spain, which 
opened again the way to foreign enterprise. The year 1604 is fixed, by Charlevoix and others, 
as the time when the Sieur de Monts and Samuel Champlain completed the discovery of 
Canada, and took possession of the country for Henry IV. of France, ahnost a century afber 
the first knowledge of it claimed by the French. 

§ See TrumbuWs Connecticut, and Drmlap's Hist. N. Y., for particulars, witii the au- 
thorities quoted in note last but two. 

II Hist, of N.Y., Vol. I., p. 9. 


defined line beyond Delaware Bay ; and west, it was boundless." Afterwardj 
however, it was narrowed down to the ten-itory west of the Fresh Kiver, as 
they termed the Connecticut. Mention is made of their purchasing of the 
Indians the territory between this and the North River, and " twenty-one miles 
inland ; " and De Laet, one of their early historians,* dwells on the pleasant- 
ness and fertility of the country, visited, after Hudson, by Adkian Block, in 
1614. Until recently, however, we have had little knowledge concerning the 
voyages of the Dutch navigators. Honor is at length given, and justice 
done them in the Collections of the New York Historical Society. 

Without entering too minutely into details, in this place, it may be suffi- 
cient to remark that, notwithstanding it has been asserted by some, that as 
early as 162.3 the Dutch built a fortresss at the present site of Hartford ; yet 
Trumbull t states it to have been as late as 1633, only three years before 
Governor Haynes and Mr. Hooker led their little colony thither. Disputes 
there were, sharp and long continued, with respect to boundaries. The Eng- 
lish confided in their royal charter, and the ability of their king to sustain it; 
the Dutch in the liberty granted them by their High Mightinesses the States 
General of Holland ; and nothing but the superiority of British power, which 
effected the conquest of New York, and gfvve to the " Colony of New Nether- 
lands " a character, laws, alliances, and interests wholly English, prevented 
the establishment of a Dutch republic on these western shores. And it admits 
of question, whether ti-ue candor has in this country been shown to the claims 
of the noble spirited people, who authorized and forwarded the founding of 
New Amsterdam, " at a time," said a worthy descendant from them, " when 
that nation [Holland] had just sprung into political existence, after a long, 
bloody, and most glorious struggle against civil and religious tjTanny, during 
which all the energies of patriotism, courage, and talents had been suddenly 
and splendidly developed." J 

To be brief in this rapid review, a long period of silence on the subject of 
the Dutch claims, or the claims of New York, in reference to territory north 
<rf Massachusetts and west of Connecticut River, seems to have been main- 
tained. This, perhaps, Avas owing to two considerations : the one, that already 
more land was claimed and possessed than the inhabitants could occupy and 
cttltivate ; and the othex', that the northern frontier beyond Massachusetts, 
open as it was to the invasion of the French and their Indiau allies or sub- 
jects, presented no attractions to settlers. 

When, however, the establishment of peace remaved the fears of savage out- 
rage, and rendered the subduing of the wilderness no longer a perilous enter- 
prise, '• the unsettled lands of the country acquired a new value, and were 
everywhere explored and sought after by speculators and adventurei-s. None 
appeared more inviting than the tract between Lake Champlain and Connecti- 
cut River. The soil Avas rich and fertile, favorable in m.any places to the pro- 
duction of grain, and in all to grazing and the raising of cattle. It was plenii- 

* See N. Y. Hist. CoU. Vol. I., pp. 92, 295. t Hist, of Connect., Vol. 1., p. 21. ' 

t See Verplanck-s Anniversaiy Discourse before the N. Y. Hist. Soc., 1818. 


fully watered by streams and rivers, and abonnded with necessary and useful 
timber. In such a soil and situation, the labor and hardships of a few years 
could scarcely fail of producing rich and valuable fiirms ; with all the ease and 
independence naturally annexed to industry in the rural economy of life."* 

Application being made, as we have seen above, to the governor of New 
Hampshire, within whose territory this region was supposed to lie, he proceed- 
ed so far to issue grants, that in 1761 not less than sixty townsliips, of six 
miles square, were granted on the west of Connecticut Eiver. In one or two 
years more, they amounted to one hundred and thirty-eight : keeping twenty 
miles east of the Hudson, so far as that extended northward, and then ad- 
vancing to the eastern shore of Lake Champlain : thus enriching the governor, 
who, beside the fees and donations attending the business, reserved five hun- 
dred acres in each township for himself. This aroused New York. On the 
28th of December, 1763, the lieutenant governor, Coldex, issued a proclama- 
tion, in which he recited the grants made to the Duke of York by his brother, 
Charles II., asserted their validity, claimed the jurisdiction as far east as 
Connecticut Eiver, and commanded the sheriiF of Albany County to return the 
names of all persons who under color of the New Hampshire grants had taken 
possession of any lands west of the river. 

This proclamation governor "Wentworth met by another, dated March 13, 
1764, in which he declared the grant to the Duke of York to be obsolete, and 
asserted, that New Hampshire extended as far west as did Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, and that the grants made by New Hampshire would be confirm- 
ed, even should the jurisdiction be altered. He exhorted the settlei-s not to be 
intimidated, but to cultivate their lands with diligence ; and required the civil 
officers to exercise jurisdiction as far westward as grants had been made, and 
to punish all disturbei's of the peace. 

Two authorities were now up, and a contest between them might be antici- 
pated. The assurances of the New Hampshire governor tended to quiet the 
minds of the settlers ; but, on the part of New York, an express application 
was made to the crown. This stated, on what authority is, however, disputed, 
that the peoplg were desirous to be included in that government ; and that, as 
the course of business must ever lie toward New York, it would be for the con- 
venience and advantage of the people, who, howevei', publicly disowned the 
application afterwards, to be united to that province. Nevertheless, it prevail- 
ed; and the king, on the 20th of July, 1764, ordered and declared "the western 
banks of the River Connecticut, from where it enters the province of the Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, as far north as the forty-fifth degree of northei-n latitude, to be 
the boundary line, between the said two provinces of New Hampshire and New 

Nothing appeared in this decision to alarm the people. Concluding that 
their title to the lands they had settled would be but confirmed by it, they had 
no idea of disputing the jurisdiction of New York, or opposing its government. 
They supposed the words " to be " were designed to express the future, and 

* Dr. WiUiams^ from whose account much of what immediately follows is abridged . 


not to refer to the past. But not so did the New York government. They 
constnicd it, says the historian, " as a declaration not only of what was to be, 
for the time to come, but of what was, and always had been, the eastern limit 
of New York : and. of consequence, that the grants which had been made by 
the governor of New Hampshire were grants of what had alwa3's belonged to 
New York, and Avere therefore illegal, and of no authority." Letters had in- 
deed passed between tlie governors of New Hampshire and New York, Wkxt- 
woRTir and Clixtox, concerning their respective boundaries, as early as 
1 750,* notwithstanding which the grants had still been issued ; and it is sur- 
prising to see the confidence witli Avhich, on both sides, the claims were press- 
ed. The late eminent chancellor IvEXT,t Avi-iting of the dispute, as it was in 
1777, says, "the inhabitants of the noHh-east part of the State (now Vermont) 
which had been represented in the convention under the names of the counties 
of Cumberland and Gloucester, renounced their allegiance, and set up for an 
independent State. On the 30th of June, in that year, they were knocking at 
the door of congress for a recognition of their independence, and an admission 
into the Union." On the other hand. Dr. Williams, speaking of the New York 
claim under the grant to king Ja:mes, says, '• there were no principles, which 
apply to human affairs, by which this grant Avould bear a strict examination." 
He terms it " a blundering transaction ;" and says that the geographical •'bounds 
of it were contradictory, indefinite, and impossible." 

The time, however, came for enforcing authority : and the govennnent of 
New York require<l the settlers to surrender the charters they had received 
from NeAv Hampsliire. and take out new grants from New York, attended with 
great fees and expense. Some settlei-s complied, and bought their lands a 
second time : while others absolutely refused. Actions of ejectment followed, 
commenced in the courts of the ncAV counties which had been formed : and 
these were decided there in favor of New York. Great profits accrued to its 
rulers from these measures, for the amount of them was far higher than the 
original cost of the titles from New Hampshire. 

But opposition was made in cases where ejectment by ofncial authority was 
attempted ; and the settlers, " instead of being depressed into submission, seem- 
ed to derive new powers from oppression; and the people," says Dr. AYiL- 
LIAMS, " soon began to associate, to defend one another, in their o])position to 
the courts and officers of New York." Ten years of litigation and of occasion- 
al violence followed, of which it is remarked by Belknap, " that although 
[the dispute] was can-ied on with a degree of virulence, unfriendly to the pro- 
gress of civilization and humanity within the disputed tenitory j yet it called 
into action a spirit of vigorous self defence, and hardy enterprise, which pre- 
pared the nci'^'es of that people for encountering the dangers of a revolution 
more extensive and beneficial." 

Among the hardy, resolute and brave men whom these difiSculties were now 
nurturing, few became more distinguished than Seth Warner and Ethak 

* Belknap's Hist. N. H., p. 323, F. and M.'s ed. 

t Address to the N. Y. Hist. Soc., 1,828. See also Durdap, Hist. N. Y. 


Allen. Scenes of the rcvoauionary struggle were fast developing the char- 
acter of our countryiTieTi. One and another aggression of the British minis- 
try, intent on carrying their favorite point, the civil subjection of the colonies, 
was provoking the opposition, not of the New England colonies alone, but 
others along the Atlantic border. The successful resistance to the Stamp Act 
of 17G5. and wliich produced its welcome repeal, became an encouragement to 
the friends of liberty ; v/ho, in various ways, evinced their determination to 
niake their and consequence known and felt by the mother country. Of 
these a better appreciation was indeed made in that quarter, than had hereto- 
fore been entertained. But still the progress of events conducted to an open 
rupture, on the special history of which it is no object of this Introduction to 
enlarge. Suffice it to say, that the territory now included in Vermont was 
very peculiarly exposed, and the situation of its inhabitants in many respects 
very singular. 

It would, in fact, be difficult to produce a parallel to the anomalous state of 
these settlers. Their improvements, made on the lands they had purchased, 
were efrecte<l at imminent pctil. Their titles to the lands themselves had been 
honestly acquired on their part, but were disputed by contending governments, 
which yet exercised over them no effectmil authority,* and the total loss of 
them hazarded- To neither of these governments could they appeal without 
slighting the other: nor, consistently with their own interest, and duty to their 
families, submit to either. They felt, therefore, constrained to temporise ; and 
while, with the rest of their brethren, they entered, as individually called by an 
imperious sense of duty, into the scenes of the Revolution, they were never- 
theless not unmindful of the peculiarities of their own case. 

But it is not to be supposed, as it surely will not be by any true " Green 
Moxintain boy," or Nev/ Englander, tliat frontier settlers, coming out from such 
a state of society as had been constituted originally by the pilgrim fathers, and 
handed down from them, could consent to live without law, order, or those so- 
cial institutions on which order and law depend. No ! The towns, small and 
exposed as they might be, and struggling, as inevitably they must, with the hard- 
ships incident to settlements in the wilderaess, cannot thrive without govern- 
ment — and they Avho are, at least for a season, beyond reach of the laws that 
govern the larger comnmnities, from which they are providentially separated, 
become "a law unto themselves." They have their town meetings j they de- 
cide on tlie qualifications of voters in them ; they choose their moderator, their 
town clerk, their selectmen, to manage the affairs of their little, but, to them- 
selves and their flimilies, all-important community. The school and the school 
committee, the church and its pastor, the constable and the justice of the peace, 
must all be included.! The citizen of New England, place him Avhere you 
will, whether in the Old Colony or California, in Vermont or Iowa, cannot feel 

* Although four counties had been nominall}- organized by New York, two on each side of 
the Green I^Iountains. 

t These were, in fact, the principles on which the original grants from the New Hampshire 
government were constructed. See the copy of one in Tkompson''s Hist, of A'ermont, 2d part, 
p. 22^1, and the articles Bennington, Guilford, &c. 


contented or happy, until these arc all provided for the civic association of 
which God, in His providence, has made him a member ; and thanks be to 
God, that a clear, sober view of the I'cal wants and true interest of society 
forces this just appreciation on so many energetic minds ! 

Still there were many, doubtless, who entered the wilderness of Vermont, as 
they have other regions of frontier exposui-e and pei-il, without having pre- 
viously imbibed a "love of things that are excellent" — men of rude passions, 
uneasy temperaments, reckless of i-ule or resolved to resist it, lawless, selfish 
and overbearing. Such are found in all ages and countries. But the progress 
to social order either shakes them off, or humanizes them, or neutralizes in 
time their baleful influence. 

The state of society and the emergency of their times have often in our 
country produced individuals of that class which Ave are early led to admire in 
the histories of ancient Greece and Eome : men who become eminent, not for 
the possession and cultivation of a single talent only, but for the development 
of the various powers bestowed on human natui-e, in their several fair propor- 
tions, as the necessities of their condition may demand. Such in New Hamp- 
shire was Meshech Weake ; in Massachusetts, Elisha Williams, charac- 
terized so justly and beautifully by Doddridge ;* Ashmun also, of whom 
one of the " favored of the Muses "t writes, that he was 

" A leader, when the blast of ruthless vrav swept by, 
A teacher, when the storm was past, and guide to worlds on high." 

And the circumstances which called forth the vigor and courage of Wars'er 
and Allen, whose names only have been mentioned here, but on whose his- 
tory Ave cannot dwell, brought into active and beneficial exercise the talents 
and virtues of Thomas Chittexdex, who, though enjoying in early life but 
few advantages of education, shone nevertheless under the requii-ements of his 
trying times and high office ; and has left a name which posterity cannot but 
honor, as his cotemporaries revered and loved it. 

The anomalous condition of the settlers, to which allusion has been made, 
requires a further description. They had represented their case to the throne 
as early as 1764 : and in 1767 an inhibition was issued to the governor of New 
York, who was required to desist from making any further grants until the 
royal will should be made known, " upon pain of his Majesty's highest dis: 
pleasure." This notwithstanding, grants were made, and resisted ; and a se- 
ries of altercations excited so gi'catly the animosity of the opposite parties, that 
a civil war must have been the issue, had not the events which occurred at 
Lexington and Concord, in 1775, arrested the attention of all, and fixed it on 
the interests of the Avhole country. 

The seizure of Ticonderoga by Col. Allex and his associates ; of Crown 
Point by Col. Warxer, and of Fort St. John by Arxold, soon gave to the 
American forces the command of Lake Champlain in its whole extent : while 
the subsequent capture of Bukgotne, after the partial engagements of Hub- 

* Quoted bv Dr. Allen, in his Am. Biogr. and Hist. Diet. t Mrs. Sigourney, Id. 


bardton and Bennington, prevented any further fears, at least for a season, 
respecting the northern frontier. 

In the mean time, great want wa* felt of some well-defined government 
over the population formed on the " Grants." A Congress had been constituted 
of delegates from the greater part of the colonies, and held its first session in 
1774. At its second meeting tlie next year, a committee v/as sent on to Phil- 
adelphia to consult with its members. On their return, this committee, by is- 
suing circulars, and reporting the result of their mission, prepared the way for 
a convention of delegates from tlie several towns, which had now become ac- 
customed for some time to act together for mutual defence. This convention 
met on the 16th of January, 1776, and presented its petition to congi-ess; but 
this was subsequently withdrawn, in consequence of a recommendation to sub- 
mit for the present to New York ; and finally, after other preparatory steps, 
the territory was declared, January 15th, 1777, a free and independent State, 
assuming the picturesque name of Vermoxt. 

This important measure Avas taken with great firmness, moderation and 
unanimity. Yet it was followed, as under existing circumstances might have 
been anticipated, by opposition on the part of New York, petitioning the con- 
gress not to acknowledge the act ; and on the part of New Hampshire, claim- 
ing several of the towns which had embodied themselves in the new State. 
Nor was it until after a variety of changes, and much negotiation, of which the 
details might fill a volume,* that these external concerns v/ere adjusted, and 
Vermont became an integral part of the New Ajmericax Union. That 
happy event took place, after a satisfactory settlement of all disputes with the 
States both of New Hampshire and New York, March 4th, 1791. The general 
history of the State since is blended with that of the nation. 

Under all their difficulties and embaiTassments, in the adjustment of land 
titles, the subduing of the wilderness, the arrangement of their political con- 
cerns, and the horrors of warfare, the inhabitants had ijot neglected the claims 
of religion and good learning. The settlement of the ministry in the small 
towns, as they were successively formed and grew able to sustain it, was fol- 
lowed up with a good degree of zeal and perseverance. The condition of so- 
ciety seemed to require and effectually obtained a free toleration of religious 
sentiments, with no distinction in the claims of sect or denomination. An entire 
sundering of bonds between the Church and the State was accomplished — and 
the result has seemed to show, that then the religion of the Gospel flourished 
best, when left to its own heavenly resources, and the zealous love and efforts 
of its sincere friends : human laws being only then appealed to, when infrac- 
tions of special civil compacts rendered such appeal needful. Hence absolute 
contracts for the support of the ministry can be exacted by law, but the law- 
does not compel any to form such contracts.! Revivals of the power of reli- 
gion have not been unusual. Nearly 20,000 communicants were found in June, 

! * See, however, for the particiilars, either Dr. Williams's History, or the clear though brief 
exhibition of all these transactions, consecutively, in Thompson's Vermont, Part II. 
t See Graham's Sketches. 




1 848, connected with the 1 89 churches embodied in the " General Conventaon 
of Congregational Ministers and Churches," which then held its session at 
Brandon.* And the statistics of other denominations, which are found in this 
State, as in the rest of New England, bear comparison with this result. 

For the cause of Education Vermont has done nobly : and she deser\'es the 
high honor of being ranked among die few governments that have wisely dis- 
cerned and followed out with energy the permanent welfare of those who sus- 
tain them. At the last census, when the number of inhabitants was found to 
be 291,860, the district schools were 2,402, and the children and youth of suit- 
able age to attenu them, perhaps from 4 to 18 years, was 97,578. In 1844, the 
pupils in actual attendance were 52.665. The School Fund was reported to 
be, in 1841, $164,292,28: and. beside these schools, the State had incorporated, 
in the course of sixty years, 53 academies — several of which, however, Mr. 
Thompson informs us, " had ceased to exist," while a few among them are 
sustained by different religious denominations and private benefactions. 

To crowTi this system, Vermont has a " State University" at Burlington, 
now in a flourishing condition ; and a College at Middlebury, p6ssessing at 
least equal advantages. Both are high in public favor; the latter having grad- 
uated 785 pupils, and the former, 651, in 1841. There is also a Medical Col- 

Medical societies, and societies for benevolent purposes have been greatly 
multiplied in the State. Its agriculture, manufactures, and, by means of Lake 
Champlain, its na\ngation also, have been encouraged, developed and become 
greatly successful.f As yet, no State Survey of its Geology has been com- 
pleted ; but the progress of its railroads, so vigorously prosecuted, and promis- 
ing such advantages, in bringing the riches of the West to the sea coast, will, 
doubtless, make apparent also at an early period the worth of such a measure. 

In 1842, began the celebration of Forefathers' Day :$ and that whatever was 
commendable in their character and spirit may, under the blessing of their and 
our God, flourish in this now thriving State, is our hearty wish and prayer. 

* See the Minutes of that Convention, printed at "Windsor, where is established its Religioxifl 
Journal. The first newspaper in the State was published in 1781. 
t For particulars, consult the Gazetteer, under the several localities. 
t Boston Recorder of Jan. 12, 1849. 







MiDDLEBURY is the chief town. This county is bounded on the north by 
Chittenden County, east by Washington and Orange Counties, and a part of 
Windsor County, south by Rutland County, and west by Lake Champlain. 

Large quantities of white and beautifully variegated marble, which receives 
a fine polish, are found in this county, and large quantities of it are quarried 
and transported to various markets. This county is admirably well watered 
by Otter Creek, which rises near its southern boundary, and extends nearly 
through its centre ; by Mad and White Rivers ; and by Lake Champlain, 
which affords it many navigable privileges. The soil is good, particularly in 
those towns below the mountains, and bordering the lake and rivers. The 
scenery on the western borders of this county, Ipng, as it does, on Lake Cham- 
plain, is exceedingly variegated and beautiful. — See Tables. 


The Supreme Court sits at Middlebuiy, annually, on the first Tuesday in 
January, and the County Court on the second Tuesday in June and December. 

ADDISON. . g^gf gjjjg Qf j^j^^g Champlain, and near- 

Addison Co. This is supposed to ly opposite to Crown Point, in the 

be the first place settled by the whites, ' State of New York. At this place the 

in this State, west of the mountains. { lake is about three miles broad. The 

The town is pleasantly located on the | French, it is said, commenced a settle- 



menthere in 1731 ; the same year that 
they erected a fort at Crown Point. 
The English came here about 1770. 
Otter Creek passes into the town, but 
affords no important mill sites. The 
surface of the town is low and level. 
Mill and Pike Rivers, are small streams, 
which fall into the lake opposite to 
Crown Point. 

Boundaries. North by Panton, east 
by Weybridge and Waltham, south by 
Bridport, and west by Lake Cham- 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
made by the Eiiglish v/as in the year 
1769 or 1770, by a Mr. Ward, the Hon. 
John Strong and Zadock Evei-est, Esq., 
with their families. This settlement 
was broken up and the settlers retired 
to the south, upon the advance of the 
British up the lake in the fall of 1776, 
and none of them returned with their 
ftimilies till the month of May, 1783. 
During their seven years' absence, every 
building which they had erected was 
destroyed by the enemy, who were 
masters of the lake till the close of the 
war. From its renewal at the close of 
the war, the settlement advanced with 
considerable rapidity, and Messrs. 
Strong, Everest and some others of the 
first settlers who had been driven off 
and retunicd, lived to see the township 
nearly all under improvement and 
themselves in possession of all the ra- 
tional enjoyments of life. 

First Minister. A church was or- 
ganized here by the Rev. Job Swift, in 
1803; who died in 1804. 

Productions of the Soil. ^Tieat, 1,722 
bushels ; Indian com, 6,250 bushels ; 
potatoes, 19,750 bushels; hay, 10,800 
tons ; maple sugar, 865 pounds ; wool, 
82,900 pounds. 

Distances. Forty miles west south- 
west from Montpelier, and twelve miles 
west north-west from Middlebury. 


Orleans Co. This town was grant- 
ed in the year 1781, by the name of 
Lutterloh; in 1815 it was changed to 
its present name. The town is not 
mountainous, but in some parts the 
surface is uneven. 

Albany is watered by Black River, 
which is formed in Craftsbur)-, and 
passes through it in a north-easterly 
direction, and by several of its branch- 
es. There are likewise several consid- 
erable ponds, the most important of 
which. Great Hosmer's Pond, is partly 
in Craftsbury. The soil is generally 
sandy or gravelly. Along the river is 
some fine intervale. j^ 

Boundaries. North-easterly by Iras- 
burgh, south-east by Glover, south-west 
by Craftsbury, and north-west by Low- 
ell and Eden. 

First Settlers. The town was organ- 
ized March 27, 1806, and Benjamin 
Neal was the town clerk. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,61 8 
bushels; Indian com, 1,597 bushels; 
potatoes, 43,389 bushels; hay, 2,685 
tons ; maple sugar, 42,298 pounds ; 
wool, 6,121 pounds. 

Distances. Six miles south from 
Irasburgh, and thirty-seven north-east 
from Montpelier. 


Grand Isle Co. Settlements com- 
menced here by emigrants from Can- 
ada, in 1782. This town lies at the 
north-west corner of the State and of 
New England; ten miles north from 
North Hero, and seventy-nine miles 
north-west from Montpelier. It is bound- 
ed by the waters of Lake Champlain, 
except on the north, where it meets the 
Canada line, in north latitude 45°. 
The soil is good and finely timbered. 
It has a mineral spring, of some repute 
in scrofulous cases. 

The French made a small settlement 
here more than 100 years ago and 
erected a stone wind-mill upon a point, 
which has in consequence, received the 
name of Wind-mill Point. The settle- 
ment of this township, by the English, 
was commenced by emigrants from St. 
Johns in Lower Canada about the year 
1782. The settlers were originally 
from the States, but, being loyalists, 
they found it necessary, during the 
revolutionary war, to shelter them- 
selves in Canada. For some years 
after the settlement was commenced, 
they were much liarrassed and per- 



plexed 1)y the diversity of claimants to 
the lands. 

Boundaries, East by Missisco Bavj 
west by Lake Champlain, and runs to 
a point at the south, being of a trian- 
gular form. 

First Ministers. There are various 
denominations of Christians in this 
town but no settled ministers. 

Productions of the Soil, Wheat, 9,237 
bushels ; Indian com, 3,786 bushels ; 
wool, 11,191 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles north from 
North Hero, and seventy-nine miles 
north-west from Montpelier. 


Windsor Co. Emigrants from 
Enfield, Ct., first made a permanent 
settlement in this town, in 177G. It 
was organized, as a town, in 1781. 

Markhum and Terrible Mountains 
lie in the western part. The land is 
uneven, the soil is hard, and the town 
possesses but few water privileges. 

Boundaries. North by Ludlow, east 
by Chester, south by Windham, and 
west by Weston. 

First Minister. A Baptist Church 
was organized Aug. 31, 1803. The 
Rev. Joel Manning was ordained over 
this church, Oct. 2, 1806. 

Productions of the Soil. ^\nieat, 1,159 
bushels ; Indian com, 982 bushels ; 
potatoes, 5,050 bushels ; hay, 988 tons ; 
maple sugar, 1,255 pounds; wool, 9,000 

Distances. Twenty miles south-west 
from Windsor, sixty-eight south from 
Montpelier, and thirty-seven north-east 
from Bennington. 


Benningtox Co. This town was 
cliartered in 1761. The time of its 
organization is not known, as one Bis- 
co, a tory, the town clerk in 1777. de- 
stroyed thie records. It is finely water- 
ed by Green River, Mill and Warm 
Brooks, and Roaring Branch, which 
fall into the Battenkill, at the north 
part of the town. These streams af- 
ford excellent mill sites, and on their 
banks are large bodies of superior 
meadow land. 

West and Red ]\Iountains extend 
through the west part of the town, and 
supply a great variety of good timber. 
Excellent marble is found here ; con- 
siderable quantities of which are 
wrought and transported. 

Here is a medicinal spring, and a 
cavern of large dimensions^ The spring 
is not of much note, but the cavern is 
a great curiosity. 

Thi3 is a flourishing town in both 
its agricultural and manufacturing pur- 

Boundaries. North by Landgate, east 
by Sunderland, south by Shaftsbury, 
and Avest by Salem. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
was made in the year 1 763, by Dr. Si- 
mon Burton, William Searls, and Ebe- 
nezer Wallis. In 1764, Jehiel Haw- 
ley, Josiah Hawley, Remember Baker, 
and Thomas Peck, removed into this 
town. The foniier was a principal 
land owner, and has left in this place 
a numerous and respectable posterity, 

Fi)-st Minister. An Episcopal So- 
ciety was organized here some years 
before the Revolution, which has ex- 
isted ever since. The records of this 
church, which is called Saint James 
Church, go back to Aiig. 16th, 1784. 
The first rector of this ch/ rch was the 
Rev. James Nichols, settled in 1786, 

Productions of the Soil. ^Vheat, 743 
bushels; Indian corn, 5,145 bushels; 
potatoes, 211,212 bushels: hay, 4,631 
tons ; maple sugar, 7,420 pounds ; wool, 
27,750 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles north from 
Bennington, and 106 south-west from 


Windham Co. This town was 

j first settled in 1780. by people from 
Rindge, N. H., and Winchendon, Mass. 
They encountered great hardships. 
" The snow was four feet deep when 
they came into town ; and they had to 
beat their own path for eight miles 
through the woods. A small yoke of 
oxen were the only domestic animals 
that they took with them." 

This is a good township of land, 
particidarly for gi*azing. Here are 



productive orcliards, pine timber, and a 1 
small mill stream. j 

Boundaries. North by Grafion, east 
by Westminster and Rockingham, south 
by Brookline and Townshend, and west | 
by Townshend. j 

First Settlers. The first beginnings i 
towards a settlement in this town were 
made in the foil of 1779, by Jonathan 
Perham, Seth Oakes, Joseph Easier, 
James Shafter, and Jonathan Foster. 

Productions of the Soil. V\'heat. 501 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,885 bushels; 
potatoes, 10,035 bu.shels ; hay, 966 
tons ; maple sugar, 6,470 jsounds ; wool, 
5,387 pounds. 

Dista7ices. Forty miles north-east 
from Bennington, ninety-eight south 
from Montpeiier, fourteen north from 
Newfane, and ten miles from Bellows 


Essex Co. This town lies on the 
Canada line, about thirty miles north 
of Guildhall. It has several large 
ponds and a branch of Nulhegan River. 
Some of these waters pass to the Con- 
necticut, and some to the River St. 
Francis. The soil of Averill is cold 
and broken, with few cultivators. 

Boundaries. Xorth-cast by Canaan, 
south-east by Lemington, south-west by 
Lewis, and north-west by Norton. 

First Settlers. This to\\Ti was char- 
tered in 1762. 

Productions of the Soil. Potatoes, 400 
bushels ; hay, 20 tons ; maple sugar, 
600 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty miles north from 
Guildhall, and sixty miles north-east 
from Montpeiier. 


Franklin Co. This township is 
somewhat broken, but not mountainous. 
It is timbered principally with hard 
wood, and the soil is in general Avarm 
and productive. It is watered by Black 
Creek, which crosses the south-west 
comer, and several other branches of 
the Missisco River. The streams are, 
however, small, and the mill privileges 
not numerous. 

Boundaries. North by Enosburgli, 
east by Avery's Gore and Waterville, 
south by AVatervillc and Fletcher, and 
Avest by Fairfield. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this town Avas commenced in 1789, by 
Joseph Baker, from Avhom the toAvn 
derives its name. He emigrated from 
Westborough, Mass. Joel Brigham and 
Abijah Pratt settled in Bakersfield 
about the same time. 

Productions of the Soil. AMieat, 3,000 
bushels ; Indian com, 2,450 bushels ; 
potatoes, 62,000 bushels; hay, 3,570 
tons ; maple sugar, 33,305 pounds ; 
AA^ool. 10,876 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty miles north-east 
from Burlington, thirty-eight north 
north-Avest from Montpeiier, and fifteen 
miles east from St. Albans. 


Windsor Co. This toAvn was takea 
from Cavendish, in 1793. Hawk's 
Mountain is the division line. The 
soil is Avann, but stony. An abun- 
dance of gneiss and granite is found 

Boundaries. East by Weathersficld 
and Springfield, south by Chester, and 
north-AA-^est by Cavendish. 

First Settlers. The tOAATi Avas or- 
ganized in 1794, and Joseph Atlierton 
AA-as first tOAvn clerk. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,922 
bushels ; Indian corn, 905 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 6,566 bushels: hay, 519 tons; 
maple sugar, 1,650 pounds ; wool, 
2,855 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles north-west from 
Windsor, and about sixty-five south 
from Montpeiier. A railroad passes 
near this town. . ' 


Windsor Co. Barnard is watered 
by Broad Brook, A\-hich empties into 
White River in Sharon : and by Lo- 
cust Creek, Avhich also empties into 
White River in Bethel. .On this creek, 
during the revolutionary Avar, there 
Avas erected a fort, where the militia 
of this and other tOAvns Avere stationed, 
as a defence against Indian deprcda- 



tions — tbey having surprised and car- 
ried to Canada a number of its first 
settlers, in 1780. 

In the centre of this town is the vil- 
lage, and a beautiful pond, from which 
issues a stream on which there are 
mills. On tliis creek is an establish- 
ment for the manufacture of starch 
from potatoes. This stream joins its 
waters with the creek one mile from 
the pond. 

The surface of this town is hilly. 
The soil is well adapted to grazing ; 
and there are but few towns that turn 
off yearly more cattle, butter and 
cheese, sheep and wool. 

It is stated as a singular fact, that 
the firing on Bunker Hill, on the 17th 
of June, 1775, was distinctly heard in 
this town, 130 miles north-west from 

Boundaries. North by Royalton and 
Bethel, east by Pomfrct, south by 
Bridgewater, west by Stockbiidge. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in March, 1775, by Thos. 
Freeman, his son William, and John 
Newton. The same season Lot Whit- 
comb, Nathaniel Paige, Wm. Cheedle, 
and Asa Whitcomb, moved their fomi- 
lies into town. 

First Minister. The Rev. Joseph 
Bowman was installed over the Con- 
gregational Church, in 1784, and con- 
tinued their pastor till his death, which 
happened April 27th, 1806. 

Productions of the Soil. "VYlieat. 2,279 
bushels ; Indian corn, 4,266 bushels : 
potatoes, 50,286 bushels ; hay, 4,913 
tons ; maple sugar, 36,360 pounds ; 
wool, 18,027 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-one miles north- 
west from Windsor, and thirty-seven 
south from Montpelier. 


Caledoxia Co. This town lies on 
Connecticut River, at the Fifteen Mile 
Falls, and opposite to Lyman, N. H. 
It hi\,s a good soil, and is an excellent 
farming town, with slate and iron ore. 
Many of the inhabitants are of Scotch 
descent. This tovm has a great water 
power on Passumpsic and Stevens' 
Rivers. On the latter are fiills of 100 

feet, in the distance of ten rods. This 
water power is improved by a number 
of flannel and other manufactories. 
There are a number of pleasant and 
fertile islands in the river, between 
this place and Lyman, and some beau- 
tiful ponds in Barnet, which afford fish 
of various kinds. This is quite a ro- 
mantic place, and lies at the head of 
navigation on the Connecticut River. 

There are three natural ponds in 
this town, viz., Harvey's Pond, cover- 
ing about 300 acres, Ross' Pond, about 
100, Morse's Pond, about fifteen acres. 
The present head of boat navigation 
on Connecticut River is at the lower 
village in this town at Mclndoe's Falls. 
The principal places of business are at 
this village, at the village at Stevens* 
Mills, and the village at Randal's Mills, 
on the Passumpsic River. 

This is the birth-place and residence 
of Henry Stevens, Esq., a celebrated 
antiquarian. Mr. Stevens is perform- 
ing great serA'ice to the State, by res- 
cuing from oblivion large claims 
against the general government. 

Boundaries. North by Waterford, 
east by Connecticut River, south by 
Rvegate, west bv Peacham and Dan- 

First Settlers. The charter of Bar- 
net is dated September 15, 1763. The 
principal proprietors were Enos, Sam- 
uel, and Willard Stevens, sons of Capt. 
Phineas Stevens, who so nobly de- 
fended the fort at Charlestown, New 
Hampshire, April 4, 1747, against a 
large party of French and Indians, 
under the 'command of M. Debeline. 
The first settlement was commenced 
in this town by Jacob, Elijah, and 
Daniel Hall, and Jonathan Fowler 
Sarah, daughter of Elijah Hall, was 
the first child, and Barnet, son of Jon- 
athan Fowler, was the first male child 
bom in the tOAvn. The latter was 
presented by Enos Stevens, Esq., with 
100 acres of land. The tOAvn was 
subsequently settled mostly by emi- 
grants from Scotland. A part of the 
township was purchased, in 1774, by 
the late Alexander Harvey, Esq., and 
another gentleman, for a company in 
Scotland. A considerable proportion 
of the people are of Scotch descent. 



In the summer of 1772, Enos Ste- 
vens, Esq., erected a grist mill on Ste- 
vens' River, about 150 rods from its 
junction vhh the Connecticut. The 
first town meeting was held, and the 
town organized, March 18, 1783. Wal- 
ter Brock, Esq., was first town clerk, 
and Colonel Alexander Harvey the 
first representative. Major Rogers, on 
his return from an expedition against 
the St. Francis Indians, in 1759, en- 
camped near the mouth of the Pas- 
sumpsic River, in this town, where he 
expected to meet a supply of provis- 
ions to be sent on from Charlesto-wm, 
New Hampshire, by order of General 
Amherst. The order of the general 
was complied -with. Samuel Stevens 
and three others proceeded up Con- 
necticut River with two canoes, to 
Round Island opposite the mouth of 
the Passumpsic, where they encamped 
for the night. In the morning, hear- 
ing the report of guns, they were so 
terrified that they reloaded their pro- 
visions and hastened back to Charles- 
town, leaving Rogers and his famished 
rangers to their fate. 

First Minister. The Rev. David Good- 
willie Avas .«ettled over the Presbyte- 
rian Church in 1791, and remained 
their minister many years. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 4,652 
bushels; Indian com, 6,780 bushels: 
potatoes, 66,410 bxxshels ; hay, 4,815 
tons; maple sugar, 19,670 pounds; 
wool, 12,221 pounds. 

Distances. Eleven miles south from 
Danville, and thirty-six east from 

The Connecticut River Railroad 
passes through this town, and greatly 
facilitates its business. 

Washington Co. Barre is a pleas- 
ant and flourishing tOAvn. It is con- 
sidered one of the best farming towns 
in the State. Large quantities of pot 
and pearl ashes, beef, pork, butter, and 
cheese, are annually taken fiom this 
place to Boston market. It is well 
watered by Stevens' and Jail branches 
of Winose River, which afford good 
mill privileges. Inexhaustible quan- 

tities of granite are found here, of the 
excellent quality with which the capi- 
tol at Montpelier is built. 

Boundaries. North by Montpelier 
and Plainfield, east by Orange, south 
j by Williamstown, and west by JBerlin. 
I First Settlers. This township was 
'granted November 6, 1780, to William 
I Williams and his associates, and char- 
j tered by the name of Wildersburgh. 
I This name being unpopular with the 
inhabitants of the town, in the year 
I 1793, a town meeting was called, to be 
holden at the house of Calvin Smith, 
I for the purpose of agreeing on some 
j other name, ro be presented to the 
I legislature for their sanction and ap- 
proval. The meeting being opened, 
freedom was given for any one to pre- 
sent the name he chose, and the choice 
among the number presented was to 
be decided by vote of the town. Sev- 
eral names were proposed, such as 
Paris, Ncwbuni. &c. Two of the voters 
present, Capt. Joseph Thompson and 
Mr. Jonathan Sherman, the first from 
Holden, the other from Barre, Mass., 
each in their turn strenuously con- 
tended for the name of the to^Vl\ from 
which he came; and as the matter 
seemed to lie chiefly between these 
tAvo, it was proposed that it should be 
decided between them hy hooting., to 
v.'hich they readily agreed. The terais 
were, that they should fight across a 
pole, but if one should knock the other 
do-\m, they might then choose theii 
own mode of warfare. The meeting 
then adjourned to a new barn shed, 
erected by said Smith, over which a 
floor of rough hemlock plank had 
just been laid, and on this the issue 
was to be decided. Agreeably to this 
arrangement, the combatants advanced 
upon each other, and soon Thompson, 
by a well directed blow, brought his 
antagonist to the floor, and. .springing 
upon liim at full length, began to aim 
his heavy blows at his head and face ; 
} but Sherman, being more supple, 
avoided them, and they generally fell 
harmless on the floor, except peeling 
his own knuckles. During this pro- 
cess, Sherman was dexterously plying 
his ribs from beneath, when Thompson 
was soon heard to groan, and his blows 



became palsied and without effect. 
Sherman then rolled him off, and, 
springing upon his feet, exultingly ex- 
claimed, " Thcre^ the name is Barre^ bt/ 
— / " Accordingly a petition for the 
name of Barre was presented, and 
sanctioned by the legislature the same 
year. The day following this encoun- 
ter, Sherman called on Dr. llobert 
Paddock, the physician of the town, 
who was an eye witness of the trans- 
action, and who related these particu- 
lars to the writer, and requested him 
to extract from his back and posteriors 
the hemlock splinters he had received, 
while writhing on the plank floor. In 
1788, Samuel Rogers and John Golds- 
bury, one from Bradford, the other 
from Hartland, Vt., with their families, 
moved into this town, and began con- 
verting the wilderness into farms. The 
next year a number of other families 
came in, and from this time the town 
settled rapidly by emigrants from Wor- 
cester county, Mass, and fi-om New 
Hampshire and Connecticut. The town 
was organized, March 11, 1793, and 
Joseph Dwight was first town clerk. 

First Ministers. The Kcv. Aaron 
Palmer v.-as ordained to the pastoral 
care of the Congregational Church in 
1807 ; he died in! 821. The Rev. Jus- 
tus W. French was ordained in 1822, 
and dismissed in 1832. 

Productions of the Soil. 'Wlieat, 3,560 
bushels; Indian corn, 9,170 bushels; 
potatoes, 120,337 bushels; hay, 6,938 
tons; maple sugar, 62,158 pounds; 
wool, 26,621 pound?. 

Distances. Six miles south-east from 
Montpelier. The great Northern Rail- 
road passes thi-ough the town. 


Oeleaxs Co. This town is well 
watered by Barton River, which rises 
in Glover, and empties into Memphre- 
magog Lake. Here are several ponds 
contiiining good fish. Barton is a 
thriving town, with a good hydraulic 

The pond in Glover which broke its 
northern bound and run entirely out on 
the 6th of June, 1810. passed down Bar- 
ton River, making very destructive rav- 


ages ; the traces of which are still to be 

At the outlet of Belle Pond is a flour- 
ishing village, containing a number of 
handsome buildings. This place will 
doubtless become an important site for 
manufactures ; and should the Monarch 
Carrier come this way, no one need 

Boundaries. North by Barrington, 
cast by Westmore and Sheffield, south 
by Glover, and west by Irasburgh and 

First Settlei-s. The town was char- 
tered October 20, 1789, and then took 
the name of Barton, in honor of the 
principal proprietor. The settlement 
of this town was commenced about 
the year 1796, by Jonathan Allyne, 
Asa Kimball, James May, and John 
Kimball. The first settlers were from 
Rhode Island and New Hampshire. 
The town was organized March 20, 
1798, and Abner Allyne was first town 
clerk. At the time of its organiza- 
tion there were nineteen legal voters in 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was erected here in 1820. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,177 
bushels; Indian foni, 1.952 bushels; 
potatoes, 34,632 bushels; hay, 2,821 
tons ; maple sugar, 26,040 pounds ; 
wool, 10,695 pounds. 

Distances. Six miles east from Ira-s- 
burgh, forty-two north-east from Mont- 


Lamoille Co. A considerable part 
of this to^vnship is mountainous, and 
unfit for cultivation. The settlement 
wa,s commenced about the year 1800. 
The to\vnship is watered by two 
branches of the River Lamoille. 

Boundaries. North by Avery's Gore 
and Lowell, east by Eden, sou$h by 
Johnson, and west by Waterville. 

Productions of the 'Soil. Wheat, 332 
bushels ; Indian corn, 294 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 9.310 bushels; hay, 553 tons; 
maple sugai-, 3,440 pounds ; wool, 1,187 

Distances. Eighteen miles north-west 
from Hydepark, and forty-five miles 
north-west from Montpelier. 



Bennington and INIanchester are the chief towns. This is the oldest 
connty in Vennont, on the west side of the Green Mountains. It is bounded 
on the north by Rutland County, on the east by Windham County, on the 
south by Berkshire County, Mass.. and on the west by the State of NeAV York. 
The low lands are excellent, and produce good crops, but the largest portion 
of the county is mountainous, and fit only for grazing. Many streams rise 
in the mountains and descend to the ocean, some by the. Hudson and some by 
the Connecticut, aiFording a great hydraulic power. Lead and iron ores of 
good quality are found in this county, and large quamcs of beautiful white 

This county is memorable for many revolutionary scenes ; and no county in 
the State, and perhaps no section of country of its siz ; in the United States, 
presents a greater variety of bold and beautiful scenery. — See Tables. 


The Supreme Court sits alternately at Bennington and Manchester, on the 
second Tuesday after the fourth Tuesday in January. 

The County Couit sits at Manchester, on the second Tuesday in June ; and 
at Bennington, on the 1st Tuesday in December. 

BENNINGTON. gallant Stark, with a small band of 

'• Nortliern Yeomen," celebrated for 

Bennington Co. One of the chief their bravery, gained an important vic- 
towns in the county. It is situated tory over the British, August 16, 1777. 
high above the great rivers and the The fame of that battle, is as impcr- 
ocean, yet we find it of good alluvial i ishable as the mountains which over- 
soil, delightfully encircled by ever- ! shadow the ground. Shame to the 
green mountains. It abounds' in iron \ country : — there is not a stone to mark 
ore, manganese, ochre, and marble, the spot ! — See iVbte. 
The streams are numerous, and afford ; Walloomscoik Mill Co. in this to\\'n 
excellent mill sites. The products of i was incorporated in 1847. 
the soil consist of all the varieties com- ; Boundaries. North by Shaftsbury, 
mon to New England. Great attention east by Woodford, south by Pownal. 
is paid to the rearing of sheep. ! and west by Hoosic. in Renssellaer 

There are in Bennington a great County, New York, 
number of cotton and woollen facto- ; First Settlers. This to\sTiship waa 
ries, a very extensive iron foundry, chartered by Benning Wentworth, gor- 
two furnaces, a paper mill, flouring | ernor of New Hampshire, January 3, 

mills, &c. The public schools justly 
sustain an elevated rank. Bennington 
is finely located for the muses. 

On the l)orders of this town, about 
six miles west of tlie court-house, the 

1749, and v,-as called Bennington, in 
allusion to his name. 

The first settlers were purchasers 
under the original proprietors, and 
came from Massachusetts. Samuel 



Hobinson. of Hardv.iik, Mass., who 
had been a captain durincr the French 
war. on his return from Lake George 
to Iloosic Forts-, while proceeding up 
iloosic Kiver, mistook the Wallooms- 
roik for that stream, and followed it 
up to the tract of country now Ben- 
nington. Here he and his compan- 
ions, finding they liad lost tlieir way, 
encamped over night, and in the morn- 
ing changed tliclr course, and pursued 
t!ieir way to the forts. (Captain Robin- 
son was much phvased with the coun- 
try, and returned to his family with a 
determination to begin a settlement 
upon it. lie accordingly repaired to 
New Hampshire, made purchases of a 
considerable portion of the riglits, and 
^hen sought for settlers. The first 
«migi*ation to tlic t-own consisted of 
the families of Peter Harwood, Elea- 
zar Harwood, Leonard Robinson, and 
yamur-l l^obinson. Jr,. from Ilardwick, 
and of Samuel Pratt and Timothy 
Pratt, from Amherst. The party, in- 
cluding women and children, numbered 
about twenty. They came on horseback 
across the mountain, by the Hoosic 
Forts and tlirougli Pownal, bringing 
on their horses all their household 
goods, and arrived in town the 18th of 
June, i76L 

First Minister. Re^'. Jedediah Dew- 
ey, of WestiieM, Mass., removed to 
this town, and became pastor of the 
church in 1 763, and continued so until 
his death, in 1778. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 2,1 85 
bushels: Indian corn, 16,000 bushels: 
potatoes, .56,475 bushels ; hay, 564 
tons ; maple sugar, 7,828 pounds ; 
wool, 26,327 pounds. 

Distances. One hundred and twenty 
miles south-west by south from Mont^ 
pelier, twenty-five south from Man- 
chester, and thirty east from Troy, 
New York. 


Rutland Co. This town, on Lake 
Champlain, was first settled in 1783. 
The lake at this place is about a mile 
in width. The town has some streams 
affording mill sites, butJione of great 
importance. The waters are generally 

j brackish and unpleasant. A stream 
j issues from a swamp in this town, and 
j after running a short distance, passes 
j through the b?.seof ahigh hill, adistance 
of more than half a mile. Benson has 
, good pine, maple, walnut, oak and 
beach timber, and a bog of marl re- 
sembling fuller's earth. A part of this 
town v,-as annexed to Orwell in 1847. 

Boundaries. North by Orwell, east 
by Hubbardton, and a small part of 
Sudbury and Castleton, south by Fair 
Haven and West Haven, and west by 
Lake Champlain. 

First Settlers. The settlement of the 
town was commenced 1783, by Barber, 
Durfee, and Noble. Mr. Durfee came 
into town and made some improve- 
ments before the Revolution, but was 
driven oflT. The to^vn was oi-ganized 
about the year 1786, and Allen Good- 
rich was the first town clerk. 

First Minister, A Congregational 
Churcli was organized here in 1790, 
over which the Rev. Dan Kent was 
ordained in 1792. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,578 
bushels ; Indian corn, 5,353 bushels ; 
potatoes, 15,700 bushels-, hay, .5,592 
tons ; maple sugar, 6,285 pounds : wool, 
49,048 pounds. 

Distances. Seventy-five miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and twenty-five 
miles north-west from Rutland. 


Fraxklin Co. Mis.sisco River 
runs through the south-east comer of 
the town, and receives Trout River 
near the line of Enosburgh. On these 
streams is some fine intervale. Pike 
River enters the township from Can- 
ada, and, after taking a circuit of seve- 
ral miles, and affording here some of 
the finest mill sites in the country, re- 
turns again into Canada. On Pike 
River, in this town, are several mills. 
The soil is various, but generally good. 
Its surface is diversified with gentle 
swells and vales, but does not rise into 
mountains. It is well watered with 

Boundaries. North by St. Armand, 
in Canada, east by Riehford, south by 
Enosburgh, and west by Franklin 



First Sdilers. This tOAvnship Wiis 
granted to William (Toodrieh, Bar/iUa 
Hadrfon, Charles Dibble, and their as- 
sociates, March 13, 1780, and was char- 
tered by the name of Berksliire, June 22, 
1781. The settlement of this town was 
commenced in 1 792 by Job Barber. Ste- 
phen Eoyce, Daniel Adams, Jonathan 
Carpenter, and Phinehas Hcatli, moved 
their families here in 1793, and from 
this time the settlement advanced with 
considerable rapidity. Elihu M., son 
of Stephen Eoyce, was born in 1793, 
and was the first child born in tovm. 
The town was organized in 1794, and 
David Nutting was first toAvn clerk. 

First Ministers. There are two Con- 
gregational Churches, one in East, the 
other in West Berkshire. The former 
was oi-ganized Oct. S, 1820: the other 
many years earlier. The 'Episcopal 
Church, called Calvary Church, is in 
East Berkshire, and was organized 
about 1820. The names of the clergy 
of these churches are not given. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,834 
bushels ; Indian corn, 2,876 bushels ; 
potatoes, 67,995 bushels: hay, 3,818 
tons; maple sugar, 31,785 pounds; 
wool, 9,457 pounds. 

Distancfs. Fifty miles north-west 
from Montpelier, twenty-two north-east 
by east from St. Albans, and forty-five 
north-east by north from Burlington. 


Washington- Co. This is a pleas- 
ant town, watered l)y Winooski and 
Dog Kivers, Stevens' Branch, and a 
number of ponds, furnishing good mill 
sites, and excellent tishing. Tlic land 
is somewhat broken, but of strong soil 
and good for tillage. Considerable 
manufactures are produced in this town. 

There is a mineral spring here of 
little note. 

There is considerable intervale on 
Winooski and Dog Kivcr and Stevens' 
Branch. The timber, west of Dog 
River, is a mixture of spruce, hemlock, 
maple, beach, birch, basswood, and 
ash ; east of that, principally bard wood, 
excepting in the vicinity of the pond 
and streams. On a ridge of land south 
of the centre, is some butternut, and 

east of the jiond, considerable cedar 
and fir. Iron ore has recently been 
discovered a little east of Dog River, 
near which place terre de sena has been 
f(jund of good (juality. The town haa 
been generally very healthy. 

Boinidiirits. North by Montpelier, 
east by Barrc, south by Northfield and 
a small part of Wiliiamstown, and west 
by Moretown. 

First Settlers. A settlement was 
commenced here in 1785, near the 
mouth of Dog River, by Ebenezer San- 
burne from Corinth, and Joseph Thur- 
lier from New Hampshire. The next 
year Jacob Fowler removed here, and 
was the first permanent settler. 

First Minister. Rev. James Ilobart 
Avas settled over the Congregationalist 
Society in 1798, and dismissed in 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,510 
bushels; Indian coi'n, 7,182 bushels; 
potatoes, 83,734 bushels: hay; 1,232 
tons; maple sugar, 29,175 pounds; 
wool, 14,647 pounds. 

Distances. Four miles south from 
Monti)clier. A railroad passes near the 


Windsor Co. Bethel is water- 
ed by branches of White River, and 
possesses good mill sites. Soap stone 
is found here in great quantities and 
of good quality ; much of it is sawed 
and transported. Garnet in small, but 
perfect crystals, is also common. The 
surface of Bethel is broken and moun- 
tainous, but the soil is warm and good 
for grazing. Considerable business is 
done at both villages. East and West; 
the latter is the largest. 

Boundaries. North by Randolpli, 
east by Royalton, south by Stockbridge, 
and a small part of Barnard, and west 
by Rochester. 

First Settlers. This township was 
chartered to John Payne, John House, 
Dudley Chase, and 'others, Dec. 23, 
1779, containing thirty-six square miles, 
Tlie first township chartered by the 
government. Tlie settlement of this 
town commenced in the fall of 1779, 
by Benjamin Smith. A small stock- 
ade fort was built here at the com- 



xnencement of the settlement. The 
town 'vas organized in 1782. 

First Ministers. The Rev. Thomas 
Russell was settled by the Congrega- 
tional Society in 1790; dismissed in 
1794. From that time no minister 
was settled over that society till 1837. 
An Episcopal Church was organized 
by the Rev. John C. Ogden in 1792. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,646 
bushels ; Indian corn, 242 bushels : po- 
tatoes, 6,640 bushels; hay, 450 tons; 
maple sugar, 7,060 pounds ; wool, 642 

Distances. Thirty-one miles south 
by west from Montpelicr, and thirty 
north-west from Windsor. The great 
Northern Railroad passes through this 


Essex Co. Bloomfield was char- 
tered, Jane 29, 1762, by the name of 
Minehead, and contains 23,040 acres. 
The settlement of the township Avas 
commenced before the year 1800, but 
the progress of the settlement has been 
slow. The western and south parts 
are watered by Nulhegan River. The 
north-eastern parts are watered by two 
or three small streams, which fall into 
the Connecticut. 

Boundaries. North-easterly by Lem- 
ington, south-easterly by Connecticut 
River, which separates it from Colum- 
bia, N. H., south-westerly by Bruns- 
wick, and north-westerly by Lewis. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 315 
bushels ; Indian corn, 242 bushels : 
potatoes, 6,640 bushels : hay, 450 tons ; 
maple sugar, 7,060 pounds ; wool, 642 

Distaitces. Eighteen miles north from 
Guildhall, and eighty-six north-east 
from Montpclier. 


Chittenden Co. This town was 
chartered June 7, 1763, and originally 
contained thirty-six square miles. On 
the 27th of Oct. 1794, the north-east 
part of Huntington was annexed to it 
The first settlers were Noah Dewey, 
Peter Dilse, Jam&s Moore, Thomas 


Palmer, Robert Stinson, and John and 
Robert Kenedy. The tOAvnship was 
first regularly surveyed in 1800 by John 
Johnson, Esq. It lies midway between 
Montpelier and Burlington, its post of- 
fice being eighteen miles from each. 
The town is very mountainous and 
broken, and but a small part of it ca- 
pable of being settled. Winooski Ri- 
ver runs through the town from east to 
west, and along the banks of this 
stream nearly all the inhabitants reside. 
The river receives several branches in 
this town, both from the north and 
south. The township lies on the wes- 
tern range of the Green Mountains. 

Boundaries. North by Mansfield, 
east by Waterbury, south by Hunting- 
ton, and west by Richmond and Jeri- 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 961 
bushels; Indian com, 2,174 bushels; 
potatoes, 13,400 bushels; hay, 1,116 
tons; maple sugar, 13,215 pounds; 
wool, 6,081 pounds. 

Distances. Nineteen miles soutli-east 
from Burlington, and nineteen north- 
west from Montpelier. The great 
Northern Railroad from Boston to Bur- 
lington passes through the town. 


Orange Co. Wait's River, the prin- 
cipal stream in the town, enters it from 
the west in two branches, and passing 
through, in an easterly direction, emp- 
ties into Connecticut River, affording 
a number of valuable mill privilege. 
Hall's Brook and Roaring Brook, are 
considerable streams, which enter the 
town from Newbury and pass through 
the corner of it into the Connecticut 
Smaller streams are numerous, and 
several medicinal springs have been 
discovered, but are of little note. The 
surface of the town is somewhat broken. 
A handsome and fertile strip of inter- 
vale skirts Connecticut River, and 
there is much good land in other parts. 
There is no waste land with the excep- 
tion of thirty or forty acres on Wright's 
Mountain. "^In the 'north-west part of 
the toAvn is situated Wright's Moun- 
tain, sometimes, erroneously called 
Virgin Mountain. In this mountain 



is a cavern called the DevWs Den, which 
has several apartments, and is thought 
to have been the abode of human be- 
ings. In the east part of the tOAvn is a 
considerable precipice called Kowell's 
Ledge. The timber is principally pine, 
sugar maple, oak, beech, and hemlock. 
Bradford Academy was incorporated 
and the building erected in 1820. It 
has a male and female department, 
with permanent teachers. The school 
is in a flourishing condition. The 
yearly attendance is about 200. j 

Boundaries. North by Newbury, east I 
by Connecticut River, which separates 
it from Piermont, N. IL. south by Fair- 
lee, and west by Fairlee. 

First Settlers. Three thousand acres 
of this town, lying on Connecticut Ri- ! 
ver, were granted by Nev/ York to Sir I 
Harry Moore, and by him conveyed to , 
thirty settlers. The rest of the land 
was taken np by pitches. The town 
was first called Moretown, but was al- 
tered to Bradford, by an act of the leg- 
islature passed Oct. 23, 1788. The 
settlement of the town was commenced 
by John Hosmcr in 1765, near the 
mouth of Wait's River. He was join- 
ed the next year by Samuel Sleeper 
and Benoni Wright, and in 1771 the 
number of families in town amounted 
to ten. The first grist mill was erect- 
ed by John Peters in 1772 at the falls 
near' the mouth of Wait's River, and 
the first saw mill by Benjamin Bald- 
win in 1774. 

First Ministers. The first meeting- 
house in town was built in 1791, by the 
Baptists under Elder Rice. A meet- 
ing-house was built by the Congrega- 
tionalists in 1793, who settled the Rev, 
Gardner Kellogg in 1795. 

Manufactures. At the falls in Wait's 
River, which afibrd some of the best 
mill privileges in the State, is a furnace 
for casting ploughs, stoves, &c., whet- 
stone factories, machine shops, and an 
extensive paper mill. On Wait's Ri- 
ver, about two miles above the village, 
are manufacture? of woollens and other 
goods. The first artificial globes ever 
manufactured in the United States, 
were made here about the year 1812, 
by Mr. James Wilson. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 3,464 

bushels ; Indian com, 8,455 bushels ; 
potatoes. 48,178 bushels; hay, 3,932 
tons ; maple sugar, 9,387 pounds ; 
wool, 16,424 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty miles south south- 
east fi-om Montpelier, and eleven south 
south-east from Chelsea. 


Bradleyvale, an unorganized town- 
ship in the eastern part of Caledonia 
County, having Victory on the north- 
east. Concord on the south-east, and 
Kirby on the west. It was chartered 
to Thomas Pearsall, Jan. 27, 1791, and 
contains 3,936 acres, and was incorpo- 
rated with all the rights and privileges 
of a town, excepting that of represen- 
tation, Oct. 29, 1803. It is watered by 
Moose River, which passes through it 
near the centre, from north-east to 
south-west, and joins the Passumpsic 
at St. Johnsbury. This territory pos- 
sesses a fine water power and much 
good land, Avhich will, doubtless, soon 
be improved. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 31 
bushels ; Indian corn, 63 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 1,155 bushels; hay, 83 tons; 
maple sugar, 1,700 pounds'; wool, 197 

Distances. This town lies about 
twelve miles easterly from St. Johns- 


Orange Co. This town is watered 
by the third branch of White River, 
and Ayers' and Mill Brook, its tribu- 
taries. ' They are all sufficient for mills. 
Ayers' Brook rises in Roxbury and 
Brookfield, waters the north-east part 
of the town, and after receiving Mill 
Brook from the west, unites with the 
third branch of White River, just below 
the west village in Randolph. Between 
Ayers' Brook and the third branch, is 
a large swell of land, and when Mr. 
Ebenezer Waters was surveying the 
township he said to those with him, 
" We will sit down here and dine with 
our hats on and call it Quaker Hill^* 
and it has ever since been known by 
that name. Between the third branch 



and the head of White River, is a con- 
siderable nioautain, which renders that 
part of the townshifl incapable of set- 
tlement. Accordfng to tradition, Avers' 
Brook derives its name from a person 
by the name of Aycrs, who, having run 
away from New England, became a 
guide to the French and Indians in 
their expeditions against the English, 
but who was taken and executed near 
this stream, about the year 1755. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Roxbury 
and Bloomfield, easterly' by Randolph, 
southerly by Bethel, and westerly by 

First Settlers. The settlement of the 
town was commenced about the year 
1783, by Silas Flint, Samuel Bass, Ja- 
cob and Samuel Spear, ami others, 
emigrants from Braintree anil Sutton, 
Mass. S. Flint's wife was the first 
woman who came into the town and 
received i)i consequence a present of 
100 acres of l:md from the proprietors. 
Hiram, son of Samuel Bass, Avas the 
tirst child born in tovm. The first pro- 
prietors' meeting held within the town 
was at the house of Ja-.-ob Spear, Sep- 
tember 19, 1786. The town was or- 
ganized March 7, 1788, and Elijah 
French was tirst to^vn clerk. It was 
first represented by Isaac Nichols in 

First Ministers. The Rev. Aaron 
Cleveland was settled ov^er the Con- 
gregational Church in 1801. and dis- 
missed in 1807. The Rev. Ammi 
Nichols was settled in 1807. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,680 
bushels; Indian corn, 4,8S0 bushels; 
potatoes, 42.010 bushels ; hay, 3,581 
tons; maple sugar, 18,800 pounds; 
wool. 12,860 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-one miles south 
from Montpelier, and fourteen west 
by south from Chelsea. The Northern 
Railroad passes through this town. 


Rutland Co. Brandon is a flourish- 
ing town. It is finely watered by Otter 
Creek, Mill River, and Spring Pond ; 
on which streams are good mill sites. 
Some of the land is level, with rather 
a light soil. ' ut tliat on Otter Creek is 

I the best alluvial. Bog iron ore, ot an 
j excellent quality, is found here ; cop- 
peras and marble are also found. 

There are two curious caverns in 
this town. The largest contains two 
apartments, each from sixteen to twen- 
ty feet square. It is entered by de- 
scending from the surface about twen- 
ty feet. They are formed of limestone. 
Boundaries. North by Leicester, 
east by Goshen and Chitfenden, south 
by Pittsford, and west by Sudbury and 
a small part of Whiting. 

First Settlers. The settlement of the 
town was commenced in the year 1775 
by John Whelan, Noah Strong, David 
June, Jedediah Winslow, Amos Cutler, 
and others. Mr. Cutler was, however, 
the only person who remained in town 
during the folloAving -winter. He lived 
the whole winter here entirely alone, 
i without being visited by a human be- 
ing. In 1777, the town was visited by 
a party of Indians, who killed two men, 
George and Aaron Robins, made pris- 
oners of most of the other inhabitants, 
and set fire to their dwellings and to a 
saw mill which they had erected. Jo- 
seph Barker, his wife, and a child 
eighteen months old, were among the 
prisoners. Mrs. Barker, not being in 
a condition to traverse the wilderness, 
was set at liberty with her child. The 
next night. AWth no other shelter than 
the trees of the forest and the canopy 
of heaven, and with no other company 
than the infant above named, she had 
another child. She was found the fol- 
lowing day and removed with her chil- 
dren to Pittsford. Mr. Barker was 
carried to Middlebury, where, feigning 
himself sick, he succeeded in the night 
in making his escape, and arrived 
safely at Pittsford. The town was or- 
ganized about the year 1784. 

First Ministers. The Congregational 
Church was organized in HSS, but had 
no settled minister till 1792, when they 
settled the Rev. Enos Bliss. 

Manufactures. The hydraulic power 
of this toAvn is so great and valuable, 
that manufactures commenced here at 
an early period. Bar iron, small can- 
non, and various other articles of iron 
ware, are manufactured here. There 
are other articles manufactured in the 



town, but to what extent, we regret to 
say, we are unable to state. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,498 
bushels; Indian corn, 10,222 bushels; 
4)Otatoes, 26,052 bushels; hay, 5,172 
tons ; maple sugar, 13,586 pounds ; 
wool, 32,758 pounds. 

Distances. Forty miles north-Avest 
from Windsor, and forty south-west 
from Montpelier. The Vermont South- 
cm Railroad passes through this town. 


Windham Co. The surface of the 
tOAvn is considerably broken. A little 
west of the centre are two elevations 
called Great and Little Round Moun- 
tain. They are both accessible, and 
most of the land capable of cultivation. 
The soil is similar to that generally 
found along the Connecticut, consisting 
of intervale, sand, loam and gravel, 
with such timber as is naturally adapt- 
ed to them. The principal streams are 
West River and Whetstone Brook. 
The former runs but a short distance 
in town, entering it from Dummerston 
and falling into Connecticut River 
near the north-east corner. Whetstone 
Brook rises in Marlborough and runs 
through Brattleborough very near the 
centre. This affords many excellent 
water privileges, which are already oc- 
cupied by a great variety of mills and 
other machinery. 

Connecticut River forms the eastern 
boundary for about six miles. It runs 
in several places with a strong current, 
denominated '' The swift water," by the 
boatmen. The river is crossed at the 
lower part of the east village, by a 
handsome bridge, built in 1804, and 
connecting this town with Hinsdale, 
N. H. A few rods above the bridge is 
the general landing place for merchan- 
dise, which is brought into town by 

There are few minerals worthy of 
notice. Actynolite is found here in 
steatite. It is in very perfect capillaiy 
crystals which are grouped together in 
different forms and sometimes radi- 
cated. Argillaceous slate is very abun- 
dant, and is quarried to considerable 
extent. Mica is found of rose red col- 

or with schorl in quartz, and abundance 
of schorl in beautiful crystals, and also 
the red oxyde of titanium. 

There are two considerable villages, 
one standing at the mouth of Whet- 
stone Brook, called the East Village^ 
and the other near the centre of die 
town, called the West Village. The 
east village is one of the most active 
business places in the State. ^ 

In this town is one of the most ex- 
tensive Water Cure Establishments in 
the United States ; for a particular ac- 
count of which, see Hayuard's Gazet- 
teer of Massachusetts, p. 168. 

Boundaries. North by Dummerston, 
east by Connecticut River, which sepa- 
rates it from Chesterfield, N. H., south 
by Vemon and Guilford, and west by 

First Settlers. This town derives its 
name from Colonel Brattle, of Massa- 
chusetts, one of the principal proprie- 
tors. Fort Dummer, the first civilized 
establishment -within the present limits 
of Vermont, was built in 1724, in the 
south-east comer of the town, on what 
is now called ^^Dummer Meadows.^'' Na- 
than Willard, David Sargeant, David 
Sargeant, Jr., John and Thomas Sar- 
geant, John Alexander, Fairbank 
Moore and son, Samuel Wells and 
John Arms were among the first set- 
tlers, and were all from Massachusetts, 
except John and Thomas Sargeant, 
and John Alexander, who were bom at 
Fort Dummer. John Sargeant is be- 
lieved to have been the first white per- 
son born within the present limits of 
Vermont. His father and brother Da- 
vid were ambushed by the Indians; 
the former killed and scalped, and the - 
other carried into captivity, where he 
adopted the Indian habits and manners, 
but afterwards returned to his friends. 
Fairbank Moore and his son were kill- ^ 
ed by Indians at West River Meadows, M 
two miles north of Fort Dummer, and ^ 
the wife and daughter of the latter, car- 
ried into captivity. In 1771, Stephen 
Greenleaf. from Boston, liaving pur- 
chased what was called the Governor's 
Farm., situated where the east village 
now is, opened a store here, which was 
supposed to be the first store within 
the limits of Vermont. 



First Mi' listers. The first Congrega^ 
tional iniiiister Avas the Kev. Abner 
Reed; he was settled in 1770, and was 
succeeded by the Rev. Wm. Wells. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,235 
bushels; Indian corn, 6,490 bushels; 
potatoes, 27,480 bushels ; hay, 3,358 
tons; maple sugar, 12,250 pounds: 
wool, 4,058 pounds. 

Distances. One hundred miles south 
from Montpelier, twelve miles south- 
east from Ncwfane, and thirty east 
from Bennington. The •' Iron Horse," 
on his way up and down the river, 
passes through this beautiful town seve- 
ral times a day, carrying life and pros- 
perity to the business community. 


Windsor Co. The surface of this 
town is uneven and some parts rough 
and stony. Along the river, are tracts 
of valuable intervale, and there are 
jnany good farms in other parts. The 
.summits of the hills are, in general, 
covered with spi'uce and hemlock ; the 
timb.n-, on other parts, is mostly ma- 
ple, beech, and birch. The rocks are 
mica, and talco-argillaceous slate, 
gneiss, limestone, quartz, &c. There 
is an inexhaustible quarry of steatite, 
situated nearly in the centre of the 
town. It has been manufactured to 
some extent, and makes excellent 
jambs, hearths, &c. In the vicinity of 
the steatite, are large quantities of beau- 
tiful green talc. Iron ore is found in 
several places. Garnets in perfect do- 
dechedral crystals are common, and 
several handsome specimens of rock 
crystal, crystals of hornblend and schorl, 
have been found. 

There is a small village, on the riv- 
er, near the south-east corner of the 
town, in which are a meeting-house, 
several mills, factories, stores, and me- 
chanic's shops. 

In August, 1822, Mr. Aaron Lamb, 
while sinking a well about eighty rods 
north of OttA Quechee River, dug up 
a living frog, at the depth of twenty-six 
feet below the surface of the ground. 
It was in a state of toi-por when taken 
rip, but revived after being exposed a 
short time to the atmosphere. This 

town Ls watered by OttA Quechee Ri- 
ver, which runs through the south part, 
and by several considerable branches. 
These streams afford numerous mill 

The Otta Quechee IVIill Company 
in this town was incorporated in 1847. 

Boundaries. North by Barnard, east 
by Woodstock, south by Plymouth, and 
Avest by Sherburne. 

First Seitlers. Dea. Asa Jones sur- 
veyed a lot of land in Bridgewater, in 
September, 1779, and the next winter, 
removed his family into this town from 
Woodstock, a distance of three miles, 
on hand-sleds. This was the first ftim- 
ily in town. Mr. Amos Mendall came 
in the spring following, May, 1780, and 
was married to a daughter of Deacon 
Jones. This was the first couple mar- 
ried, and was the second family in town. 
Their daughter, Lucy, was the first 
child born. In 1783, Messrs. Isaiah 
Shaw and Cephas Sheldon moved 
their families into the north part of the 
town, they having commenced improve- 
ments the year before. Capt. James 
Fletcher came in with his family about 
the same time. In 1784, settlements 
were commenced along the river in the 
south part of the towTi, by the Messrs. 
Southgates, Hawkins and Topliff, and 
from this time the settlement proceeded 
rapidly for a number of years. 

First Mhiister. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1793. 
The Rev. John Ransom was ordained 
over it in 1795, and remained its pas- 
tor till 1802. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,165 
bushels; Indian corn, 5,815 bushels; 
potatoes, 47,215 bushels : hay, 4,541 
tons ; maple sugar, 34,725 pounds ; 
wool, 21,426 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-five miles south 
from Montpelier, and seventeen north- 
west from Windsor. 


Addison Co. The surface of this 
town is very level, and the soil, gene- 
rally, is a brittle marl, or clay. The 
hills are a loam and red slaty sand- 
stone. A range of shelly blue slate ex- 
tends through the town, lying, gene- 



rally, a little below the surface. The 
prevailing timber, in the west part of 
the town, is oak, with white and some 
Norway pine, along the lake shore. In 
the eastern part it is, principally, maple 
and beech. The raising of slicep has 
been the chief occupation of the people 
for several years past, which accounts 
for the decrease of population. This 
town is poorly watered, there being no 
durable mill streams, and the sj^rings 
and ground, generally, being impreg- 
nated with epsom salts, or sulphate of 
magnesia. For family use, rain water 
is, generally, employed. It is pre- 
served in large reservoirs, or cisterns 
set in the ground. Of the brackish 
water, in this town, cattle are extreme- 
ly fond, and it serves, in a manner, as 
a substitute for salt. Some of the 
springs are so strongly impregnated, 
that, in time of low water, a pailful will 
yield a pound of the salts. The dis- 
covery of these salts as an ingredient 
in the waters here, was made by the 
Rev. Sylvanus Chapin, and they were 
manufactured in considerable quanti- 
ties, as early as 1790, but the cheap- 
ness of the imported salts has prevent- 
ed much being done at the business for 
some years past. There is a small but 
neat and pleasantly located village, 
consisting of about twenty-five dwell- 
ing houses. The prospect, from the 
"common," of the mountain and lake 
scenery is very fine. This town has its 
medicinal spring impregnated with sul- 
phurated hydrogen, similar to those 
which are so common in the eastern part 
of the State. There are several land- 
ing places of goods on the lake shore. 

Across the lake to Crown Point is 
about two miles. A visit to the ruins 
of this ancient fortress, so reno^\'ned in 
the annals of the revolutionary war, 
and elevated forty-seven feet above the 
level of the lake, is a great treat to the 
contemplative traveller, or the lover 
of splendid scenery. From these war- 
like ruins to those of Ticonderoga, is 
fourteen miles, south. 

Boundaries. North by Addison, east 
by Weybridge and Cornwall, south by 
Shoreham, and west by Lake Cham- 
plain, which separates it from Crown 
Point, N. Y. 

First Settlers. The first attempt to 
settle the town, was made in 1768, but 
Avas abandoned at that time on account 
of the urgency of the New York claims. 
The first permanent settler was Philip 
Stone, Avho was also the first colonel 
in the county. In 1768, being twenty- 
one years of age, he came from Groto'n, 
Mass., to this place, purchased a lot of 
land, and commenced clearing it. 
Two families, by the name of Richard- 
son and Smith, settled under New 
York titles about the same time, and 
three others, by the name of Towner, 
Chipman and Plumer, under New 
Hampshire titles. The settlers mostly 
retired before Burgoyne and his army 
in 1776 and '7. During the contro^ 
versy with New York, no skirmishing 
happened in this town between the 
I New York and New Hampshire claim- 
, ants, but the inhabitants, frequently, 
I aided their neighbors in the adjoin- 
ing toAvns, in inflicting the customary 
punishment of Avhipping upon the 
Yorkers, who refused to retire after the 
usual warning. In 1772, Ethan Allen, 
having been declared an outlaw by the 
New York government, and a bounty 
offered for his apprehension, called in 
company with Eli Roberts, of Ver- 
gennes, at the house of Mr. Richards of 
this toAvn. In the evening, six soldiers 
from Crown Point garrison, all armed, 
as were Allen and Roberts, stopped for 
the night. Mrs. Richards overheard 
them making their arrangement to take 
Allen and get the bounty. All was 
quiet till bed time, when Mrs. Richards, 
on lighting Allen and Roberts into an- 
other room, raised a Avindow, at which 
they silently escaped. When the sol- 
diers discovered that they AA'cre gone, 
they reprimanded Mrs. Richards se- 
verely for favoring their escape. But 
she replied that "it was for the safety 
of her house, for had they been taken 
here, the Hampshire men would have 
torn it down oA'cr their heads." 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church Avas organized here in 1790, 
and the Rev. Increase Graves was in- 
stalled OA'cr it in 1794. The Rev. 
James F. McEavcu Avas settled as col- 
league of the Rev. Mr. Graves in 1827, 
and in 1829 both Avere dismissed. In 



1831, the Rev. Dana Lamb was set- 

Productions of the Soil. "Wheat, 2,920 
bushels ; Indian corn, 2,988 bushels ; 
potatoes, 15.820 bushels; hay, 11,475 
tons ; maple sugar, 484 pounds ; wool, 
69,164 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles west by 
south from Middlebury, and forty-five 
south-west from Montpelier. 


Essex Co. This town was named 
Random by the Hon. Joseph Brown, 
it being a random pm-chase from an 
agent sent to Providence, from Ver- 
mont. The name was altered to Brigh- 
ton, November 3, 1832. The settle- 
ment was commenced in 1823, byEnos 
Bishop ; and John Stevens moved his 
family into the town in 1825. The 
settlement is mostly in the westerly 
pait of the town. The to\vn was or- 
ganized in March, 1832. 

The toAvnship is watered chiefly by 
Fcrren's River, and other head branch- 
es of Clyde River, but some of the 
head braiaches of the Passumpsic and 
Nulhegan Rivei-s originate here. Pit- 
kin's Pond and Knowlton Lake dis- 
charge their waters through Clyde 
River. This is considered a very good 
tov/nship of land, and contains much 
excellent white pine timber, with sev- 
eral fine mill sites. 

Boundaries. Northerly by "Wenlock, 
easterly by Ferdinand, southerly by 
Newark and a part of Westmore and 
East Haven, and westerly by Charles- 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 358 
bushels ; Indian corn, 54 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 4,700 bushels ; hay, 246 tons ; 
maple sugar, 6,050 pounds ; wool, 348 

Distances. Thirty-two miles north- 
west from Guildhall, and seventy north- 
east from Montpelier. 


Addison Co. About one third of 
this town lies entirely west of the Green 
Mountains, and is very level, rich, and 
prod uct-ive The remainder of the town 

is broken, and a considerable part in- 
capable of cultivation. A considerable 
mountain extends through the town, 
from north to south. That part of it 
north of the Great Notch, through 
which New Haven River passes, is 
called the Hog Back, and that on the 
south is called South Mountain. A 
part of the latter was formerly much, 
infested with rattle snakes. New Ha- 
ven River enters this town from the 
south-east, and, before it reaches the 
centre of the town, receives Baldmn 
Creek from the north. After passing 
the Notch and Bristol village, it runs 
some distance neai-ly south, and then 
turns to the west into New Haven, 
There are three natural ponds here; 
the largest, called Bristol Pond, is a 
mile and a half long and three fourths 
of a mile wide. In the west part of 
the town is a spring which is slightly 
medicinal, and is sometimes visited. 
There is a bed of iron ore in the part 
of the town next to Monkton, and 
there have been several forges here. 
Most of the ore which is used here is 
brought from Monkton, and from a 
bed in Moriah, N. York, west of Lake 
Champlain. This toAvn furnishes large 
quantities of sawed lumber, which are 
sent to market. 

The vil/afje is near the centre of the 
tOAvn, upon New Haven River, imme- 
diately after it passes the Notch in the 
mountain. It is very pleasantly locat- 
ed. The greater part of it is watered 
by an aqueduct nearly 400 rods in 
length, laid in water lime. 

Boundaries. North by IMonkton 
and Starksboro', east by Lincoln and 
Starksboro', south by Middlelniry and 
Avery's Gore, and west by New Ha- 

First Settlers. The settlement of this 
tovnx was commenced immediately af- 
ter the revolutionarj^ war, by Samuel 
Stewart and Eden Johnson. These 
were soon joined by Benjamin Gris- 
wold, Cyprian, Calvin, and Jonathan 
Eastman. Justus Allen, and others. 

First Minister. The first ordained 
minister was the Rev. Amos Stearns. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,524 
bushels; Indian corn, 6,-300 bushels; 
potatoes, 25,150 bushels; hay, 2,252 



tons ; maple sugar, 9,500 pounds : wool, 
11,800 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-five miles south- 
west from Montpelicr, and eleven north 
from Middlebury. The Northern Rail- 
road passes near this to^vn. 


Orange Co. This township lies 
nearly on the height of land between 
White and Winooski Rivers, and parts 
of it arc broken ; but it is mostly fit 
for cultivation and is very productive, 
particularly in grass. It is well water- 
ed with springs and brooks, but has no 
very good mill privileges. The prin- 
cipal stream is the second branch of 
White River, which originates in AVil- 
liamstown, in conjunction with Ste- 
vens' branch of Winooski River, and 
runs through the eastern part of this 
town into Randolph. There are seve- 
ral considerable ponds, some of which 
afford streams, a considerable part of 
the year, sufficient for mills and other 
machinery. Colt's Pond, near the north 
village, is crossed by a floating bridge 
twenty-five rods long. Around and at 
the bottom of a small pond, in the 
west part of the town, is an inexhaust- 
ible quantity of marl, from which very 
good lime is manufactured. 

Boundaries. North by Williamstown, 
east by Chelsea, south by Randolph 
and a part of Braintree, and west by 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
of this town Avas begun in 1779, by 
Shubal Cross and family. Mrs. Cross 
was the first woman who came into 
town, and on that account was pre- ' 
sented by the proprietors with 100 acres 
of land. Mr. Howard's family came 
in about the same time, and Caleb IMar- 
tin, John Lyman, Jonathan Pierce, 
John and Noah Payne, and sevei-al 
others, cam.e in soon after. The early 
settlers were principally from Conneo 
ticut. Capt. Cross built the first grist 
and saw mill. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1787, 
and the Rev. Elijah Lyman was or- 
dained over it in 1789, and continued 

pastor till his death, which took place 
in 1828. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 6,1 27 
bushels; Indian com, 7.042 bushels-, 
potatoes, 70,686 bushels: hay, 1,419 
tons ; maple sugar, 26,486 pounds ; 
wool, 25,757 pounds. 

Distances. Porty miles north by west 
from Windsor, and sixteen south from 


Windham Co. This town is about 
eight miles in length and Trom one and 
a half to two and a half miles in width. 
It was set oflT from Putney and Athens 
and incorporated into a township, Oc- 
tober 30, 1794. and derives its name 
from Grass}/ Brook, which runs through 
the whole length of the town, from 
north to south, and empties into West 
River, on the south-western boundaiy. 
A deep valley rans through the 
whole length of the township, from 
north to south, at the bottom of which 
nxns Grassy Brook; which rises in 
Athens and falls into West River, near 
the south-west corner of Brookline. 
Along the whole of the east line of 
the town is a considerable elevation. 
West River fomis, for a short distance, 
the western boundary. During a vio- 
lent freshet, some years since, a bed of 
kaolin, or porcelain clay, was laid open 
in this town. The soil is better adapt- 
ed to the production of gi-ass than 
grain. There is a medicinal spring in 
the south part of the town, which Ls 
considered efficacious in cutaneous af- 
fections. Tlie town has always been 
remarkably healthy. 

Boundaries. North by Athens, east 
by AVestminster and Putney, south by 
Putney and Dummerston. and west by 
Townshcnd and Newfanc. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
was made in this township liy Cyrus 
Whitcomb, Jr.. David Ayres. Samuel 
Skinner, and Jonah Moore, about the 
year 1777. The first settlers had many 
hardships to endure, but nothing more 
than is common in new settlements 

First Minister. A Baptist Society 
was organized here in 1798; the first 



minister was Rev. Amos Beckwith, set- 
tled in 1802. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 294 
bushels; Indian corn, 2,815 bushels; 
potatoes, 9,929 bushels ; hay, 937 tons ; 
maple sugar, 3,530 pounds ; wool, 2,331 

Distances. Thirty-five miles south 
from Windsor, ten north-east from 
Newfane, and eighteen north from Brat- 


Orleans Co. This to^vTi is water- 
ed by Willoughby River. The soil in 
many parts of the town is good, but is 
generally better for grazing than til- 
lage. Brownington was formerly the 
shire town of the county. 

It is a place of some business, and 
has a neat -vdllage. The settlement of 
the towTiship was commenced about 
the year 1800. 

Boundaries. North-easterly by Salem 
and Charleston, south-easterly by West- 
mare, south-westerly by Barton, and 
west by north by Orleans and a small 
part of Irasburgh. 

Productions of the Soil. TVTieat, 1 ,549 
bushels ; Indian com, 426 bushels : po- 
tatoes, 22,600 bushels ; hay, 1,391 tons ; 
maple sugar, 18,395 pounds : wool, 
4,711 pounds. 

Distances. Six miles east from Iras- 
burgh, and forty-eight north-east from 


Essex Co. Brnnswick lies on the 
west side of Connecticut River, and 
has some excellent mill sites on the 
waters of Nulhegan River, and Whee- 
ler and Paul's Streams. There are 
some beautiful ponds in town, and a 
mineral spring said to contain medicin- 
al virtues. 

Boundaries. North by Minehead, 
east by Connecticut River, south by 
Maidstone, and west by Wenlock. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
was commenced in the spring of 1780, 
by Joseph and Nathaniel Wait. John 
Merrill removed here the succeeding 


Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 253 
bushels ; Indian com, 435 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 8,200 bushels ; hay, 460 tons ; 
maple sugar, 3,370 pounds; wool, 1,385 
pounds. ^ 

Distances. Fifteen miles north from 
Guildhall, and eighty-three north-east 
from Montpelier. 


Caledonia Co. A mountain 3,500 
feet in height diWdes this to\vn from 
Victory, on the east. Branches of Ptis- 
sumpsic River pass through it, and 
afford a good water "power. This is a 
place of some manufactures, particu- 
larly of oil stones. This stone (ywifa- 
culite) is found in an island in Mcm- 
phremagog Lake. The stones are 
brought in their rough state, and their 
quahty is said to equal those from 
Turkey. The soil of the toAvn is good, 
and abounds 'with hsxrd wood and ever- 

Boundaries. North-east by Newark 
and East Haven, south-east by Vic- 
tory, south by Langdon and Kirby, and 
west by Sutton. 

First Settlei's. The settlement of this 
town was commenced about the year 
1790, by Lemuel and Ira Walter, Seth 
Spencer, and others, from Connecticut 
and the south part of this State. The 
town was organized Dec. 5, 1796. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,358 
bushels; Indian com, 2,891 bushels; 
potatoes, 49,620 bushels; hay, 2,931 
tons ; maple sugar, 42,050 pounds ; 
wool, 7,475 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty miles north-east 
from Danville, and fifty north-east 
from Montpelier. 


Chittenden Co. This is the chief 
town in the county. It is delightfully 
situated upon the tongue of land form- 
ed by the confluence of the Winooski 
River with Lake Champlain. This is 
the most important town in Vermont. 
It lies in lat. 44° 27' N., and in Ion. 
73° 15' W. 

The surface of the township is agree- 
ably diversified, and is so much eleva- 



ted above the lake that the air is pure 
and wholesome. 

This town is not surpassed in beauty 
of location by any one in New Eng- 
land. It lies on the east shore of Bur- 
lington Bay, and occupies a gentle de- 
clivity, descending towards the west, 
and terminated by the waters of the 
lake. The principal streets, running 
east and west, are one mile in length, 
and these are intersected at right an- 
gles, by streets running north and 
south, and cutting the whole village 
into regular squares. A large share 
of the business on Lake Champlain 
centres at this place, and the town is 
rapidly increasing in wealth and conse- 

There are regialar daily lines of 
steamboats between this place and 
Whitehall, between this and St. Johns, 
and betAvcen this and Plattsburgh, be- 
sides numerous arriv.ds of irregular 
boats, sloops, &c. Three extensive 
wharves, Avitli store-bouses, have been 
constructed, and most of the merchan- 
dize designed for the north-eastern sec- 
tion of Vermont is landed here. 

The trade is principally with the 
city of New York, although Montreal 
and Troy have a share. For the safety 
of the navigation, a light-house has 
been erected on Juniper Island, at the 
entrance of Burlington Bay ; and for 
the security of the harbor, a break- 
water has been commenced here, at 
the expense of the general govern- 
ment. There are four lines of mail 
stages, which arrive and depart daily, 
besides three or four others, which 
come in and go out twice or thrice a 

The public buildings are six church- 
es, the University of Venuont, the Epis- 
copal Institute, the court house, two 
banks, the Academy, and two female 
seminaries. The University consists 
of four spacious edifices, located upon 
the summit at the eastern extremity 
of the village, more than 250 feet above 
the level of the lake, and commands 
one of the finest prospects in the 
United States. The village, the lake, 
vniii its bays and islands — its steam- 
boats and sloops — the Winooski River, 
dashing through frightful chasms and 

then winding among the beautiful mea- 
dows, and the distant and lofty moun- 
tains, which form the great outline, 
render the view from the dome of the 
University one of the most variegated 
and interesting to be met with in our 

As a part of Burlington may be men- 
tioned the village called " Winooski 
City." It is situated on both sides of 
the Winooski River, partly in Burling- 
ton and partly in Colchester, and is 
about two miles from the village of 
Burlington. The water power here is 
sutficient for propelling almost any 
amount of machinery. 

A substantial covered bridge con- 
nects the two sides of the river ; a 
handsome church and several stores 
have been erected ; and " Winooski 
City " bids fair to become a place of 
business and importance. 

Manufactures. The manufactures of 
this place consist of two woollen mills, 
one cotton mill, one foundry and ma- 
chine shop, two saw mills, one grist 
and an extensive flo^ir mill. 

The principal manufacturing estab- 
lishment is the Burlington Company, 
at " Winooski City." They commenced 
operations in 1836-7. It continued to 
manufacture on a small scale till 1845, 
when the company was newly organiz- 
ed and much enlarged. The company 
now runs sixteen setts of woollen ma- 
chineiy, on fine, fancy, and plain cassi- 
meres and coatings. It employs 450 
hands ; it uses annually 600,000 pounds 
of wool, and consumes 4,000 cords of 
wood. It uses, also, 12,000 gallons 
olive and 3,000 gallons sperm oil ; 140,- 
000 pounds of soap, 25,000 pounds of 
glue, 150 tons of dye-woods, &c. 

The railroads between Burlington 
and Boston will greatly enhance the 
A'alue of the commerce of this place ; 
and at no distant day Burlington will 
become an important depot for the 
commerce of Boston as well as of New 

Boundaries. North by Colchester, 
from which it is separated by Win- 
ooski River, east by Williston, south 
by Shelburne, and west by Lake Cham-^ 

First Settlers. The first that was 


done in this tOAvn, with a view to its 
settlement, was in 1774. During the 
summer of 1775 some clcaring-s were 
made on the intervale north of the vil- 
hige. and in the neigh!)orhood of the 
falls, and two or three log hut? erected. 
But the revolution commencing this 
yeaf. tlie settlers in this and neighbor^ 
ing towns, either rctrciifed to the south 
in the fall, or took slicker in the block- 
house in Colchester for the winter, and 
abandoned the country the succeeding 
spring. During the war no attempt 
was made to renew the settlement in 
these parts ; but on the return of peace 
in 1 783, many of those who had beeii 
compelled to leave the country, re- 
turned and otiicrs with tliem, and a 
j»eiTnanent settlement was effected. 
The fiiist man v.-ho brouglit his family 
into Burlington in the spring of 1783, 
Avas Mr. Stephen Lawrence, A num- 
ber of other families came into Bur- 
lington the same season, among whom 
were Frederick Saxton, Simon Tubbs, 
and John Collins, and froui that time 
to the present the population has been 
constantlv on the increase. 

First Slinisters. A Congregational 
Charch was organized here in 180.5, 
and wa.s the only religious society for 
several years. This church was divi- 
ded in sentiment in 1810, in which year 
the Rev. Daniel Haskell was ordained 
over the Trinitarian Society, and the 
Rev. Samuel Clark was ordained over 
the Unitarian part of the congrega- 

Prod'ictions of the SoV. WTieat, 2.4G2 
Imshcls', Indian com, 11,450 bushels: 
potatoes, 4,598 bushels : hay, 4,241 
tons : miiple sugar, 340 pounds ; wool, 
10,660 pound.s. 

Dhtances. Thirty-eight miles west 
north-west from Montpelier, sixty-two 
ijouth by east from St. Johns. Canada, 
eighty-five south-east from Montreal, 
seventy north from "Whitehall, twenty- 
two south-east from Plattsburg, ten 
miles across to Fort Kent, X. Y., and 
four hundred and forty from Wash- 


Caledonia Co. This towm lies on 
the heiirht of land between "Winooski 

and Connecticut Elvers. " The Plain" 
is delightfully situated, having the 
' Green and White Mountains in pros- 
' pcct. Several branches of the Winoos- 
' ki River water this town, and afford it 
^ some water power. Here is Jo and 
\ MoUifs Pond, and a sulphur spring. 
The surface is broken and hard, but 
good for sheep. This is th.e birth place 
of the late Zerah Colbuni, the celebrated 
; mathematician. 

! Boundaries. North by Walden. east 
j by Danville and Peacham, south by 
j Marshfield, and west by Monroe. 
I First Settlers. The settlement of this 
j tOAvn was commenced on what is call- 
; ed Cabot Plain., in xVpril, 1785, by James 
I Bruce, Edmund Chapman, Jonathan 
i Heath and Benjamin AVebster, with 
their families. The females came into 
\ the town on snowshoes, and were 
I obliged to suffer many privations and 
i hardships. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 3,383 
bushels-, Indian com, 1,768 bushels; 
potatoes 70.487 bushels; hay, 4,489 
tons; maple sugar, 34,715 pounds; 
wool. 13,316 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles south-west 
from Danville, and twenty north-east 
from Montpelier. 


WAsniKGTOX Co. This to-miship 
i is watered by two branches of Winoo- 
ski River, one entering . it near the 
north-east the other near the north- 
west corner. They unite near the 
south line of the to\\'n, affording, in 
I their course, a great number of valua- 
I ble privileges for mills and other ma- 
chiner}'. It is also well waterfed with 
springs and brooks. The soil is a warm 
loam, easily cultivated, well adapted to 
the production of all kinds of grain, 
and is not inferior to other towns in its 
vicinity for- grazing. The surface of 
the township is somewhat uneven, but 
very little of it so broken as to be in- 
capable of cultivation. The timber on 
the streams is mostly hemlock, spruce, 
and pine ; on the higher lands, maple, 
beech, &c. The lowest lands here are 
in general driest and the most feasible 
soil. The north line of the township 



intersects two considerable ponds. I Stor.e returning to Massachusetts to 
There are several other small, but beau- j spend the following winter, and West 
tiful ponds lying within the township, • to JMiddlescx. In this year, also. Gen. 
and which abound with trout and otlier { Parley Davis, then a new settler, cut 
iish. ].,ong Pond lies in the north-west , and put up two or three stacks of haj 
part of tiic town. In one autumn, | upon a beaver meadow, in Montpelier, 
2,000 pounds of trout were taken from upon a lot adjoining Calais, a part of 
this pond with a hook, which sold for; which hay was drawn to Col. Davis in 
S8 per cwt. In the spring of some j Montpelier in the following winter, 
years, at the inlet of this pond, more which served partially to break a road 
than tAvo tons of fish have been thrown | from Montpelier to Calais line. In 
out of the channel with the hands and i February or March, 1789, Francis 
with baskets. There are several j West moved his family on to his farm, 
springs in town, whose waters are quite i where he lived several years. Also, in 
brackish ; their medicinal qualities, I March of this year, Abijah Wheelock, 
however, have never been thoroughly j with his family, Moses Stone, Samuel 
tested. j Twiss with his new married lady, 

i?o»??(/anV5. North by Woodbury, east j accompanied by Gen. Davis, from 
by Marshfield, south by Montpelier, } Charlestown, arrived at Col. Davis' 
and Avest by Worcester. j house in Montpelier. with several teams. 

First Settlers. The settlement of | His house was a mere rude hut, con- 
tliis town was commenced in the spring j structcd of logs twenty feet in length, 
of 1787, by Francis West, from Ply- i with but one apartment, a back built at 

mouth County, Mass., who commenced 
felling timber on a lot adjoining Mont- 
pelier. The first ])ermanent settlers. 
Iiowever, were Abijah, Asa and P. 
Wheelock, wlio started from Charles- 
town, June 5th, 1787, with a wagon, 
two yoke of oxen, provisions, tools, &c. 
and arrived at Williamstown, within 
twenty-one miles of Calais, the 19th. 
They had hitherto found the roads al- 
most impassible, and here they weie 
obliged to leave their wagon, and, tak- 
ing a few necessary articles upon a 
sled, they proceeded towards this town, 
cutting their way and building cause- 
ways as they passed along. After a 
journey of two days and encamping 
two nights in the woods, they arrived 
at Winooski River, Montpelier 
village is now situated. Here Col. Ja- 
cob Davis had commenced clearing- 
land and had erected a small log hut, 
where they left their oxen to graze up- 
on the wild grass, leaks and shrubbery, 
with which the woods abounded — pro- 
ceeded to Calais and commenced a 
resolute attack upon the forest. They 
returned to Charlestown in October. 
Francis West also left toAvn, and re- 
turned the following spring, as did also 
Abijah and Peter Wheelock, accompa- 
nied by Moses Stone. They this year 
erected log houses, the Wheclocks and 

one end for a fire place, and covered 
with bark, with a hole left in the roof 
for the smoke to escape ; and this on 
their arrival they found to be pre-occu- 
pied by several families, emigrants from 
Peterboro', N. H. ; and in that man- 
sion of felicity there dwelt for about a 
fortnight three families with children 
in each, one man and his wife, recently 
married, three gentlemen then enjoying 
a state of single blessedness, and a 
young lady : and among the happy 
group v.'ere some of the first settlers of 
Calais. On the 13th of April, racket 
paths having been previously broken, 
Messrs. Wheelock, TavIss and Stone 
prepared handslcds, loaded thereon 
their beds and some light articles of 
furniture, accompanied by Mrs. Whee- 
lock and Mrs. Twiss, and Gen. Davis, 
proceeded to this town over snow three 
feet in depth, Mrs. AVheelock travel- 
ling the whole distance on foot and 
carrying in her arms an infant four 
months' old, while their son about two 
years of age. was draAvn upon the hand- 
sled. Mrs. TavIss, the recently married 
lady, also performed the same journey 
on foot, making use of her broom for 
a walking cane. During the day the 
snow became soft and in crossing a 
marshy piece of ground, Mrs. TavIss 
slumped with one foot, and sank to 



considerable depth and was unable to the first settlers of Calais. In Septem- 
rise; Gen. Davis, with all the gallantry ber of this same year, 1789, Peter 
of a young woodsman, pawed away the : Wheelock moved his* family, consisting 

snow ^vith his hands, seized her below -^ '^^ ' ' ' "' "" ' < • 

the knee and extricated her. This in- 
cident was a source of no small merri- 
ment to the party generally, of morti 

fication to the amiable sufferer, and of 
•gratification to Mrs. ^^Hieelock, who 
felt herself secretly piqued that Mrs. 

of a wife and six children, to this to^vn. 
In 1790. James Jennings arrived with 
a family. Lucinda, daughter of Peter 
^\Tieelock, was born tliis year, and was 
the first child born in town. On tliis 
occasion it is said one woman travelled 
four miles, on foot, through the woods, 

Twiss did not at least offer to bear her in a very dark night, 
precious burthen some part of the dis- 1 Productions of the Soil. \Vheat, 3,630 
tance. They arrived in safety the same j bushels ; Indian com, 5,089 bushels , 
day, and commenced the peraianent ' potatoes, 24,246 bushels ; hay, 5,899 
settlement of the town. A large rock, tons ; maple sugar, 24,420 pounds ; 

now in the orchard on the farm owTied 
by Dea. Joshua Bliss, once formed the 

end and fire place to the Log Cabin of Montpelier. 

wool, 14,160 pounds. 

Distances. Eight miles north from 


Danville is the chief town. This county is bounded east by Connecticut 
River and Essex County, south by Orange County, west by Washington Coun- 
ty, and north by the county of Orleans. The eastern range of the Green 
Mountains extends through the western part of the county. It is watered by 
many fine streams, but the Connecticut and Passumpsic are its chief rivers. 
A large part of the county is high and good land ; that along the rivers is ex- 
cellent. It produces wheat and other grain, beef cattle, horses, and sheep. 
There are some sulphur springs in this county ; limestone and granite are 
abundant. — See Tables. 


The Supreme CouH sits at Danville, on the 8th Tuesday after the 4th Tues- 
day in December: and the County Court. ^ on the 1st Tuesday in June and De- 
cember, annuallv. 


Lamoille Co. The river Lamoille 
enters this town on the east side one 
mile from the north-east corner, and 
after running a serpentine course of 
twelve miles, in which it receives North 
Branch from the north, and Brewster's 
River and Seymour's Brook from the 
south, passes the west line of the town, 
one mile from the south-west comer. 


These streams afford numerous mill 
privileges. The surface of the town is 
uneven, and, in some places rough. 
The land is, however, generally good, 
and on the river are about 5000 acres 
of valuable inten^ale. A branch of 
Dead Creek, which is a branch of 
Missisco River, rises in this town, and 
another branch of said creek issues 
from Metcalf Pond in Fletcher and 



runs across the north-west corner of 
the town. The town is Avell watered, 
and the timber of various kinds. 

There are three small villages. The 
village called the^ Boroiujh, is on the 
south side of the river Lamoille, in the 
south-west corner of the town, on the 
post road. The centre viUatje is on the 
south side of the Lamoille near the 
centre of the town, west of Brewster's 

Boundaries. North-easterly by "VVa- 
terville and a part of Fletcher, easterly 
by Sterling and a part of Johnson, 
south by Underbill, and westerly by 

First Settlers. The first settler of 
this town was John Sp afford. He 
came into town May 8, 1783, planted 
two acres of corn, which was OA^erflow- 
ed with water in the foil, and nearly all 
destroyed. He moved his family, con- 
sisting of a wife and two children, into 
town from Piermont, N. H., in Novem- 
ber. The town was suiweyed, this 
year, by Amos Fasset. In 1 784, Amos 
Fasset, Stephen Kinsley, John Fasset, 
Jr., and Samuel Montague moved their 
families here from Bennington, and 
Noah Chittenden his from Arlington. 

First Ministers. The Rev. Elijah 
Woolage was settled over the Congre- 
gational Church in 1805, and dismissed 
in 1812. 

Productions of the Soil. WTieat, 3,531 
bushels; Indian com, 6,435 bushels; 
potatoes, 73,100 bushels; hay, 5,329 
tons; maple sugar, 64,111 pounds; 
wool, 19,091 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles west from 
' Hydepark, and forty north-west from 


Essex Co. Canaan lies opposite 
Stewartstown, N. H. The north-east 
corner of the town is the most easterly 
land in Vermont. February 26, 1782, 
it received a new charter, and October 
23, 1801, the town of Norfolk was annex- 
ed to it. Canaan being a frontier town, 
was subject to considerable disturbance 
during the last war with Great Britain. 
Willard's Brook, &c., afford good mill 
privileges. The former is two rods 

wide at its junction with the Connecti- 
cut, Leeds Pond from which it issues 
is partly in Canada. There is some 
fine intervale on the Connecticut, and 
much good land in other parts. This 
town affords a fine field for fowling and 

Boundaries. North by Hereford, 
Canada, east by Connecticut River, 
and south-west by Lemington and 

First Settlers. John Hugh, Hubbard 
Spencer, and Silas Sargeant in 1791. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 692 
bushels ; Indian corn, 285 bushels ; 
potatoes, 26,400 bushels; hay, 1,451 
tons; maple sugar, 11,450 pounds; 
wool, 2,711 pounds. 

Dista7ices. Thirty-five miles north 
from Guildhall, and one hundred and 
three north-east from Montpelier. 


Rutland Co. This is a flourishing 
town, watered by a river of the same 
name. The surface of the town is 
rough and hilly, but thei-e is some rich 
land. Mill streams abound in Castle- 
ton, on which are a woollen and other 
manufacturing establishments. Lake 
Bombazine, seven miles in length and 
two in breadth, is chiefly in this town. 
It is stored with fish, and has an island 
near its centre of exquisite beauty. 
The village of Castleton is elevated, 
neatly built, and presents a great vari- 
ety of rich and beautiful scenery. 

There is considerable variety in the 
soil and surface of Castleton. The 
rocks are chiefly argillaceous, occasion- 
ally traversed by veins of quartz, and 
occasionally alternating with, or en- 
closing large masses of the latter rock ; 
small quantities of secondary lime- 
stone are found in a few localities. 
Specimens of oxide of manganese are 
found in the vicinity of Bird's Moun- 
tain, in the south-east part of the town. 
The rocks are disposed in elevated 
ridges, in the eastern and northern sec- 
tions, and are in some places abrupt 
and precipitous ; but for the most part 
covered with fertile arable soil. The 
south-west part is a pine plain, in some 
places intersected by slate rock and 



ridges of slate gravel. The larger 
streams are generall}- bordered by rich 
alluvial intervales, wliich, in some in- 
stances, are broad and extensive. The 
soil of the plains is sandy and light : 
on the hills it is slaty gravel, loam, 
and vegetable mould; these soils are 
rendered much more productive by 
the use of plaster of Paris ; that of 
the intervales is strong and productive, 
in many places however requiring 

The outlet of the lake, at its south- 
em extremity, has sufRrient declivity 
and volume of water to propel a large 
amount of machinery. Castleton lliver, 
which arises in Pittsford, traverses a 
part of Rutland, Ira, and Castleton, 
from east to west, where it receives 
the Avaters of Lake Bombazine. It 
afterwards unites with Poultney River, 
in Fair Haven, and enters Lake Cham- 
lain at East Bay. This river and its 
tributary brooks furnish considerable 
water power, Avhich is improved in 
propelling various kinds of machinery. 
Being increased by many abundant 
springs along its bed, its waters are 
very pure and cool in summer, and 
seldom frozen in winter. 

The village of Castleton was incor- 
porated in 184:7, and contains some very 
handsome public and private buildings. 

Boundaries. South by Poultney, 
east by Ira, north by Hubbardtou, west 
by Fair Haven. 

First Settlers. The first dwelling- 
house was erected in August,! 769, of 
which Col. Lee and his servant were 
the sole inhabitants the following win- 
ter. In 1770, Epliraira Buel, Eleazer, 
Bartholomew, and Zadock Remington, 
with their families, settled in this town, 
and were soon followed by Cols. Bird 
and Lee. The first inhabitants were 
cliiefiy emigrants from Connecticut. 
The "enterprise and worth of Cols. 
Bird and Lee, entitle them to a prom- 
inent place in the early history of Cas- 
tleton ; the former died in the midst 
of active benevolent exertions for the 
infant settlement, September 16, 1762. 
His solitary monument on the banks of 
Castleton River, and an isolated moun- 
tain in the south-cast comer of the 
town, are memorials of his name, still 

associated with the remembrance of 
his worth. Col. Lee was vigilant and 
active amidst the hardships and dan- 
gers which were encountered by the 
first settlers, under the government of 
New Hampshire and the council of safe- 
ty, and the vexatious embarrassments 
consequent to the claims of jurisdiction 
by the State of New York. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1784. 

} Rev. Mathias Cazier was settled in 

11789, and dismissed in 1792. Rev. 

I Elisha Smith was installed in 1804; 

! dismissed in 1826. 

Manufactures. Castleton affords nu- 
merous and A'^aluable sites for manu- 
facturing purposes. Operations have 
already commenced, and many articles 
are manufactured. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,752 
bushels; Indian com, 10,185 bushels; 
potatoes, 23,915 bushels; hay, 4,479 
tons ; maple sugar, 8,660 pounds ; 
wool, 27,631 pounds. 

Distances. Eleven miles west from 
Rutland, seventy-two south-west from 
Montpelier, and thirteen east from 
Whitehall. The great Southern Rail- 
road passes near this town. 


Windsor Co. The soil of this 
town is easy, and generally fertile. 
Black River, Avhich runs from west to 
east, and Twenty-mile Stream, which 
runs in a southerly direction and unites 
with it near White's Mills, are the 
principal streams. Along these streams 
are some small tracts of fine inter- 

The greatest curiosity in the town, 
and perhaps the greatest of the kind 
in the State, is at the falls on Black 
River, which are situated between 
Button's Village and White's MiUs. 
" Here the channel of the river has 
been worn down 100 feet, and rocks 
of very large dimensions have been 
underrnined and throAvn do\vn, one 
upon another. Holes are worn into 
the rocks, of various dimensions and 
forms. Some of them are cylindrical, 
from one to eight feet in diameter, and 
from one to fifteen feet in depth ; others 



are of a spherical form, from six to 
twenty feet in diameter, worn almost 
perfectly smooth into the solid body of 
the rock." 

Hawk's Mountain, which separates 
Baltimore from this town, jderives its 
name from Col. Hawks, who, during I 
the French and Indian wars, encamped 1 
thereon for the night with a small reg- 1 
ular force, among Avhom was General j 
(then Captain) John Stark. Some 
traces of their route are still to be seen. , 

There are two villages, viz., Duttons- 
ville and Proctoi-sville. The former is ! 
a place of considerable business. j 

Proctors-valle is a busy place, and 
has considerable manufactures of wool- 
len and other goods. Kear this vil- 
lage are large quarries of soaps tone 
and serpentine, both of which are 
manufactured here in large quantities, 
and transported to the Atlantic cities. 
Specimens of the latter beautiful stone 
may be seen at the Tremont House 
and Merchant's Exchange, in Boston. 

The Eutland and Burlington Rail- 
road, which passes through the village,- 
greatly facilitates the trade and manu- 
factures of the place. 

Boundaries. North by Reading, east 
by Weathersfield, south by Chester, 
and west by Ludlow. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this township Avas commenced in the 
north part by Captain John Coffein, in 
June, 1769, at whose hospitable dw^ell- 
ing thousands of our revolutionary sol- 
diers received refreshment, while pass- 
ing from CharlestoANTi, then Ko. 4, to 
the military posts on Lake Champlain, 
nearly the Avhole distance being at that 
time a wilderness. On the farm, now 
the residence of James Smith, Esq., in 
the north-westerly part of the town, 
twenty miles from Charlestown, was 
another stopping-place, called " The 
Twenty Miles Encampment," giving 
name to a small river, near the head 
of which the encampment was situated. 
In 1771, Noadiah Russell and Thomas 
Gilbert joined Captain Coffein in the 
settlement, and shared with him in his 
wants and privations. For several 
years they struggled hard for a scanty 
and precarious subsistence. The grind- 
ing of a single grist of com was known 

to have cost sixty miles travel. Such 
was the situation of the roads and the 
scarcity of mills at this early period. 
Many interesting anecdotes are related 
of Captain Coffein, which our limits 
will not pei-mit us to insert. At one 
time he owed his life to the sagacity 
of his faithful dog. He was returning 
from Otter Creek, in March, 1771, 
while the country was perfectly new, 
and on account of the depth of the 
snow was compelled to travel on snow 
shoes. While crossing one of the 
ponds in Plymouth the ice broke, and 
he was suddenly plunged into the wa- 
ter. Encumbered with a large pair of 
snow shoes and a great coat which he 
had on, he sti-ove, but in vain, to extri- 
cate himself. He struggled about half 
an hour, and, in despair, was about 
yielding himself to a watery grave, 
when, at this critical moment, his large 
and faithful dog beholding his situa- 
tion came forward to the rescue of his 
master. He seized the cuff of his great 
coat, and, aided by the almost expiring 
efforts of Captain Coffein, succeeded 
in dragging him from the watery 
chasm to a place of safety. Captain 
Coffein lived to see the town all set- 
tled and organized, and to take an ac- 
tive part in its public concerns. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,101 
bushels ; Indian corn, 3,750 bushels ; 
potatoes, 30,680 bushels; hay, 3,620 
tons ; maple sugar, 7,545 pounds ; 
wool, 14.279 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles south-west 
from Windsor, and sixty south from 


Orleans Co. The principal stream 
in this town is Clyde River, which en- 
ters the township in Brighton, and 
runs north-westerly nearly through its 
centre, into Salem. There are some 
falls of consequence on this stream, 
particularly the Great Falls, where the 
descent is more than 100 feet in forty 
rods, but its current is generally slow. 
The alluvial flats along this stream 
are extensive, but generally too low 
and wet for cultivation. In the south- 
east part of the township are 1,000 


acres of bog meadow, in a body, upon 
this ri^'e^^ There are several consider- 
able ponds. Echo Pond, the most im- 
portant, is in the northern part, and 
was named by Gen. J. Whitelaw, on 
account of the succession of echoes 
which are usually heard, when any 
sound is produced in its Adcinity. It 
is one and a half miles long and half 
a mile wide. The stream which dis- 
charges the waters of Seymour's Lake, 
in Morgan, into Clyde River, passes 
through this pond. On the outlet mills 
are erected. The other pond of most 
consequence is called Pension Pond, 
and lies in the course of Clyde River. 
These ponds abound in fish, and lai-ge 
quantities are annually caught. There 
are two small villages situated upon 
Clyde River, about six miles apart, 
designated as East Charleston and 
"West Charleston. The soil of the 
township is a rich loam, and produces 
good crops, and the roads and busi- 
ness of the town are rapidly im- 

Boundaries. North-east by Morgan, 
south-east by Brighton, south-west by 
a part of Westmore and Bro^vnington, 
and north-west by Salem. 

First Settlers. The settlement of tliis 
township was commenced in 1803, by 
Andrew McGaffey, who this year mov- 
ed his family here from Lyndon. Mrs. 
McGraffey died Oct. 30, of this year, 
which was the first death in town. In 
July, Abner AUyn also moved his 
family here, and his was the second 
family in town. In 1804 Joseph Sea- 
vey moved his family here ; Orin Per- 
cival, his in 1805 ; and from this 
time the settlement proceeded more 

First Ministers. The dates of the 
settlement of the fii-st ministers in this 
town are not given. The Freewill 
Baptists are the most numerous de- 
nomination of Christians. There are, 
however, other denominations, all of 
which are generally supplied by itine- 
ant preachers. 

Productions of the Soil. 'Wheat, 1 ,43 1 
bushels ; Indian corn, 467 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 26,279 bushels ; hay, 1,499 tons ; 
maple sugar, 23,965 pounds ; -wool, 
2,861 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles east from 
Irasburgh, and fifty-four north-east 
from Montpelier. 


CiiiTTKNDEN Co. This township 
is pleasantly situated on the lake shore, 
and is watered by the river Laplott, 
wliich runs through the north-east cor- 
ner, and Lewis Creek, which runs 
through the southern corner. The 
western part of the town was originally 
timbered with hard wood, and the soil 
is excellent, producing in abundance. 
The eastern part was principally tim- 
bered mth pine, hemlock, &c. There 
are no elevations which deserve the 
names of mountains, but a range of 
considerable hills running through the 
centre of the town from north to south. 
From many parts of this ridge the 
scenery to the west is peculiarly pictu- 
resque. The lake Avith its islands, may- 
be seen at a great distance. Add to 
this the extensive range of lofty moun- 
tains with, their broken summits which 
lie beyond it, and it is believed that, 
particularly at some seasons of the 
year, the beauty and sublimity of the 
prospect is not excelled by any part of 
our country. 

Boundaries. North by Shelbume, 
east by Hinesburgh, south by Ferris- 
burg and a pait of Monkton, and west 
by Lake Champlain. 

First Settlers. The first attempt to 
settle this to-rni was made by Derick 
Webb. He first began in March, 1776, 
but soon left. He came in again, in 
March, 1777, and left in May, follow- 
ing ; but no permanent settlement was 
made till 1784, when Derick Webb and 
Elijah AVoolcut moved into the town, 
and were followed by others, so that 
the town was soon after organized. 
John McNeil was one of the early set- 

First Ministers. There is a smaU 
village a little west of the centre, called 
the four corners, with a meeting-house 
and parsonage, belonging to the Meth- 
odist Society, built with brick in the 
year 1841, and well finished in modern 
style. Also, a female seminary, built 
in 1836, which is now under the super- 


intendence of the Methodist Society. 
At about the same distance north of 
the centre, there is a \-illage of still 
smaller size, and also two miles east 
of the centre, where there is a Baptist 
Meeting-house, built with brick and 
well finished, in the year 1841. The 
Congregational jNIeeting-house stands 
near the centre of the town, and was 
erected in the year 1 808. The church 
was organized January 3, 1792, and on 
the next day the Rev. Daniel C. Gillet 
was ordained over it. He was dismiss- 
ed in 1799, and the church was vacant 
till Nov. 4, 1807, When the Rev. Tru- 
man Baldwin was ordained over it, 
who was dismissed March 21, 1815. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,195 
bushels ; Indian corn, 26,885 bushels ; 
potatoes, 52,985 bushels; hay, 9,175 
tons ; maple sugar, 6,000 pounds ; 
wool, 31,348 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-nine miles west of 
Montpelier. eleven south of Burlington, 
and twenty-one north-west of Middle- 
bury. The Northern Railroad passes 
through this town. 


Orange Co. This is the shire town 
of the county, and is a township of 
good land, with a pleasant village in 
the centre. It is watered by the head 
branches of White River and has a 
good hydraulic power. Chelsea pro- 
duces all the various commodities com- 
mon to the climate, and is a beautiful 
place of residence. The Chelsea 
Academy was incorporated in 1848. 

Bonndaries. North by Washington 
and William stown, east by Vershire, 
south by Tunbridge, and west by 

First Settlers. This town was for- 
merly called Tumersburgh. Improve- 
ments were commenced in this town- 
ship in the spring of 1784, by Thomas 
and Samuel Moore, and Asa Bond, 
who. the next spring, brought in their 
families from Winchester, N. H. They 
were soon joined by others from differ- 
ent quarters, who settled in different 
parts of the to^^-n. Those who first 
came in brought all their furniture and 
provisions on their backs from Tun- 

bridge, nine miles distant, where were 
their nearest neighbors. The first house 
in town was erected in the present 
burying ground by Thomas Moore, and 
was bunied to the ground with all its 
contents, in September, 1785, but four 
or five months after his family had en- 
tered it. The first child born in town 
Avas Thomas Porter Moore, son of 
Thomas Moore, bom Oct. 16, 1785. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was early organized here, ovei* 
which Rev. Lathrop Thompson was 
settled in November, 1799. He was 
dismissed in April, 1805, and Rev. 
Calvin Noble Avas ordained over the 
church in September, 1807, and con- 
tinued in its charge till his death in 
April, 1834. 

Productions of the Soil. T\Tieat, 3,177 
bushels ; Indian corn, 4,427 bushels ; 
potatoes, 47,090 bushels; hay, 4,124 
tons ; maple sugar, 18,782 pounds ; 
wool, 11,122 pounds. 

Distances^ Twenty miles south by 
east from Montpelier, and from this 
town to Northfield, through which the 
gi-eat Northern Railroad passes, is 
about thirteen miles. 


Windsor Co. William's River is 
formed in this township by the union 
of three considerable branches. These 
branches unite, nearly in the same 
place, and a1)0ut one and a half miles 
south-east of the two villages ; they 
constitute the principal waters, heading 
in the towns of Andover, Ludlow, and 
Windham. No natural pond, cave, or 
Indian name or relic was ever known 
or recorded in this town The surface 
is considerably diversified with hills 
and valleys, but the soil is generally 
I good ; the uplands yield excellent pas- 
I turage, and when newly cleared, pro- 
j duce abundance of grain. The inter- 
j vales are rich and fertile, producing 
' good crops of rye, corn, barley, oats, 
peas, beans, potatoes, &c. The roads 
are now all free, remarkably well laid, 
' level and well vTought for such an un- 
I even township, mainly following 
streams. Timber, mostly hard wood, 
j with some hemlock, spruce, and pine. 



Minemls, granite, actynolite, augite 
chlorite, common and potter's clay, cy- 
anite, epidote, feldspar, garnet, horn- 
blend, iron, magnetic, oxyde of sulphu- 
ret, quartz, serpentine, talc, and mica. 
There are two villages, called the north 
and south village,; the north village is 
situated near the centre of the town- 
ship, on the northerly side of the north 
branch of William's kiver. The south 
village is situate in a pleasant valley 
on the north side of the middle branch 
of William's River, three fourths of a 
mile south of the north village, and one 
and a half mile south-easterly of the 
centre of the town. 

Boundaries. North by Cavendish 
and Baltimore, east by Springfield,south 
by Grafton and a small part^ of Kock- 
ingham, and west by Andover and part 
of Ludlow. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1764, by Thomas 
Chandler and his two sons, John and 
Thomas Chandler, Jr., Jabez Sargeant, 

Edward Johnson, Isaiah Johnson, 
Charles Man, William Warner, Icha- 
bod Ide, and Ebenczer Hotton, from 
Woodstock, Ct., and Worcester and 
Maiden, Mass. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized in 1773, and 
Rev. Samuel Whiting was settled by 
this town and Rockingham for five 
years ; he officiating one third of the 
time at Chester, the remainder at Rock- 
ingham ; after which they had no set- 
tled minister for thirty-six years. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,477 
bushels ; Indian corn, 8,627 bushels ; 
potatoes, 35,255 bushels; hay, 4,490 
tons; maple sugar, 18,987 pounds; 
wool, 30,263 pounds. 

Distances. Sixteen miles south-west 
from Windsor, and seventy-nine south 
from Montpelier. The great Southern 
Railroad between Boston and Burling- 
ton, passes through this handsome 
town, which will greatly facilitate the 
business of this fertile region. 


Burlington is the chief tOAvn. This county is bounded north by Franklin 
County, east by Washington County, south by Addison County, and west by 
Champlain Lake. A few settlements commenced in this county before the 
revolution, but they were all abandoned during the Avar. Its soil varies from 
rich alluvial meadows to light and sandy plains. The beautiful Champlain, 
washing its western boundary, gives it great facilities for trade. Its agri- 
cultural and manufacturing products are considerable. Lamoille River passes 
through its north-west corner, and Winooski River pierces its centre. These 
streams, with several others of smaller size, afford the county a good water 

The railroads which intersect this county in various directions ; its fine mill 
privileges, and good soil, renders this a highly interesting section of the State. 
—See Tables. 


* The Supreme Court sits at Burlington, on the R^onday preceding the first 
Tuesday of January. 

The County CouH on the fourth Tuesday of May and November. 




Rutland Co. The north-west part 
of this town is watered by Philadelphia 
River, which falls into Otter Ci-eek 
at Pittsford. Tweed River rises in 
the eastern part, and falls into White 
River. The south-western part is 
watered by East Creek. Near Phila- 
delphia River is a mineral spring, and 
among the mountains are some cav- 
erns, but they are little known. The 
town is interesting on account of its 
minerals. Iron ore of good quality is 
found here in abundance, and also 
manganese. Large quantities of iron 
ore are raised annually, much of which 
is smelted at the works in Pittsford. 
The manganese is found at unequal 
depths beiow the surface. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Goshen, 
easterly by Pittsfield. southerly by 
Mendon, and west by Pittsford and a 
part of Brandon. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this township was commenced about 
the close of the revolutionary war, but 
much of it being mountainous remains 

The most distinguished man who 
resided here was Aaron Beach. He 
fought under Wolf on the Heights of 
Abraham, served his country through 
the war of the revolution, and was 
prevented only by the solicitations of 
friends from being with the Green 
Mountain Boys in the battle of Platts- 

First Ministers. The Methodists 
erected a house of Avorship in 18.32, 
and the Congregationalists in 1833. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1.115 
bushels : Indian com, 2,379 bushels ; 
potatoes, 16,830 bushels; hay, 1,970 
tons; maple sugar, 11,790 pounds; 
wool, 9.202 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles north by 
east from Rutland, and forty south 
west from Montpelier. 

The great Southern Railroad passes 
through the vicinity of this town. 


Rutland Co. Ottei' Creek runs 
through this town from south to north, 
a little east of the centre, and receives 

here Mill River and Cold River from 
the east, which affords numerous sites 
for Mills and other machinery. Mill 
River rises in Mount Holly, runs near- 
ly on the line between this town and 
Wallingford, receiving from the latter 
the waters of a considerable pond, 
crosses the south-west comer of 
ShreAvsbur>-, and falls into Otter Creek 
near the south part of Clarendon. 
I Cold River rises in Parkerstown. cross- 
i es the north-west comer of Slirews- 
j bury, and enters Otter Creek near the 
j north part of Clarendon. Furnace 
I Brook, called also Little West River, 
j rises from a small pond in the south 
part of Tinmouth, and runs north, 
parallel to Otter Creek, through the 
west part of the town, and falls into 
Otter Creek near the Centre of Rut- 
land. Near the north line of Claren- 
don it receives Ira Brook, from Ira. 
Near Furnace Brook are situated Clar- 
endon Springs. 

The east part of the town borders 
on the Green Mountains, but the prin- 
cipal elevations are the range of hills 
between Otter Creek and Furnace 
Brook, and between the latter and Ira 
Brook, on the west line of the town. 
The alluvial flats on Otter Creek are 
from half to a mile wide through the 
town, and are very productive. The 
uplands are a gravelly loam. Very 
good marble is found here, and is 
wrought to some extent. There are 
two small villages, one in the eastern 
and the other in the western part. 

Clarendon Springs. These springs 
are situated in a picturesque and beau- 
tiful region, seven miles south-west 
from Rutland, and have, in their im- 
mediate vicinity, good accommodations 
for 500 visitors. The waters are found 
to be highly efficacious in affections of 
the liver, dyspepsia, urinary, and aU 
cutaneous complaints, rheumatism, in- 
veterate sore eyes, and many others, 
and they promise fair to go on increas- 
ing in notoriety and usefulness. These 
waters differ in their composition from 
any heretofore knoAvn, but resemble 
most nearly the German Spa water. 
For their curative properties they are 
believed to be indebted wholly to the 
gases they contain. 



Clarendon Cave. This cave is situ- 
ated on the south-easterly side of a 
mountain in the westerly part of that 
town. The descent into it is through 
a passage two and a half feet in diam- 
eter and thirty-one feet in length, and 
which makes an angle of 35 or 40° 
with the horizon. It then ope»s into a 
room twenty feet long, twelve and a 
half wide, and eighteen or twenty feet 
high. The floor, sides, and roof of 
this room are all of solid rock, but 
very rough and uneven. From the 
north part of this room is a passage 
about three feet in diameter and twen- 
ty-four feet ill length, but very rough 
and irregular, which leads to another 
room twenty feet wide, thirty feet long, 
and eighteen feet high. This room, 
being situated much lower than the 
first, is usually filled with water in the 
spring of the year, and water stands 
ia the lowest part of it at all sea- 

Boundaries. North by Rutland, east 
by Shrewsbury, south by Tinmouth 
aad Wallingford, and west by Ira. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1768, by Elkanah Cook, 
who was joined the same year by Ran- 
dal Rice, Benjamin Johns, and others. 
The first settlers were mostly from 
Rhode Island, and purchased their 
lands of Colonel Lideus, who claimed 
them under a title derived from the 
Indians. This title was, however, never 
confirmed by either of the colonial 
governments, and the diversity of claim- 
ants occasioned much litigation, which 
continued till 1785, when the legisla- 
ture passed what was called the quiet- 
ing act. By it the settlers were put in 
peaceable possession of their land, and 
the New Hampshire title to the lands 
not settled was confirmed. 

First Ministers. Elder Isaac Beals, 
of the Baptist order, was the first set- 
tled minister. The Congregational 
Church was gathered here February, 
1822, by the Rev. Henry Hunter, who 
was installed over the same on the 6th 
of November following, and continued 
six years. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,663 
bushels ; Indian com, 10,936 bushels ; 
pQtatO€S, 44,601 bushels; hay, 5,415 


tons ; maple sugar, 24,950 pounds ; 
wool, 4,980 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty-five miles south 
west from Montpelier, and seven south 
from Rutland. 

The great Southern Raih-oad, be- 
tween Boston and Burlington, 
through this town. 


Chittenden Co. There are two 
small ponds in this town. The largest 
contains about sixty acres. On the 
outlet to this pond are still seen the 
remains of beavers' works. The prin- 
cipal streams of this to^^^l are, the 
River Lamoille, Avhich runs from Mil- 
ton through the north-west corner into 
Lake Champlain ; Mallet's Creek, 
which also comes from Milton, and 
empties into Mallet's Bay; Indian 
Creek, which runs into Mallet's Creek ; 
and Winooski River, on the south. 
The soil in the north and north-west- 
em parts is a variety of gravel and 
loam, and is well adapted to grazing, 
though Indian corn, the English grains, 
and the common culinary roots, are 
successfully cultivated. The timber in 
these parts is principally white pine, 
beech, maple, birch, basswood, ash, 
elm, oak, walnut, butternut, and some 
chestnut. In the middle part of the 
town is a large tract of pine plain, 
mostly covered with pitch pine and 
small oaks, and seems more particu- 
larly adapted to the raising of rye and 
com. On the bank of the Winooski 
River are large tracts of intervale. 
Besides the ordinary methods of en- 
riching the soil, plaster of Paris has 
been used in this town with great suc- 
cess. The rocks in thfe northern and 
eastern parts are mostly composed of 
lime and slate, with occasional bould- 
ers of granite ; red sand stone is found 
in abundance near Mallet's Bay. Iron 
ore has been found in small quantities 
in the western part of the town, and 
sulphate of iron is found in the north- 
eastern part. 

Boundaries. North b^ Milton, east 
by Essex, south by Wmooski River, 
which separates it from Burlington and 
Williston, and west by L^e Champlain. 



First Settlers. The settlement of 
this town was commenced in 1774, at 
the Lower Falls on Winooski or Onion 
River, by Ira Allen and Remember 
Baker. Baker's family, consisting of 
a wife and three children, was the first 
in town. In 1775, Joshua Staunton 
began improvements on the intervale 
above the Nan-ows in that river, and 
there was a small clearing made at 
Mallet's Bay before the revolution. 
From the spring of 1776, the town was 
abandoned by the settlers till after the 
close of the war, in 1783, when Messrs. 
McLain, Low, and Boardman, settled 
on Colchester Point, and Gen. Allen 
returned and renewed the settlement 
at the Falls. Allen erected mills, a 
foi'ge and a shop for fabricating an- 
chors, and the place soon assumed the 
appeai'ance of a considerable village. 
The town was organized about the 
year 1791 , and Ira Allen was first town 

Fh-st Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was gatliered here in 1805, but 
during a great portion of the time were 
destitute of regular preaching. A 
Baptist Church was organized in 1816. 

Productions of the SoU. Wheat, 1 ,903 
bushels ; Indian com, 10,343 bushels ; 
potatoes, 36,324 bushels ; hay, 3,401 
tons; maple sugar, 1,900 pounds ; wool, 
11,375 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty-six miles north- 
west from Montpelier, and six north 
from Burlington, 

Winooski Village lies in Burlington 
and Colchester. 


Essex Co. HaWs Poixd, lying near 
the centime of the town, is about a mUe 
long, and on an average 100 rods wide. 
Miks^ Pond is about the same size, and 
lies near the north-east comer of the 
town. This town is watered by Moose 
River, which passes through the north- 
west part, by Connecticut River on the 
south, and by several small streams. 
The surface of the town is uneven, and 
in the north-eastern parts very stony. 
It is an excellent grazing township, and 
has some good tillage land. 

A manufacturing company in this 
town was incorporated in 1847. 

Boundaries. North-westerly by Kirby 
and Bradley Vale, north-easterly by 
Lunenburg, south-easterly by Connec- 
ticut River, and south-westerly by Wa- 

First Settlei-s. The first settlement 
of Concord Avas commenced in 1788, 
by Joseph Ball. Among the settlere 
who came into town previous to the 
year 1794, may be mentioned Amos 
Underwood, Solomon Babcock, Daniel 
Gregory, Benjamin Streeter, Jonathan 
and Jesse Woodbury, and Levi Ball. 
In 1795, when John Fry came into 
town, there were seventeen families 
here. The first settlers were princi- 
pally from Westboro' and Royalston. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1807, 
and the Rev. Samuel Godard was or- 
dained over it in 1809; dismissed in 
1821. The Rev. Samuel K. HaU was 
ordained in 1823. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,579 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,906 bushels; 
potatoes, 48,885 bushels; hay, 3,699 
tons; maple sugar, 19,090 pounds; 
Avool, 6.218 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty -four miles south- 
west from Guildhall, and forty-four 
north east by east from Montpelier. 


Orakge Co. The surface of this 
township is generally very uneven and 
broken, and the elevations abrupt, yet 
the land is, in almost every part, sus- 
ceptible of cultivation. The soil con- 
sists of a dark loam, mixed with a 
small portion of sand, is easily culti- 
vated, and is very productive. The 
land was originally timbered with hard 
wood except oji the streams, where 
there was a mixture of hemlock, spruce 
and fir. Small but handsome speci- 
mens of feldspar, garnet, serpentine, 
homblend, mica and rock crystal have 
been found. The rocks are princi- 
pally granite and mica slate. This 
township is well watered bv Wait's 
River, which runs through the north- 
east part, and by several of its branches. 



On North Branch, from Topsham, 
in the north-east corner of the town, is 
East village. Another branch rises in 
Washington, passes throu^:h the south 
part of this town, and unites with 
Wait's River in the western part of 
Bradford. There ai-e some other 
streams on which mills and other ma- 
chinery are erected. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Topsham, 
easterly by Bradford, southerly by Ver- 
shire, and westerly by Washington. 

First Settlers.' In the spring of 1777, 
previous to the settlement of the 
town, Ezekiel Colby, John Nutting and 
John Ai-mand, spent several weeks 
here in manufacturing maple sugar. 
They started together f:om Newbuiy, 
with each a five pail kettle on his head, 
and with this load they travelled, by a 
pocket compass, twelve miles through 
the wilderness to the place of destina- 
tion near the centre of the township. 
This year, Mr. Colby moved his family 
into Corinth, which was the first family 
in town. The next year, 1778, Mr. 
Nutting moved his family here, and 
Mrs. Colby was delivered of a son, 
Henry, the first child born in town. 
In 1779, Messrs. Edmund Brown, Sam- 
uel Norris, Jacob Fowler and Bracket 
Towle, moved their families here, and 
the same year, Mr. John Aiken, of 
Wentworth, N. H., erected the first 
grist mill, which went into operation 
the year following. Previous to this, 
the settkrs had to go to Newbury, 
twelve miles, for their giinding. In 
1780, several other families came in, 
and the town was organized. 

First Ministers. A Freewill Baptist 
Church was organized in the north 
part of the town in 1805, and one in 
the south part in 1807. A Congrega- 
tional Church was organized in 1820, 
and in 1821 they settled the Rev. Cal- 
vin Y. Chase, who died here ik 1831. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 6,745 
bushels; Indian corn, 10,506 bushels; 
potatoes, 71,845 bushels; hay, 6,240 
tons ; maple sugar, 33,585 pounds ; 
wool, 20,343 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty miles south-east 
from Montpelier, and ten north-east 
from Chelsea. The Connecticut River 
Railroad passes near this town. 


Addison Co. This is a very hand- 
some township of land, and the surface 
is generally level- Lemonfair River 
crosses the north-west corner, and Ot- 
ter Creek washes a part of the eastern 
boundary. This township, by charter, 
comprehended that part of Mfddleburj-, 
which lies west of Otter Creek, includ- 
ing the mill privileges on the west side 
of the creek at Middlebury Falls. 

In the south part of the town is a 
quarry of excellent dark blue lime- 
stone, from which the material for the 
front of the new college in INIiddlebury 
was obtained, and near the centre of 
the town is a bed of hydraulic cement, 
or water lime. Calcareous spar, in 
very beautiful, transparent, i-homboidal 
crystals, is found in the western part 
of this to\vnship. Along Otter Creek, 
in the south-east part, is a large swamp 
covering several thousand acres. 

Boundaries. North by Weybridge, 
east by Middlebury and Salisbury, 
south by Whiting, and west by Brid- 
port and Shoreham. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1774, by Asa Blodget, 
Eldad Andrus, Aaron Scott, Nathan 
Foot, William Douglass, James Bent- 
jley, Jr., Ebenezer Stebbins, Thomas 
j Bentley, Samuel Blodget, and Joseph 
I Troup. When Ticonderoga was aban- 
j doned to the British in 1777, the set- 
j tiers all fled to the south, and did not 
return till after the war. In the win- 
ter of 1784, about thirty families came 
into the township from Connecticut. 

First Ministers. The Congregation- 
al Church, in this town, was organized 
July 15, 1785, and September 26, 1787, 
they settled the Rev. Thomas Tolman, 
who was dismissed November 11, 1790. 
The R«v. Benjamin Wooster was or- 
dained over this church February 23, 
1797. and dismissed January 7, 1802. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,436 
bushels; Indian com, 7,288 bushels; 
potatoes, 24,307 bushels; hay, 8,751 
tons; maple sugar, 11,000 pounds; 
wool, 60,897 pounds. 

Distances. Seventy-five miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and thirty-six 
south from Buriington. The Southern 
Railroad passes near this town. 




Orleans Co. Barton and Black 
Rivers run northerly through this town 
into Meraphi-emagog Lake. These 
streams are from four to- eight rods 
wide, and very deep near their mouths. 
There are good mill privileges in this 
town on Black liiver, and likewise on 
some of the smaller streams. The 
other waters are South Bay of Lake 
Memphremagog, and two small ponds. 
The soil is generally good. Near the 
lake it is, in some places, clayey, and 
on Black River it is somewhat sandy, 
but the township, generally, consists 
of a deep, rich loam. Its timber is 
mostly maple and beech, with some 
elm, basswood, birch, hemlock, spruce, 
fir, cedar, &c. The western part of the 
town is somewhat broken, but not 

The village of Coventry' was com- 
menced in the fall of 182^, by Calvin 
and Daniel W. Hai-mon, when all that 
part of the town was a dense forest. 
It is situated at the falls in Black Ri- 
ver in the south-west part of the fown, 
and is in a flourishing state. This 
town received the name of Orleans in 
1841, but it resumed its former name a 
few years after. 

Boundaries. North and Avest by 
Newport, east by Brownington, and 
south by Irasburgh. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
of the town was begun about the year 
1800, and it appears from the census 
of this year that there were, at this 
time, seven persons in tovm.. The first 
settlers were S. and T. Cobb, Samuel 
Wells, John Farnsworth, Jotham 
Pierce, Joseph Marsh, John Ide, and 

First Miixisters. The Rev. John Ide 
was ordained over the Baptist Church 
in 1814, and the Rev. Lyman Case 
was settled over the Congregational 
Church in 1823. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2.364 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,892 bushels: 
potatoes, 39,901 bushels: hay, 2,832 
tons ; maple sugar, 38,445 pounds ; 
wool, 7,706 pounds. 

Distances. Four miles north from 
Irasburgh, and fortv-six north-east from 

I ^lontpelier. The railroad from Boston 
to Montreal passes near this town. 


Orleans Co. This towiiship is 
well watered by Black River which is 
formed here, and by its several branch- 
es, which afi'ord numerous mill privi- 
leges. Black River was known to the 
natives, who occasionally resided in 
this part of Vermont, by the name of 
EUiyo-sigo. Its current is in general 
slow, the whole descent from EUigo 
Pond to Memphremagog Lake, in- 
cluding the falls at Irasburgh and Co- 
ventry, being by actual survey only 190 
feet. Wild Branch, a tributary of La- 
moille, rises in Eden and passes through 
the western part of this township. 

There are five natural ponds, viz. 
Elligo, which lies partly in Greensbo- 
rough. Great Hosmer, lying partly in 
Alliany, Little Hosmer, and two small- 
er ponds. 

The gcolog}' of this town is in many 
respects interesting, and, in some, pe- 
culiar. Few areas of the same space, 
in a region of primary rocks, furnish 
so many varieties in situ. 

Near the centre of the towTiship, on 
an elevated plain, affording an exten- 
sive prospect, is situated the centre vil- 
lage. This village is principally situa- 
ted round an open square, forty rods 
north and south, by twenty-four rods 
east and west. Craftsbury Academy 
is located here : was incorporated in 
October, 1829, and has the avails of 
one half of the grammar school lands 
in Orleans County, being about two 
thousand six hundred acres, about half 
of which is leased. The building is of 
brick, two stories high, and is pleas- 
antly situated on the west side of the 
common. It is the object of the trus- 
tees and instructors to render it a place 
of thorough education to those who re- 
sort to it. 

Boundaries. North by Albany, east 
by Greensboro', south by Walcott, and 
west by Eden. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
in the town was commenced in the 
summer of 1788, by Col. Ebenezer 
Crafts, who during that summer open- 



ed a road fi-om Cabot, eighteen miles, 
cleared ten or twelve acres of land, 
built a house and saw mill, and made 
considerable preparation for a grist 
mill. In the spring of 1789, Nathan 
Cutler and Robert Trumbell moved 
their families into this township. In 
the ensuing fall Mr. Trumbell, by rea- 
son of the sickness of his family, spent 
the ensuing winter in Bamet, but Mr. 
Cutler's family remained through the 
winter. Their nearest neighbors were 
Ashbel Shepard's family, in Greens- 
borough, distant six miles ; there were 
at that time no other settlements with- 
in the present bounds of Orleans 

First Minister. In 1797, a Congre- 
gational Church was organized, and 
the Rev. Samuel Collins was installed, 
and continued to preach in this town 
until 1804, when he died. 

Productions of tJie Soil. "Wheat, 1,730 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,928 bushels; 
potatoes, 47,906 bushels; hay, 3,171 
tons; maple sugar, 35,412 pounds; 
wool, 7,880 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles south from 
Irasburgh, and thirty-one north-east 
from Montpelier. 


Rutland Co. Otter Creek runs 
nearly on the line between this town- 
ship and Mount Tabor, but there are 
no streams of much consequence with- 
in the township. The most considera- 
ble are. Mill River which rises in the 
north-western part, and fails into Otter 
Creek in Mount Tabor, and Flower 
Branch which rises in the north-west 
part, and falls into Pawlet River in 
Pawlet. These and a branch of Otter 
Creek, in the north-eastern part, are all 
sufficient for mills. The surface of the 
township is uneven, and some parts of 
it mountainous. South Mountain and 
Spruce mountain are the principal ele- 
vations. The soil is well adapted to 
► the production of grass, and there are 
here some of the largest dairies in the 
State. No less than 300,000 pounds 
of cheese, and butter in proportion, 
have been carried from this town to 
market in one jear. 


Thei-e are several caverns in this 
township, which are considerable cu- 
riosities, but they have never been 
thoroughly explored. One of them, in 
the south-eastern part, descends like a 
well into the solid rock. It is said that 
a person was let down by a rope 150 
feet perpendicularly into this cavern 
without discovering any bottom. 

Specimens of galena, or sulphuret 
of lead, have been found here. In the 
western part of the township is a spring, 
which is nearly sufficient to carry a 
mill, where it issues from the foot of 
the mountain. There are several mar- 
ble quarries in the south-east part, and 
in the east village are mills for sawing 
marble. A part of this town was an- 
nexed to Mount Tabor in 1848. 

Boundaries. North by Tinmouth, 
east by Mount Tabor, south by Dor- 
set, and west by Pawlet. 

First Settlers. The settlement of this 
township was commenced in 1 765, by 
Joseph Soper, Joseph Earl, Crispin 
Bull, Luther Calvin, and Micah Vail. 

First Ministers. Among other de- 
nominations of Christians, there are in 
this town two societies of Friends. 
These societies are somewhat opposed 
to each other in sentiment. 

Productions of tJie Soil. Wheat, 2,21 7 
bushels; Indian com, 4,267 bushels; 
potatoes, 47,563 bushels; hay, 5,378 
tons ; maple sugar, 35,715 pounds ; 
wool, 25,433 pounds. 

Distances. Seventeen miles south 
from Rutland, and sixty-eight south 
south-west from Montpelier. The 
Southern Railroad passes near this 


Caledonia Co. The eastern part 
of this township is elevated about 200 
and the western about 800 feet above 
Connecticut River. The soil is free 
from stone, is easily cultivated, and is 
perhaps equal, in richness and adapta- 
tion to agriculture, to any in the State. 
It is watered by numerous streams of 
pure water, wiiich arise in the higher 
lands of Wheelock, Walden, and Cabot. 
Joe's Pond lies mostly in the western 
part of the township and covers about 



1000 acres. It discharges its waters 
into the Passumpsic by Merritt's Ri- 
ver or Joe's Brook. At its outlet a 
large never failing sheet of water falls 
over a limestone ledge, seventy-five 
feet in twelve rods. In the north part 
of the town are Sleeper's River and 
tlie Branch. Large quantities of but- 
ter, pork and wool, are here produced 
for market. This is the shire town. 

Danville village is very pleasantly 
situated nearly in the centre of the 
tOAvnship, on elevated land, and in the 
midst of a beautiful farming countiy. 
The public buildings are, a Congrega- 
tional, a Methodist, and a Baptist 
Aleeting-house, a Court House and Jail, 
and an Academy, all in a neat and 
modest style. The village encloses an 
open square of several acres. The 
academy was incorporated in 1 840, and 
named Philips Academy, in honor of 
Paul D. Plailips, wlio endowed it with 
$4,000. The building was erected by 
the inhabitants and cost $4,000. 

Boundaries. North by Wheelock, 
north-east by St. Johnsbury, south-east 
by Barnet, south by Peacham, west by 
Waldcn, Goshen, and a part of Ca- 

First Settlers. In 1785, or '6, the 
settlement was commenced by about 
fifty emigrants from New Hampshire 
and Massachusetts, who entered on the 
lands as "squatters." In October, 
1786, the legislature granted the toMTi- 
ship, as above stated, reserving to the 
settlers the lands on which they had 
located, not exceeding 320 acres each. 
In the following winter forty families 
more joined the settlement, and for two 
or three years the settlement was so 
rapid that, in 1 789, the number of fami- 
lies was estimated to be 200. The 
consequence of such an influx, was an 
extreme scarcity, and much suffering 
for the want of provisions. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized in 1792, and 
the Rev. John Fitch was its pastor 
from 1793 to 1816. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 6,35.5 
bushels ; Indian com, 5,883 bushels ; 
potatoes, 160,662 bushels; hay, 8,311 
tons ; maple sugar, 62,467 pounds ; 
wool, 26,834 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty miles north-east 
from Montpelier. The Boston and 
Montreal Railroad passes in this vi- 


Orleans Co. The surface of this 
township is very level, more so than 
any other in the county. There are 
some plains of several hundred acres 
extent ; and, where the land rises, the 
elevations are gradual and moderate 
and hardly deserve the name of hills. 
The land is well timbered, princi- 
pally with rock maple and other hard 

Cedar swamps of from one to ten 
acres are found in various parts. The 
soil is fertile and abundantly produc- 
tive. The River Clyde passes through 
the south part of the township in a 
north-westerly direction, affording nu- 
merous mill sites. Salem Pond, through 
which Clyde River passes, lies partly 
in this town, and is four miles long and 
three broad. Hinman's Pond, near the 
centre of the town, is one and a half 
miles long and three quarters broad, 
and empties into Salem Pond. 

Boundaries. North by Stanstead in 
Canada, east by Holland, south by 
Salem, and west by Memphremagog 
Lake, which separates it from Newport. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
was made here in 1795, by Alexander 
Mogoon, Henry Barrel, and the Hon. 
Timothy Hinman. Emigrants from 
Connecticut and other places soon 
made it a flourishing town. 

First Min isters. In 1 808, Elder Sam- 
uel Smith was settled over the Baptist 
Church and Society in this town, and 
died in 1810. The Rev. Luther Le- 
land was settled over the Congrega- 
tional Church in 1810, and died in 
November, 1822. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 5,1 76 
bushels ; Indian com, 3,080 bushels , 
potatoes, 9,306 bushels; hay, 3,896 
tons; maple sugar, 47,633 pounds; 
wool, 10,446 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles north-eaet 
from Irasburgh, and fifty-two north- 
east from Montpelier. This is the 
celebrated Derby Line over which tilie 



brazen steed will soon pass, to smoke 
a pipe with the Canadians. 

For the distances from the mouth of 
Connecticut River to this place, see 
Hayxoard's Book of Refei-ence. 


Benningtox Co. There are no 
considerable streams in this township. 
Otter Creek heads in Mount Tabor, 
runs south-westerly two or three miles, 
into Peru, then west three-fourths of a 
mile into this township, when it takes 
a northerly direction thi-ough a con- 
siderable natural pond, and leaves the 
township near the north-east corner. 
The Battenkill heads in this township, 
on the flat about twenty-five rods south 
of the bend in Otter Creek, and runs 
off to the south. iVnother branch of 
this stream rises in the south-western 
part, and unites with it in Manchester. 
Pawlet River, rises in the north-wes- 
tern part, and passes off into Rupert. 
These streams afford a number of mill 

This township is considerably moun- 
tainous. Dorset Mountain lies in the 
north part, and extends into Danby, 
where it is called South Mountain. 
Equinox Mountain lies partly in the 
south-west comer. In this township 
are several remarkable caverns. 

One in the south part, is entered by 
an aperture nearly ten feet square, 
"which opens into a spacious room 
nine rods in length and four wide. At 
the further end of this apartment are 
two openings, which are about thirty 
feet apart. The one on the right is 
three feet from the floor, and is about 
twenty inches by six feet in length. It 
leads to an apartment twenty feet long, 
twelve wide, and twelve high. From 
this room there is an opening sufficient 
to admit a man to pass through side- 
ways about twenty feet, when it opens 
into a large hall eighty feet long and 
thirty wide. The other aperture from 
the first room is about as large as a 
common door, and leads to an apart- 
ment twelve feet square, out of which 
is a passage to another considerable 
room, in which is a spring of water. 
This cavern is said to have been ex- 

plored forty or fifty rods without ar- 
riving at the end." Considerable quan- 
tities of marble are wTought here. 

Boundaries. North by Danby, east 
by Peru, south by Manchester, and 
west by Rupert. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
was made in 1768, byFelex Powell, 
from Massachusetts, Isaac Lacy, from 
Connecticut, and Benjamin Baldwin, 
Abraham Underbill, John Manley, and 
George Gage, from New York. 

First Ministers. The Rev. Elijah 
Sill Avas settled over the Congrega- 
tional Church in 1781, and in 1796 the 
Rev. "William Jackson was settled over 
this church. The first minister of the 
Baptist Society was Elder Cyrus M. 
Fuller, settled in 1818. 

Productions of the Soil. Wlieat, 1,321 
bushels •, Indian corn, 5,595 bushels ; 
potatoes, 31,018 bushels; hay, 4,080 
tons; maple sugar, 17,560 pounds; 
wool, 18,030 poimds. 

Distances. Twenty-six miles north 
from Bennington, and ninety-one soutii 
south-west from Montpelier. 


Windham Co. This town was a 
part of Wardsborough until 1810. The 
land in Dover is high and uneven ; — 
more fit for pasturage than tillage. 
It is the source of several branches of 
West, and a branch of Deerfield River. 
Serpentine and chlorite slate are found 

Although this township is quite 
mountainous, yet the soil is wajrm, 
sweet, and productive. 

Boundaries. North by Wardsbor- 
ough, east by Newfane, south by Wil- 
mington and a part of Marlboro', and 
west by Somerset. 

First Settlers. — See Wardsborough. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,1 94 
bushels ; Indian com, 17,715 bushels; 
potatoes, 35,986 bushels; hay, 3,140 
tons ; maple sugar, 22,678 pounds ; 
wool, 4,104 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles north-west 
from Brattleborough, eighteen north- 
east from Bennington, and one hun- 
dred and twenty south by west from 




Windham Co. This township is 
watered by West River, which enters 
it from Newfane, and passes through 
it in a south-easterly direction into 
Brattleborough, and by several small 
streams, some of which fall into this 
river and others into the Connecticut, 
affording a considerable number of 
good sites for mills. The surface of 
Dummerston is broken. The rocks, 
which constitute Black Mountain, near 
the centre of the town are an im- 
mense body of granite. A range of 
argillaceous slate passes through it 
from south to north, and is considera- 
bly quarried for roof slate and grave 
stones. Primitive limestone occurs in 
beds. Specimens of tremolite, limpid 
quartz, and galena, or the sulphuret 
of lead, are also found here. This is 
one of the oldest towns in the State. 

Boundaries. North by Putney and 
Brookline, east by Connecticut River, 
which separates it from Westmoreland, 
N. H., south by Brattleborough, and 
west by a part of Marlborough and 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was early formed here, over 
which the Rev. Thomas Farrer was 
settled in 1779 ; and in 1784 the Rev. 
Aaron Crosby was settled, and con- 
tinued twenty years. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 907 
bushels ; Indian com, 8,270 bushels ; 
potatoes, 27,950 bushels; hay, 3,090 
tons ; maple sugar, 7,220 pounds ; 
wool, 5,713 pounds. 

Distances. Ninety miles south from 
Montpelier, and eight south-east from 
Newfane. The Connecticut River Rail- 
road passes through this town. 


Washington Co. The south and 
western parts of this township are 
mountainous, and incapable of settle- 
ment. Nearly all the inhabitants are 
confined to the margin of Winooski 
River, and the north-eastern parts of 
the township. This township is wa- 
tered by Winooski River, which forms 
the northern boundary, by Duxbury 

branch, on which is a considerable set- 
tlement, and several small branches of 
Mad River. The natural bridge over 
Winooski River is between this town 
and Waterbury, and near it are some 
curious caverns. 

Boundaries. North by Waterbury 
and a part of Bolton, from which it is 
separated by Winooski River, east by 
Moretown, south by Fayston, and west 
by Huntington and a part of Bolton. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this township was commenced about 
the year 1786. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,293 
bushels; Indian com, 2,714 bushels; 
potatoes, 27,910 bushels; hay, 2,289 
tons ; maple sugar, 26,374 pounds ; 
wool, 4,837 pounds. 

Distances. Eleven miles west from 
Montpelier. The Northern Railroad 
passes through Waterbury, on the op- 
posite side of the Winooski. 


Essex Co. The land in this town- 
ship is high, but much of it very suit- 
able for grazing. Passumpsic River 
crosses the west comer, and the head 
of Moose River waters the eastern part, 
each being about two rods wide, and 
affording good mill sites. 

Boundaries. North-westerly by New- 
ark, north-easterly by Brighton and 
Ferdinand, south-east by Granby, and 
south-west by Victory and Burke. 

First Settlers. There were five or 
six families in this town as early as 
1814 ; but the settlement has ad- 
vanced very slowly, and it is still unor- 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 99 
bushels ; Indian com, 69 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 3,280 bushels; hay, 136 tons; 
maple sugar, 3,330 pounds ; wool, 370 

Distances. Twenty-four miles north- 
west from Guildhall, and sixty-nine 
north-east from Montpelier. 


Washington Co. This town was 
incorporated November 9th, 1 848, and 
compiises the northern and easteni 



part of the feitile and pleasant to-vvn 


The Act is in common form for the 
division of towns. 

We hope, ere long, to see an act 
passed by the legislature of Vermont, 
prohibiting any reference to the points 
of compass, in the choice of names for 
their new to^^^ls ; particularly when 
some beautiful Indian name meets 
the ear on the banks of almost every 


Lamoille Co. The streams in this 
township are numerous. Wi/d Branch 

Hydepark and Johnson, and westerly 
by Belvidere. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1800, by Thomas H. 
Parker, Isaac BroAvn, and Moses Went- 

First Minister. The Rev. Joseph Far- 
rar was settled over the Congregation- 
al Church in 1811, and dismissed in 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,3 1 8 
bushels; Indian corn, 828 bushels; 
potatoes, 38,250 bushels; hay, 2,050 
tons; maple sugar, 18,290 pounds; 
wool, 3,958 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles north-east from 

and Green River rise in the eastern Hydepark, and thirty miles north from 

part. The former runs through the Montpelier. 

corner of Craftsbury, and the latter 

through the corner of Hydepark, and EI^MORE. 

both fall into the River Lamoille in 

Wolcott. They are both considerable Lamoille Co. Fordway, or Elmore 

mill streams. The Branch, which is i IVIountain, lies in the north-west part 

the outlet of North Pond, runs across j of the tOAvnship, and is a considerable 

the north-west corner of Hydepark, i elevation. The remaining part of the 

and falls into the Lamoille in Johnson, i surface is accessible and not very un- 

North Pond is two miles long, and of i even. It is mostly timbered with'hard 

very unequal width. A tongue of wood, and the soil is of a middling 

land extends into it from the south, ! quality A part of the waters of this 

three quarters of a mile, which 

township pass off to the north into the 

some places, no more than two rods j River Lamoille, and a part to the 
wide, and on which grow large quan- south into Winooski River. Mead's 
titles of blue and black whortlebemes. I Pond lies in the north-western part, 
These berries are found nowhere else j and covers about 300 acres. There 
in this part of the county. The ' are three other small ponds ivithin the 
township is considerably mountainous, j township. Iron ore is found here in 
Mount Norris and Hadley Mountain abundance. 

lie on the north line of the township. Boundaries. North by Wolcott, east 
and partly in Lowell. Belvidere Moun- j by Woodbury, south by Worcester, and 
tain lies partly in the north-west cor- west by Morristown. 
ner of the township, and its summit First Settlers. The settlement of this 
is probably the highest land in the , township was commenced in July, 1790, 
county, excepting, perhaps. Jay Peak, by Martin and Jesse Elmore, James 
In the western part of Eden is some and Seth Olmstead, and Aaron Keel- 
good tillage land. The eastern part, er, from Sharon and Norwalk, Connec- 

being the dividing ridge between the 
watei-s of Lakes Champlain and Mem- 
phremagog, is moist and cold, but 
good for grazing. No town in the 
vicinity furnishes, in proportion to its 
wealth and number of inhabitants, so 
many and so good beef cattle as this, 
for market. Rocks, principally mica 
and chlorite slate. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Lowell, 

easterly by Craftsbury, southerly by \ from Montpelier. 

ticut. The Congregationalists and Me- 
thodists are the most numerous denom- 
inations of Christians. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 831 
bushels ; Indian com, 266 bushels ; 
potatoes, 2,170 bushels; hay, 1,310 
tons ; maple sugar, 9,790 pounds ; 
wool, 3,958 pounds. 

Distances. Eight miles south from 
Hydepark, and thirty-seven miles north 




Fkanklin Co The surface of this 
township is pleasantly diversified with 
hills and valleys ; but the soil is better 
adapted to the production of grass 
than grain. It is well watered by Mis- 
sisco River, which runs through the 
north part, by Trout River, which runs 
across the north-east corner, and by 
two considerable streams, Avhich run 
through the south part. These streams 
afford numerous and excellent mill 

Boundaries. North by Berkshire, east 
by Montgomery and a part of Rich- 
ford, south byBakersfield, and west by 

First Settlers. The settlement of this 

township was commenced in the spring 
of 1797, by Amos Fassett, Stephen 
House, Martin D. Follett, and others, 
mostly emigrants from other townships 
in this State. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was formed here in 1811, and 
in 1814 the Rev. James Parker took 
charge of it, and it continued under 
his pastoral care till 1821. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,613 
bushels; Indian com, 2,928 bushels; 
potatoes, 78,015 bushels; hay, 8,830 
tons ; maple stigar, 41,730 pounds ; 
wool, 11,262 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty-five miles north by 
west from Montpelier, twenty north- 
east from St. Albans, and about thirty- 
seven north-east from Burlington. 


Guildhall is the chief town. This county is bounded north by Canada, 
east and south by Connecticut River, which separates it from Coos County, 
New Hampshire, south-west by Caledonia County, and west by Orleans County. 
It is about forty-five miles long from north to south, and twenty-three broad 
from east to west. 

This county is the least populous in the State, ^vith the exception of Grand 
Isle County. There are some to'mis which are entirely destitute of inhabi- 
tants. The settlements are mostly confined to the towns lying along Connec- 
ticut River. The county is in general very uneven and the soil rocky and un- 
productive. It comprehends that part of the county called Upper Coos, which 
lies on the west side of Connecticut River. Nulhegan River is the principal 
stream, which is wholly within the county. This and several smaller tributa- 
ries, of the Connecticut, water all the eastern parts. Passumpsic and Moose 
River, rise in the south-western part, and Clyde River and several streams, 
which run off to the north into Canada, water the north-western parts. Es- 
sex County presents a great variety of magnificent scenery. — See Tables. 


The Supreme Court sits at Guildhall on the 19th Tuesday after the 4th 
Tuesday in December, and the County Court on the last Tuesday in May and 
the third in December. 



Chittenden Co. There are no 
mountains, and but few hills in this 
township. The south and western 
parts are timbered principally with 
pine, the soil is dry and sandy, but 
produces good rye and com. The re- 
maining part of the township is tim- 
bered with hard wood, and is more 
natural to grass. Winooski Kiver 
washes the southern boundary. In 
this river are two falls. The low- 
er, called Hubbell's Falls, afford seve- 
ral valuable mill privileges. Brown's 
Kiver rises in Underhill and Jericho, 
enters this toAvnship from the latter, 
and, after running across the north-east 
corner, and through Westford, falls in- 
to the River Lamoille in Fairfax. In- 
dian River, called here Steven's Brook, 
Alder Brook, and Crooked Brook, are 
considerable streams. On Winooski 
Biver are beautiful tracks of intervale. 

Boundaries. North by "Westford, 
east by Jericho, south by Williston and 
Burlington, from which it is separated 
by Winooski River, and west by Col- 

First Settlers. The first permanent 
settlement was made in this township, 
in 1783, by Messrs. Smiths, Winchels, 
and Willard. The first settlers were 
principally from Salisbury, Ct. In 
1789, there was a very great scarcity 
of provisions in this part of the country, 
and the settlers suffered extremely on 
that account. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1790, 
and the Rev. Asaph Morgan was or- 
dained over it in 1804. A Baptist 
Church was formed about the year 1800. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,246 
bushels ; Indian corn, 7,934 bushels : 
potatoes, 43,328 bushels; hay, 4,532 
tons ; maple sugar, 10,955 pounds ; 
wool, 10,223 pounds. 

Distances. Seven miles north-east 
from Burlington. The great Northern 
Railroad passes through the town. 


Franklin Co. The surface of this 
township is somewhat uneven, and the 
soil light and easily cultivated, produc- 

ing good com. and rye. Its principal 
streams are the River Lamoille, which 
runs through the south part, and 
Brown's River and Parmelee's and 
Stone's Brook, its tributaries, all of 
which afford good mill privileges. The 
great falls, on the Lamoille, eighty-eight 
feet in thirty rods, are situated in the 
south-east part of the town, and afford 
some of the best water privileges in the 
State. In this town are two pleasant 

Boundaries. North by Fairfield, east 
by Fletcher, south by Westford, and 
west by Georgia. 

First Settlers. Broadstreet Spafford 
and his two sons, Nathan and Asa, 
came into this township from Piermont, 
N. H., in 1783, and began improve- 
ments. They soon after removed their 
families here. A Mr. Eastman started ' 
from New Hampshire with them, with 
his family, but died on the road, and 
Avas buried in a trough on the flats in 
Johnson. His family came to Fletcher. 

First Ministers. The first settled 
minister was the Rev. Amos Tuttle. 
He was settled over the Baptist Church 
in 1806 ; dismissed in 1811. A 
Congregational Church was organized 
here in 1814, when the Rev. Eben H. 
Dorman was settled. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,1 88 
bushels; Indian com, 9,191 bushels; 
potatoes, 42,730 bushels ; hay, 4,105 
tons ; maple sugar, 38,330 pounds ; 
wool, 20,315 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty-seven miles north- 
west from Montpelier, and twelve south- 
east from St. Albans. 


Franklin Co. Black Creek is a 
considerable stream, which issues from 
Metcalf Pond in Fletcher, and runs 
through this township, affording an ex- 
cellent stand for mills. Fairfield River 
is a small stream, which, also, takes its 
rise in Fletcher, and passes through 
the toAvn near its centre, affording sev- 
eral good mill privileges. These 
streams unite and fall into Missisco 
River in Sheldon. Smithfield Pond, 
lying in the westerly part of the town, 
is alx>ut three miles long and one and 



! Rev. B^jajamm f 
•ver the CongrfStj : 
1805;! Tikied /iflf 
-en. . V ^ ' 

a half broad. At the outlet is an ex- 
cellent stand for mills, and another on 
the same stream about two miles be- 
low. The township was originally 
covered principally with hard wood. 
The surface is uneven, but very little 
of it so broken as to be unfit for culti- 
vation. The soil is generally good. 

Boundaries. North by Sheldon, east 
by Bakersfield, south by Fletcher and 
Fairftvx, and west by St. Albans and 

First Settlers. The first settler of 
this town was Mr. Joseph Wheeler. 
He moved into it with hie family in 
March, 1788. In 1789, Hubbard Bar- 
low and Andrew Bradley, with several 
others, moved into the town. Smith- 
field Beaden, was the first child bom 
here, in the part called Smith 
The proprietors made him a 
of 100 acres of land. 

First Minister. The Re\' 
Wooster was settled o\ 
gational Church in 
1840, aged seventy-seven. 

Productions of the Soil WTi^^^270 
bushels ; Indian com, 5,685 babels 
potatoes, 76,920 bushels : hay 
tons ; maple sugar, 71,765 pounds : 
wool, 24,663 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-five miles north- 
west from Montpelier, and twenty-seven 
north north-east from Burlington. 


Rutland Co. The surface of the 
township consists of swells and vales, 
but there is nothing which deserves the 
name of a mountain. The soil is va- 
rious, ponsisting of gravel, sand, and 
marl. Along the rivers, the soil is al- 
luvial and very productive. The tim- 
ber is pine, hemlock, beech, maple, 
walnut, butternut, button wood. &c. 
The principal streams are Poultney 
and Castleton Rivers. The former 
rises among the mountains in the 
south-east, and divides this township 
from New York. The latter originates 
principally from a large spring in the 
west part of Rutland. About one mile 
above Fair Haven village it receives 
the waters of Lake Bombazine, and 


one mile west of the village it joins 
Poultney River, and, after running 
three miles further, falls into the lake. 
Between the junction of these stream* 
and the lake are two considerable 

Boundaries. North by Benson, east 
by Castleton, and a part of Poultney, 
south by Poultney River, which sepa- 
rates it from Hampton, N. Y., and west 
by West Haven. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1779, by John and Wil- 
liam Meacham, Oliver Cleveland, Jo- 
seph Ballard, and Joseph Ha.skins. 
with their families. In 1 783, Col. Mat- 
thew Lyon, Silas Safford and others 
moved into town, and the fonner com- 
menced erecting mills. Col. Lyon had 
immigration at Fair Haven before 1796, 
ace, two forges, one slitting 
milI,^,>Kr^B printing office, one paper 
* OBA\aw mill, and one grist mill, 
he ma printing on paper manufac- 
turjfed b^himself from basswood bark, 
e fii^i^ttlers were from Connecti- 
cut art^Massaehusetts. The town was 
organj^ied in 1783. 

Lyon, who has figured in the 
political world, was a native of Ireland. 
He emigrated to this country when 
sixteen years old, and was sold in Con- 
necticut for his passage. 

First Minister. The Rev. Rnfus 
Cushman was ordained over the Con- 
gregational Church in 1 807 ; died in 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,055 
bushels ; Indian com, 3,050 bushels : 
potatoes, 18,100 bushels; hay, 1,690 
tons: maple sugar, 1,845 pounds; 
wool, 5,655 pounds. 

Manifaciures. Manufactures, par- 
ticularly of iron, commenced here at 
an early period. The water power at 
this place is so good, that manufactures 
will doubtless annually increase. 

Distances. Sixteen miles west from 
Rutland, and nine north-east from 
Whitehall, N. Y. 


Orange Co. This is a rough and 
mountainous township, with very little 
productive land, on the west side of 



Connecticut River, and connected with 
Orford, N. H., by a biidge across tiiat 

Fairlee pond is two miles in length 
and about three fourths of a mile wide. 
It formerly had no fish. Some yesirs 
ago a gentleman placed some pickerel 
in it, and the legislature passed a law 
protecting the fish from molestation for 
two years. Since that time the pond 
has had an abundance of pickerel, of 
good size and quality. 

Boundaries. North by Bradford, east 
by Connecticut River, which separates 
it from Orford, N. H., south by Thet- 
ford, and west by AVest Fairlee. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1766, by a Mr. Baldwin, 
who had settled the vear before in 
Thetford. In 1768, Mr. Samuel Mil- 
ler, Samuel Bentley, and William and 
David Thompson, Noah Dewey, and 
Joel White, settled here. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
meetinsr-house was erected here, in 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 599 
bushels ; Indian corn, 3,205 bushels : 
potatoes, 8,085 bushels; hay, 1,449 
tons ; maple sugar, 620 f)Ounds : wool, 
8,242 pounds. 

Distances. Seventeen miles east 
south-east from Chelsea, and thirty-one 
south-cast fiom Montpelier. The Con- 
necticut River Railroad passes through 
this town. 


Washington Co. Fayston is gen- 
erally too mountainous to be much 
cultivated. Along the borders of some 
of the branches of INIad River, which 
rises here, is some arable land. The 
town was settled in 1798, by Lynde 
Wait, Esq. 

Bonnduries. North by Duxbury, east 
by Waitsfield, south by a part of War- 
ren and Lincoln, and west by Hunting- 

Productions of the Soil. AVheat, 1 ,651 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,189 bushels: 
potatoes, 22,593 bushels; hay, 1,905 
tons; maple sugar, 24,134 pounds; 
wool, 3.833 pounds. 
, Distances. Sixteen miles west south- 

west from Montpelier, and twenty-five 
south-east from Burlington. 


Essex Co. This town Avas char- 
tered in 1761, and contains twenty- 
three square miles. Paul's Stream af- 
fords it a good water power ; but the 
land is so mountainous, rocky, cold, 
and swampy, that people do not choose 
to cultivate it. 

For the distances from this place see 
its boundai'ies. 

Boundaries. Northerly by AVenlock, 
easterly by Maidstone, southerly by 
Granby and East Haven, and westerly 
by Brighton. 


Addison Co. This township is 
watered principally by Otter, Little 
Otter, and Lewis Creeks. Otter Creek 
enters the township from Vergennes, 
and after running north-westerly about 
eight miles, across the south-west part, 
falls into Lake Champlain about tiiree 
miles south of the mouth of Little Ot- 
ter Creek. Little Otter and Lewis 
Creeks run through the township in a 
westerly direction ; the former through 
the middle, and the latter through Ijbe 
north part. The mouths by which 
they are discharged into fhe lake are 
within eighty rods of each otlier. Ot- 
ter Creek is navigable eight miles ta 
Vergennes, and Little Otter Creek 
three miles, by the largest vessels on 
the lake. In Little Otter Creek are 
four, and in Lewis Creek three com- 
modious falls, on which mills and 
other machinery are erected. Large 
quantities of pike, bass, &c., are annu- 
ally tiiken in the spring of the year, 
about the mouths of these streams. 
About three miles north of the south- 
west corner of the township is one of 
the best harbors on the lake, called 
Basin Harbor. Five miles north-we«t 
from Vergennes, and a short distance 
south of the mouth of Little Otter 
Creek, is a ferry across the lake, whiA 
is here something more than two mile* 
wide. This place is known by ida» 



name of Grog Harbor^ taking its name 
from the landing place in Essex, on 
the New York side. 

The surface of the north-eastern 
part of this township is somewhat 
hilly. The remaining parts, especially 
the western, are remarkably level. No 
township in the State has atlbrded 
more or better timber for maiket than 
this. The soil is very various ; some 
parts of it being clayey, while others 
consist of rich mould, which is easily 
tilled and very productive. In 1823, 
one acre here produced 120 bushels of 
corn, which cost ten days labor and 
two bushels of plaster of Paris, {gyp- 
sum.) The same kind of soil has pro- 
duced fifty bushels of wheat, seventy 
of oats, &c., per acre. It is a good 
grazing township, and large numbers 
of fat cattle are yearly driven from it 
to market. 

A part of this town was annexed to 
Panton, in 1847. 

Boundarks. North by Charlotte, east 
by Monkton and New Haven, south 
by AValiham, Vergennes, and Panton, 
and west by Lake Champlain, which 
separates it from the State of New 

First Settlers. The first permanent 
settlement was made in 1784 and 1785, 
by Mr. Ward, Abel Thompson. Gideon 
Hawley, Timothy Rogers, Jos. Chil- 
son, Jona. Saxton, and Zuriel and Ab- 
salom Tupper, emigrants from Ben- 
nington, in this State, and from Con- 

Manufactures. Here is a fine water 
power, and manufactures on its beau- 
tiful streams are rapidly increasing. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,700 
bushels; Indian com, 8,910 bushels; 
potatoes, 21,680 bushels; hay, 12,000 

tons ; maple sugar, 1,400 pounds ; wool, 

65,690 pounds. 

Distances. Sixteen miles north-west 
from Middlebury, and thirty-four west 
from Montpelier. 

The Northern Railroad passes in 
the vicinity of tliis town. 


Pranklin Co. The River La- 
moille just touches upon the southern 
extremity of this township. Metcalf 
Pond is about one mile long from 
north to south, and one third of a mile 
wide from east to west. It discharges 
its waters at the south end, forming 
one of the head branches of Black 
Creek. This stream runs a south-east- 
erly course about two miles into Cam- 
bridge, and. lifter crossing the corner 
of that tOAvnship, returns again into 
Fletcher, and passes off to the north. 
Fairfield River also rises in Fletcher, 
and is joined in Fairfield by Black 
Creek. Stone's Brook waters the west- 
em part. The surface of this towTiship 
is considerably broken. 

I Boundaries. North by Bakersfield 
and Fairfield, east by Waterville, 
south-east by Cambridge, and south- 

I west by Fairfax. 

I First Settlers. This toAvn was char- 

i tercd to Moses Robinson. John Fay, 

I and others, in 1781. The settlement 

'was commenced in 1784. 

j Productions of tfie Soil. Wheat, 1,717 

I bushels ; Indian corn, 2.000 bushels ; 

; potatoes, 36,200 bushels; hay, 2,680 

I tons : maple sugar, 38,650 pounds ; 

j wool, 6,558 pounds. 

I Distances. Twenty-two miles north 
north-west from Montpelier, and about 

I eighteen south-east from St. Albans. 


St. Albans is the county toAvn. This county is bounded north by Lower 
Canada, east by Orleans County, south-east and south by Lamoille County, 
south by Chittenden County, and west by Lake Champlain. The Missisco 
River passes through the northern part of the county, and the Lamoille ^ts 



most scmthcm section. TUc priucipul part of the trade oi'tliis couiity goes to 
Canada, by Lake Chaniplain, which atibrds it many facilities of transporta- 
tion. Although the surface is somewhat broken, and in some parts mountain- 
ous, yet the soil is productive of wheat and grass. Many cattle are annually 
taken from this county to market. In this county marble and iron ore, of ex- 
<*ellent qualities, aic found. — Sec Tables. 


The Supreme Coiui sits h<?re on the second Tuesday in January, and the 
Count}/ Court on the second Tuesday of April and September. 


Fraxklin Co. The River Rocher, 
or Rock River, rises in this township, 
iind falls into ISIissisco Bay in High- 
gate. It Is also waterc/1 bj several 
small branches of Missisco and Pike 
Rivers. A large ])ond lies near the 
centre. This jwud is three miles long, 
and about one mile wide. 

Boundaries. North by St. Armand, 
in CanadiL, ea^t by Berkshire, south by 
Sheldon, and west by Highgate. 

First Setflers^ The settlement was 
commenced in 1 789, by Siimuel Hub- 
bard, Samuel Pcckhain, David San- 
ders, and Jolin Bridgman, mostly emi- 
grants from Massachusetts. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat 3,256 
bushels ; Indian corii, 2,940 bushels ; 
potatoes, 57-870 bushels ; hay, 3,438 
tons ; maple sugar, 25,720 pounds ] 
wool, 11,635 pounds. 

Distances. Sixty miles north-west 
from Montpelier, and seventeen north 
north-east from St. Albans- 


Franklin Co. Tlie River La- 
moille, which runs through the south- 
east corner of the township, is the prin- 
cipal stream. In the north-east part is 
a pond, covering thirty or forty acres. 
It is surrounded by high lands,"^ except 
a na,rrow outlet to the north, and is 
bordered by a grove of alders. The 
mill privileges are numerous ; there 

being no less than twelve. The soil 
is sandy iu the south part, and the 
timber principally pine. In the north 
part it is a gravelly loam and the 
timber mostly haixi wood. The rocks, 
in the western part, arc limestone ; in 
the eastern part, slate. The soil is, in 
general, rich and productive. There 
are some tracts timbered with hem- 
lock, and some cedar swamps near the 

Over what is called Stone Bridge 
I Brook, in the south-western part of the 
township, is a natural bridge twelve or 
fourteen feet wide, and the top of it 
seven or eight feet alx)ve the surface 
of the water. The width of the arch 
I is forty or fifty feet, and its height but 
a few inches above the surface of the 

Boundaries, North by St Albans, 
east by Fairfax, south by Milton, and 
west by Lake Champlain. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1784 and 1785, by An- 
drew Guilder, from Agremont, Mass., 
and William Farrand, from Benning- 
ton, Vt., with their families. During 
the two following years a great num- 
ber of families, mostly from Benning- 
ton and the Avestern part^ of Massa- 
chusetts, moved into the town, and a 
considerable number of young men 
without families. The first settlers of 
Georgia had their share of those priva- 
tions and hardships which are incident 
to the settlers of new townships. They 
at first had to go to Burlington and 



Flattsburgh for their grindinp,-. but the 
population increased so rapidly, that 
mills were soon erected. 

First Minister. The Eev. Publius 
Vii-gil Bogue was settled over the Con- 
gregational Church in 1803 ; dismissed 
in 1813. 

Productions of the Soil. A^Hieat, 3,897 
bushels; Indian com, 7,875 bushels; 
potatoes, 34,616 bushels; hay, 4,476 
tons ; maple sugar, 17,957 pounds ; 
wool, 26,467 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty miles north-Avest 
fi'om Montpelier, and eight south from 
St Albans. Georgia is on the route 
of the Burlington and Montreal Rail- 


Bennington Co. This is a town- 
ship, of forty square miles of moim- 
tainous land, more lit for the residence 
of wild beasts than human beings. 
Its waters flow both into l>eerfield 
Uiver and Walloomscoik. The town 
was chartered in 1761. 

Boundaries. North by Sunderland, 
east by Somerset, south by Woodford, 
and west by Shaftsbury. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 18 
bushels ; Indian corn, 25 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 880 bushels; hay, 162 tons; 
maple sugar, 575 pounds ; wool, 127 

Distances. Nine miles north-east from 
Bennington, and twenty-five nortli-west 
from Brattleborou;rh. 


Orleans Co. This town is hilly, 
and the soil is more fit for grazing 
than tillage. There are in the town 
branches of Barton's, Passumpsic, La- 
moille, and Black Bivers, and several 
ponds. On these streams are some 

We copy an account of the nmninfj 
off of Long Pond, from Thompson's 
vahiable Gazetteer of Vermont : 

" Long Pond was situated partly in 
this township, and partly in Greens- 
borough. This pond was one and a 
half miles lunrr and about half a mile 

wide, and di charged its waters to the 
south, forming one of the head branch- 
es of the Biver Lamoille. On the 6th 
of June. 1810, aljout sixty pei-sons 
went to this pond, for the purpose of 
opening an outlet to the north into 
Barton Eiver, that the mills on that 
stream might receive an occasional 
supply of water. A small channel 
was excavated, and the w^ater com- 
menced running in a northerly direc- 
tion. It happened that the northern 
barrier of the pond consisted entirely 
of cpiicksand, except an encrusting of 
clay next the water. The sand was 
immediately removed by the current, 
and a large channel formed. The ba- 
sin formed by the encrusting of the 
clay Avas incapable of sustaining the 
incumbent mass of waters, and it 
brake. The whole pond immediately 
took a northerly course, and, in fifteen 
minutes from this time, its bed was 
left entirely bare. It was dischaiged 
so suddenfy, that the country below 
was instantly inundated. The deluge 
advanced like a wall of waters, sixty 
or seventy feet in height and twenty 
rods in width, levelling the forests and 
the hills, and filling up the valleys, 
and sweeping off mills, houses, barns, 
fences, cattle, horses, and sheep, as it 
passed, for the distance of more than 
ten miles, and barely giving the inhab- 
itants sufficient notice of its approach, 
to escape with their lives into the 
mountains. A rock, supposed to weigh 
more than 100 tons, was removed half 
a mile from its bed. The waters re- 
moved so rapidly as to reach Mem- 
phrem agog Lake, distance twenty-seven 
miles, in about six hours from the 
time they left the pond. Nothing now 
remains of the pond but its bed, a part 
of which is cultivated and a part over- 
groAvu with busties and wild grass, 
with a small brook running through it, 
which is now the head branch of Bar- 
ton River. The channel through which 
the waters escaped is 1 27 feet in depth 
and several rods in width. A pond, 
some distance below, Avas at first en- 
tirely filled with sand, which has since 
settled down, and it is now about one 
half its former dimensions. Marks of 
the ravages are still to be seen through 



nearly the whole course of Barton 

Boundaries. Nortli by Barton, east 
by Sheffield, south by Greensborough, 
and west by Albany. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this township was commenced about 
the year 1797, by Ralph Parker, James 
Vance, Samuel <^ook, and Samuel Co- 
nan t. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,129 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,947 bushels; 
potatoes, 54,708 bushels; hay, 3,448 
tons ; maple .^ugar, 61,430 pounds ; 
wool, 15,718 tons. 

Distances. Ten miles south-east 
from Irasburgh, and thirty-eight north- 
east from Montpclier. 


Addison Co. Leicester and Phila- 
delphia Rivers supply this town ynth 
mill privileges. The lands along the 
rivers are very good, but in general 
they are too mountainous for profitable 
cultivation. Some minerals are found 
in this town. A part of Goshen was 
annexed to Rochester in 1847. 

No pei-manent settlement was com- 
menced here till 1 800. 

Boundaries. North by Ripton and 
Hancock, south-east by Pittsfield and 
Chittenden, south-west by Brandon and 
Leicester, and north-west by Salisbury. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,040 
bushels; Indian corn, 516 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 18,600 bushels ; hay, 1,360 tons ; 
maple sugar, 5,230 pounds ; wool, 5,116 

Distances. Thirty-one miles soiith- 
west from Montpelier, and eighteen 
miles south-east from Middlebury. 
The Southern Railroad pa,sses through 
a neighboring town. 


Windham Co. Grafton is finely 
watered by Sexton's River, which is 
formed in the town by the union of 
, several streams ; and by a branch of 
i Williams' River. On"^ these streams 
are manufactures of woolen and other 
goods. Soapstone of an excellent 
quality is very abundant in this place. 
It is manufactured by water power for 


various uses to a great extent ; it is 
bored for aqueducts and sold at a very 
low price. This town contains two 
pleasant and flourishing villages, and a 
great variety of mineral treasure. Its 
surface is uneven with a strong and 
productive soil. A manufacturing 
company in this town was incorporated 
in 1848. 

Boundaries. North by Chester, east 
by Rockingham, south by Athens and 
Acton, and west by Windham. 

First Settlers. A Mr. Hinkley and 
two other families came into this town- 
ship about the year 1768, and began a 
settlement on what is called Hinkley 
Brook. They, however, soon aban- 
doned it, and no permanent settlement 
was made till 1780. In the spring of 
this year, Amos Fisher, Samuel Spring, 
Benjamin Latherbee, and Edward Put- 
nam moved into the township from 
Winchester, Mass. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized June 28, 1785; 
settled the Rev. William Hall, Nov. 7, 
1788, who was dismissed in 1810. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,386 
bushels; Indian corn, 4,859 bushels; 
potatoes, 31,646 bushels; hay, 3,363 
tons; maple sugar, 16,185 pounds; 
wool, 20,164 pounds. 

Distances. Ninety miles south from 
Montpelier, and eighteen north from 
Newfane. The Southern Railroad 
passes through this town. 


Essex Co. Granby is nearly al- 
lied to Ferdinand.^ both in location and 
the character of the soil ; it lies the 
next town south of it. This town was 
settled a few years previous to 1800. 

Boundaries. North-east by Ferdi- 
nand and Maidstone, south-east by 
Guildhall, south-west by Victory, and 
north-west by East Haven. 

Productions of the Soil. Buckwheat, 
94 bushels ; Indian corn, 14 bushels ; 
potatoes, 3,680 bushels ; hay, 257 tons ; 
maple sugar, 1 ,925 pounds ; wool, 325 

Distances. Twelve miles west from 
Guildhall, and sixty-eight north-east 
from Montpelier. 




North Hero is the county town. This county comprises a group of islands 
in Lake Champlain, and a point of land jutting into the north part of that lake 
on the south side of the Canada line, on which Alburgh is situated. This 
county contains about eighty square mtiles ; most of the land is level and ex- 
cellent for grazing and tillage. Grand Isle has no considerable streams, but 
its navigable facilities are very great. It was first settled about the close of the 
revolutionary war. — See Tables. 


The Supreme Court sits at North Hero on the third Tuesday in January, and 
the County Couii. on the last Tuesday in February, and the last Tuesday in 
August, in each year. 

GRA]VD Iglil3. 

Grand Isle Co. The soil of the 
town is very fertile ; it produces fine 
crops of grain, and an abundance of 
fruit and cider. Marble, limestone, 
rock crystals, &c., are found here, and 
Grand Isle contains the only water mill 
in the county. This is a fine place for 
fishing and fowling. 

Boundaries. It is bounded on all 
gides by Lake Champlain, except the 
south, where it is bounded by South 

First Settlers. The settlement of the 
township v,'as commenced about the 
year 1783, by Alexander Gordon, Wil- 
liam Hazen, and Lamberton Allen, 
emigrants from New Hampshire, and 
the southern parts of this State. For 
some years after the settlement com- 
menced, many circumstances tended to 
prevent its progress. 

First Ministei: The Rev. Asa Lyon, 
a Congregationalist, preached here 
many years previous to his death, which 
occurred in 1840. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,953 
bushels; Indian corn, 2,187 bushels; 
potatoes, 19,968 bushels; hay, 2,061 
tons ; maple sugar, 9,893 pounds ; 
-wool, 12,504 pounds. 

Distances. Fiftv miles north-west 

from Montpelier, and eighteen north 
by west from Burlington. 


Addison Co. White River is form- 
ed here by the union of several consid- 
erable branches. One of these has a 
fall of 100 feet. Fifty feet of the low- 
er part of it is perpendicular, and at 
the bottom is a hole worn into the rock 
ten feet deep. A considerable part of 
the surface of the to^wTiship is moun- 

Boundaries. Northerly by Warren, 
and a part of Roxbury, easterly by 
Braintree, southerly by Hajacock, and 
a part of Rochester, and west by Rip- 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this township commenced soon after 
the close of the Revolution, by Reuben 
King and others. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,006 
bushels ; Indian corn, 560 bushels ; 
potatoes, 19,200 bushels; hay, 1,390 
tons; maple sugar, 15,900 pounds; 
wool, 5,900 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-two miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and about six- 
teen south-east from Middlebury. The 
Northern Railroad passes near this 




Orleans Co. The surface of tliis 
town is uneven, but the elevations are 
not generally abrupt. The land is Avell 
timbered, mostly with hard wood, ex- 
cept on the river and about its head 
waters, whore it is almost entirely hem- 
lock, spruce, cedar, and fir. The soil 
is of a middling quality. The River 
Lamoille is formed by the union of 
several streams in this town. Caspian 
Lalce or Lake Beautiful, lies in the 
south part of this town, and discharges 
its waters to the east into the Lamoille, 
affording a number of valuable mill 
privileges, around which has grown up 
a beautiful little village. This pond is 
.about three miles long, and one and a 
half broad. EUhjo Pond, lying mostly 
in the western part of Greensboro', is 
about a mile long, and forms the head 
waters of Black River. These ponds 
produce abundance of fine trout. Run- 
away Pond [see Glover) was partly in 
this town, and Avas formerly the source 
of the Lamoille. There are several 
other small ponds in the north part of 
the town, which, at present, form the 
head waters of the Lamoille. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Glover, 
easterly by Whcclock and Goshen 
Gore, southerly by Hardwick, and wes- 
terlv by Craftsburv, and a small part 
of Wolcott. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
was begun in the spring of 1789, when 
Messrs. Ashbel and Aaron Shepard re- 
moved, with their families, from New- 
bury to this place. The hardships 
which the first settlers of this town had 
to endure, were very considerable. In 
coming into the town, the women had 
to proceed on foot, and all the furni- 
ture, belonging to the two families, was 
dra\vn upon three hand-sleds, on the 
crust. Both families consisted of five 
persons, Mr. Ashbel Shepard and his 
wife, and Mr. Aaron Shepard, his wife 
and one child. Mr. Aaron Shepard re- 
moved his family to Coos in August, 
and did not return till March, Avhen his 
brother, Horace Shepard and family, 
returned with him. Thus v,rere Mr. 
Ashbel Shepai-d and his wife, left from 
Aagust till March, with no other hu- 

man being in the toAvn. Their nearest 
neighbors were Mr. Cutler's family, in 
Craftsbury, which had removed there 
the preceding autumn, and Mr. Web- 
ster's fiimily, in Cabot. Mr. Shepard 
brought all his grain from Newbury, a 
distance of more than forty miles, of 
which he drew it sixteen miles upon a 
hand-sled, with the snow between four 
and five feet deep. In the same man- 
ner, he drew hay for the support of a 
cow, from a meadow of wild grass, 
three miles distant. On the 25th of 
March, Mrs. Shepard was delivered of 
a son, William Scott, the first child 
boi-n in this town. The proprietors vo- 
ted him a present of 100 acres of land. 

First Minister. The Rev. Salmon 
King was settled over the Congrega- 
tional Church in 1803, and continued a 
few years. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 2,074 
bushels ; Indian com, 557 bushels ; 
potatoes, 42,423 bushels; hay, 3,215 
tons ; maple sugar, 43,920 pounds ; 
wool, 1 1 ,820 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles south from 
Irasburgh, and twenty-seven north-east 
from Montpelier. 


Caledonia Co. The surface of 

this township is generally uneven, 
rough and stony. There is, however, 
some very good land, both in the north- 
east and south-western parts. The 
timber is mostly spruce and hemlock, 
interspersed Avith maple, beech and 
birch. This township is watered by 
Wells River and some of its branches, 
which afford several good mill privi- 
leges. There are also several natural 
ponds. Wells River Pond, through 
which Wells River passes, is in the 
north part, and is three miles long and 
three quarters of a mile wide. Little 
Pond, in the south-eastern part, covers 
about 100 acres, and lies in the course 
of Wells River. Kettle Pond, so call- 
ed on account of Mr. Hosmer, a hunt- 
er, having lost a small kettle in its vi- 
cinity, lies in the north-west corner, 
and covers about forty acres. The 
south branch rises in Harris' Gore, and 
running nearly east through the south 



part of the town, joins Wells River 
just below Little Pond. In the south 
part of the township is an extensive 
bank of white clay or marl, which is 
a very good substitute for chalk, and 
which has been used instead of lime in 
plastering, and is said to answer a very 
good purpose. 

Boundaries. North by Peacham, east 
by Ryegate, south by Topsham, and 
west by Harris' Gore. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
the towniship was commenced in 1787, 
by Messrs. James, Abbott, Morse, and 
Osraore. John James Avas the first 
male child born in town. The wife 
of a Mr. Page, in this town, Avas, in 
1819, delivered of four male children 
at a birth. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,185 
bushels; Indian com, 2,967 bushels; 
potatoes, 31,095 bushels'; hay, 2,009 
tons ; maple sugar, 20,530 pounds ; 
wool, 4,001 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles south-west 
from Danville, and thirty-five south- 
east from Montpelier. The Connecti- 
cut River Railroad passes near this 


Essex Co. Guildhall is the county 
town, and is situated on the west side 
of Connecticut River, and is united to 
Lancaster, N. H., by two bridges across 
the river. The town is watered by 
several small streams, and the surface 
is quite uneven and stony, except a 
tract of intervale on the river. Cow 
and Buniside Mountains are consid- 
erable elevations, and affbrd excel- 
lent views of the meanderings of the 

There is a pleasant village in the 
north-east part of the town, where the 
county buildings are situated. 

Boundaries. North by Maidstone, 
east by Connecticut River, south by 
Lunenburgh, and west by Granby, and 
lies opposite to Lancaster, N. H. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in the lower part of this 
town, which was then thought to be a 
part of Lunenburgh, in 1764, by David 
Page, Timothy Nash, and George 

Wheeler. In 1775, Enoch Hall, Micah 
Amy and James Rosbrook joined the 
settlement ; Eleazar Rosbrook and 
Samuel Page, in 1778, and David Hop- 
kinson,and Reuben and Simeon Howe, 
in 1779. The first settlers suffered se- 
vere privations and hardships for a 
number of years. They brought their 
grain and provisions, in canoes, from 
Northfield in Massachusetts, a distance 
of more than 150 miles. During the 
revolutionary war, they were in contin- 
ual alarm, and frequently annoyed by 
the Indians and tories, who killed their 
cattle, plundered their houses, and car- 
ried a number of the inhabitants into 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was formed in 1799, and set- 
tled the Rev. Caleb Burge in 1808; 
dismissed in 1814. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 957 
bushels ; Indian corn, 905 bushels ; 
potatoes, 25,025 bushels; hay, 1,415 
tons; maple sugar, 11,800 pounds; 
wool, 2,081 pounds. 

Distances. Sixty-eight miles north- 
east from Montpelier. The Connecti- 
cut River Railroad will doubtless be 
extended through this place on the 
route to Canada. 


Windham Co. The people of this 
town took an active part in defending 
the rights of Vermont against the claims 
of jurisdiction set up by the State of 
New York, about the years 1783-4. 
Guilford produced a number of patriots 
in this as also in the revolutionju-y 
cause. The soil of the town is warm 
and fertile, exceedingly productive of 
grain, fruits, maple sugar, butter, cheese, 
pork, sheep, horses, and beef cattle. It 
has good mill sites on Green River and 
branches of Broad Brook, a number 
of manufactories, a medicinal spring, 
and various kinds of minerals. 

Boundaries. North by Brattle- 
borough, east by Vernon, south by 
Leyden, Mass., and west by Halifax, 

First Settlers. This town was char- 
tered April 2, 1754, to fifty-four pro- 
prietors, principally of Massachusetts, 
and contained 23,040 acres. When 


granted, tlic town was a perfect \%'ilder- 
ness. The first settlement was made 
by Micah Rice and family, in Septem- 
bers 176L 

First Mi7ii^ters. The Kev. Royal 
Girley was the first settled minister in 
Guilford. He wfis of the Congrega- 
tional order, and received the right of 
land reserved and located for that pur- 
pose. He was settled in the year 1775, 
and died soon after. He was a young 
man of science, and much respected 
for his pious and amiable deportment. 
The second of the same order was the 
Rev. Henry Williams, Who was settled 
in 1779. Rev. Bunker Gay. of Hins- 
dale, preached his ordination sermon. 
His text was " Death in the pot." He 
was a violent Yorker, and when the 
town submitted to the state authority 
he left v/ith his political brethren. The 
third, the Rev. Elijah WoUage, was 
settled in 1794, and dismissed in 1799. 
The next of that order was the Rev. 
Jason Chamberlain. He Avas settled 
in 1807. 

Productions of the Soil. VvTieat, 920 
bushels ; Indian corn, 9,028 bushels ; 
potatoes, 31,795 bushels; hay, 3,438 
tons; maple sugar, 21,555 pounds; 
wool, 6.472 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty miles south from 
Windsor, and thirty-one south east from 


WiXDHAJi Co. This township is 
watered by North and Green River. 
The former runs through the western 
and southern part, and the latter 
through the north-eastern. They are 
both large and commodious mill 
streams, and the mill privileges are nu- 
merous. In the branch of North Ri- 
ver, on the farm of Henry Niles, is a 
succession of cascades extending about 
100 rods. The falls are from fifteen to 
twenty feet each, and are overlooked 
by the projecting rocks on the right in 
ascending the stream. The place is 
visited by the curious, and the scene, 
which presents itself, is rugged, wild, 
and romantic. 

The surface of the township is un- 

even, but there are no mountains wor- 
thy of notice. 

On the margin of North River is a 
Cavern, called Woodard^s Cave or Dun's 
Den. It is twenty-five feet in length, 
five in width, and the same in height. 
The sides and top are of solid rock. 
This is also a place of resort for the 
curious. The soil is generally of a 
good quality, well adapted to the pro- 
duction of grass, and much attention 
is devoted to the raising of cattle and 
the keeping of dairies. The people are 
mostly industrious and wealthy. 

Boundaries. Noith by Marlborough, 
east by Guilford, south by Colerain, 
]Mass., and west by Whitingham, 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1761, by Abner Rice, 
from Worcester County, Mass. He 
was joined by others from Colerain and 
Felham, Mass., in 1763. 

Fii-st Ministe7-s. The first settled 
minister was the Rev. Da^dd Goodall 
of the Congregational order. He was 
settled in 1781; dismissed in 1796. 
The Rev. Jesse Edson was ordained 
over the same church November 23, 
1796; died December 14, 1805. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,335 
bushels; Indian com, 5,420 bushels; 
potatoes, 52,825 bushels ; hay, 4,149 
tons ; maple sugar, 46,660 pounds ; 
wool, 9,875 pounds. 

Distances. One hundred and twen- 
ty-five miles south from Montpelier, 
and fifteen south from Nev^^ane. 


Addison Co. Emerson's Branch 
of White River, the sixth branch of the 
same, and Leicester River, all rise near 
the south-west corner of this township. 
Emerson's Branch runs south-easterly 
and joins White River in Rochester, 
the sixth branch runs north-easterly 
and falls into White River, near the 
north-east corner of this town, and 
Leicester River runs westerly into Ot- 
ter Creek. Middlebury River also 
heads in the western part of the town- 
ship. These streams afford several 
very good mill privileges. The whole 
of the township lies upon the Green 
Mountains, but the piincipal ridge is 



on the western side. Tlie surface 
of Hancock is high and broken, and 
but a small portion of it suitable for 
tillage ; it, however, produces good 

Boundaries. North by Granville, and 
a part of Ripton, easterly by Roches- 
ter, southerly by Goshen, and westerly 
by Goshen and Ripton. 

'First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in the year 1788, by Jo- 
seph Butts, from Canterbury, Ct., Dan- 
iel Claflin. from New Salem, and John 
Bellows, from Dalton, Mass., witli their 
families. Several young men also be- 
gan improvements the same year, 
among whom were Zenas Robbins. 
and Levi Darling. Ebenezer, son of 
Daniel Claflin, was the first child born 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1804. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 567 
bushels ; Indian com, .396 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 16,960 bushels ; hay, 1,090 tons : 
maple sugar, 10,600 pounds : wool, 
4,890 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles south- east 
from Middlebury, and thirty south-west 
from Montpelier. 


Caledonia Co. Hardwick is fine- 
ly watered by Lamoille River, which 
gives the to^vn valuable mill sites, and 
which are Avell improAcd for manufac- 
turing purposes. The soil of the town 
is generally very good, and produces a 
variety of exports. 

There are in this Xovra three small 
villages. The oldest, called the Street, 
or Hazen's Road, is situated on high 
land near the north line of the town: ! 
the second, called Stevensville, is on j 
the River Lamoille, in the eastern part : 
and the third and largest, called La- 1 
moilleville, on the same river in the ; 
south-west part of the town. Each of i 
these villages contains a number of \ 
mechanics' shops, stores, &c., and the j 
two latter possess excellent water privi- 
leges, on which mills and other ma- 
chinery are erected. 

There is a mineral spring in the south 
part of the town, which is a place of j 

considerable resort, and is found to be 
very efficacious, particularly in cuta- 
neous affections. 

Boundaries. North-east by Greens- 
borough, south-cast by Walden, south- 
west l)y Woodbury, and north-west by 

First Settlers. About the year 1790, 
the first permanent settlement was 
made by several families of the name 
of Norris from New Hampshire. Mr. 
Porter Page came in about the same 
time, and also a number of families, by 
the name of Sabin, soon after, among 
whom was Mr> Gideon Sabin, whose 
wife was the mother of twenty-six 

First Ministers. The Baptists form- 
ed the first religious society soon after 
the settlement commenced, and settled 
Elder Amos Tuttle, who continued 
their minister several years. In 1804, 
a Congi'egational Church was organ- 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 2,053 
bushels: Indian com, 1,803 bushels; 
potatoes, 67,265 bushels; hay, 4,931 
tons ; maple sugar, 60,843 pounds ; 
wool, 17,714 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve m.iles north-west 
from Danville, and twenty-eight north- 
east from Montpelier. 


Windsor Co. Hartford is water- 
ed by White and Quechee Rivers, 
which are the only streams of conse- 
quence. White River enters the town- 
ship near the north-west corner, and 
falls into the Connecticut about the 
middle of the eastem boundary, and 
Quechee River mns through the south 
part. They both afford very valuable 
privileges for mills, and other machin- 
ery driven by water, particularly at the 
places called White River Village and 
Quechee Village. 

The surface of the town is broken, 
but the soil is rich and warm, and pro- 
duces good grass and grain. 

The gulf formed by the passage of 
Quechee River through a considerable 
hill, is a curiosity, and is about one 
mile below Quechee Village. There 
are evident appearances of there hav- 



ing been a considerable pond here, 
which was emptied by the wearing 
down of the channel. The timber is 
principally white pine, beech, maple, 
and birch. 

There are several villages in town : 
the largest are White River Village 
and Quechee Village. White River 
Village is pleasantly situated on the 
banks of White River, about one mile 
from its mouth. The river is here 
crossed by a handsome bridge. 

Quechee Village is situated around 
a considerable fall in Otta-Quechee 
River, about five miles from its 

The passage of the great North- 
ern and Connecticut River Railroads 
through this beautiful town, and the 
hydraulic power it possesses, bid fair 
to render them important places for 
manufacturing operations and depots 
of a large inland trade of the fertile 
country which surrounds them. The 
AVhite River Iron Co. in this town was 
incorporated in 1844. 

The railroad bridge across the Con- 
necticut is a fine structure. 

Boundaries. North by Norwich, east 
by Connecticut River, which separates 
it from Lebanon, N. H., south by Hart- 
land, and west by Pomfret. 

First Settlers. The first settlers were 
Elijah, Solomon, and Benajah Strong. 
They emigrated from Lebanon, Ct., 
and came into this township with their 
families in 1764. The next year they 
were joined in the settlement by tAvelve 
other families. 

First Minister. The Rev. Thomas 
Gross was the first settled minister. 
He was settled over the Congregational 
Church June 7, 1786, and dismissed in 
Feb. 1808. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 4,507 
bushels; Indian corn, 19,75.3 bushels; 
potatoes, 59,050 bushels; hay, 5.687 
tons ; maple sugar, 1 1 ,400 pounds ; 
wool, 39,915 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-two miles south 
south-east from Montpelier, and four- 
teen north from Windsor. 

The great Northern Railroad be- 
tween Boston and Burlington, and 
the Connecticut River Railroad, pass 
through the town. 


Windsor Co. This is a rich farm- 
ing township, and its surface is pleas- 
antly diversified with hills and valleys. 
Connecticut River washes the eastern 
boundary, and at Quechee Falls, on 
this stream, are several mills, situated 
on the Hartland side. Quechee River 
runs across the north-east corner, and 
Lull's Brook through the southern 
part of the town, and aflbrd some of 
the best mill privileges in the State. 
On the lands of David H. Sumner, 
Esq., has recently been discovered a 
valuable bed of paint. It is abundant, 
aiid of an excellent quality. 

Boundaries. Nox'th by Hartford, east 
by Phiinfield, N. H., from which it is 
separated by Connecticut River, south 
by Windsor, and west by Woodstock. 

First Settlers. The settlement of the 
township was commenced in May, 1 763, 
by Timothy Lull, from Dummerston, 
in this State. At this time there were 
no inhabitants on Connecticut River, 
between Charlestown, then No. 4, and 
Hartland. A few families had, liow- 
ever, settled in Newbury, about forty 
miles to the north of this place. Mr. 
Lull moved into the town in the fol- 
lowing manner. Having purchased a 
log canoe, he proceeded in that up 
Connecticut River, with his furniture 
and family, consisting of a wife and 
four children. He arrived at the mouth 
of a considerable brook in Hartland, 
where he landed his family, tied his 
canoe, and, breaking a junk bottle in 
the presence of his little family, named 
the stream LulTs Brook, by which name 
it has ever since been known. He 
proceeded up the brook about a mile, 
to a log hut which had been previously 
erected, near the place now called 
Sumner's Village. Here he spent his 
days, and died at the advanced age of 
eighty-one years. His son Timothy, 
lately deceased, was the first child born 
in town. He was bom in December, 
1764, on which occasion the midwife 
was drawn by the father from Charles- 
town, upon the ice, a distance of twen- 
ty-three miles, upon a hand-sled. Mr. 
Lull had to suft'er many privations and 
hardships for several years ; but pos- 



scssing a strong constitution and a vig- 
orous mind, he overcame all obstacles, 
accumulated a handsome property, liv- 
ed respected, and died generally la- 

First Mi))isfers. There are in this 
town four houses of public worship : 
one erected in 1788, another in 1822, 
and two others have since been erected. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 4.403 
bushels: Indian com, 9.127 bushels; 
potatoes, 79,395 bushels; hay, 7.211 
tons : maple sugar, 25,280 pounds : 
wool. 48.575 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty miles south south- 
east from Montpelier, and nine north 
from AYindsor. 

The Connecticut Kiver Railroad 
passes through the town, and the great 
Northern Railroad passes through the 
neighboring town of Hartford. 


Franklin Co. The Missisco River 
enters this township from Sheldon, and 
after ninning some distance in the 
south part of it, passes into S wanton, 
and then taking a circuitous course of 
several miles, returns into Highgate. 
and pursuing a north-westerly course 
falls into INIissisco Bay. About six 
miles above Swanton Falls is a fall iri 
the river of about forty feet, affording 
some excellent mill privileges. Rock 
River is in the north part of the 
township, and has on it one saw mill. 
The soil is mostly sandy, and covered 
with pine, except along the course of 
the Missisco River, where the timber is 
hemlock, ash, &c., and in the south- 
east coiTier, which constitutes a part 
of what is called Hog Island, and is 
marshy. Bog iron ore is found in this 
town in great abundance, and has been 
worked to some extent. 

Boundaries. North ])y Dun's Patent. 
in Canada, east by Franklin, south l)y 
Swanton and Sheldon, and west by 
Missisco Bay, which separates it from 
the to-nmship of Alburgh. 

First Settlers. The first settlers in 
this town were Germans, mostly sol- 
diers Avho had served in the British 
anny during the revolution, but the 

time of their settlement is not knoAvn. 
The town was chartered in 1763. 

First Mi)iister. A Congregational 
Church was erected in 1812. and the 
Rev. Phinehas Kingsley settled over 
it in 1819 ; dismissed in* 1829. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat. 5.032 
bushels ; Indian corn. 6,762 bushels ; 
potatoes, 39,845 bushels ; hay, 4.347 
tons: majde sugar, 12,108 pounds; 
wool. 18,874 pounds. 

Distances. Seventy miles north-wc^t 
from Montpelier, and twelve north 
from St. Albans. 

Although the ■' Iron " is very 
fantastic in his course, he understands 
his business too well not to pay proper 
respect to his worthy neighbors. He 
is about passing through this town, on 
a visit to the Canadians, and in the 
most respectful manner to solicit of 
them a portion of the carrying trade 
of their great and increasing com- 
merce, between Montreal and the At- 
lantic shores of Ncav England. Wc 
feel assured that Johnny Bull and 
Brother Jonathan are too fond of a 
good bargain, not to put their horses 
together to effect a union of interest so 


Chittenden Co. There is in the 
north part of tlie toAATi a high ridge of 
rough land, called Prichard Mountain. 
The west part has generally a level 
siu-face, interspersed with small hil- 
locks. In the eastern part the land is 
hilly and broken, containing, however, 
a good shai-e of feasible, fertile, and 
valuable land. The forest con.sisted 
of hard tim1)er generally. There were 
some beaver meadows, one of which 
contained between 100 and 200 acres, 
from whicli the first settlers derived 
much benefit. 

The principal streams are Lewis 
Creek, Laplot Ri\er, and Pond Brook. 
Lewis Creek enters the town from 
Monkton. and takes a westerly course 
through the south-west part of the 
town. On this stream, in the year 
1790, Mr. Nathan Leavenworth, one 
of the early settlers, built a sawmill 
and a srrist mill. This mill is in the 



bounds of Charlotte. Before it was 
built, the inhabitants were obliged to 
go to Winooski Falls, at Burling- 
ton, or to Vergennes, for their grind- 

Hinesburgli affords an abundant wa- 
ter power, and manufactui-es of iron, 
wool, and various other aiiicles, are 
rapidly increasing on the banks of its 
beautiful streams. A manufactui-ing 
company was established in 1847. 

Boundaries. North by Shelbiirne, St. 
George, and Richmond, east by Hun- 
tington and Starksborough, south by 
Starksborough and Monkton, and west 
hy Charlotte. 

First Settlers. The first inhabitants 
were a Mr. Isaac LaAvrence and family, 
from Canaan, Connecticut, whose wife 
said that she lived ten months without 
seeing the face of any other woman, 
and that at one time the family lived 
for some time on dried pumpkins, 
without any other food whatever. 
This family came here before the revo- 
lutionary war, and also Mr. Daniel 
Chaffey, who was here for a short 
time ; they both left when the war 
commenced. Mr. La^vrence returned 
in 1783. Messrs. Jacob Meacham, 
Amos Andrews, and Hezekiah Tuttle, 
came in 1784. In 1785, Mr. George 
JRicEwen with his family, Mr. Eliphaz 
aad George Steele came without fami- 
lies, and spent the summer. The first 
child born in town was a son of Jacob 
Meacham, on the first day of April, 
1785; he was named Hine, in refer- 
ence to the name of the town. 

First Ministers. The Congregational 
Church was formed in the year 1789, 
with twelve members; the Rev. Reu- 
ben Parmelee was ordained as pastor, 
in 1791, and dismissed in 1795. From 
this time until 1818 the church was 
destitute of a stated pastor. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,020 
bushels ; Indian com, 6,888 bushels ; 
potatoes, 27,605 bushels; hay, 4,639 
tons ; maple sugar, 14,170 pounds ; 
wool, 16,336 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles south south- 
east from Burlington, and thirty-six 
west from Montpelier. The Southern 
Railroad passes through this town, and 
facilitates the business of the place. 



Orleans Co. This is an excellent 
township of land, producing in great 
abundance all the varieties common to 
the climate. 

There is a large pond situated in 
the north-east part of the town, and 
several small ponds. The streams are 
small ; part flowing north into Canada, 
and part south into Clvde River. 

On the 2d of July,' 1833, Holland 
was visited by a violent tornado. It 
commenced on Salem Pond in Salem, 
and passed over the town in a north- 
easterly direction. It was from half 
to three quarters of a mile wide, and 
it prostrated and scattered nearly all 
the trees, fences, and buildings, in its 
course. It crossed the outlet of Norton 
Pond, and passed into Canada, and its 
course could be traced through the 
forests nearly to Connecticut River. 

Boundaries. North by Barnston and 
Stanstead, Canada, east by Norton, 
south by Morgan, and west by Derby. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1 800, by Edmund Eliot 
and Joseph Cowal. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,844 
bushels; Indian corn, 151 bushels; po 
tatoes, 14,510 bushels ; hay, 1,281 tons ; 
maple sugar, 20,685 pounds ; wool, 
2,400 pounds. 

Distances. Eighteen miles north-east 
from Irasburgh, and fifty-eight north- 
east from Montpelier. 


Rutland Co. The surface of the 
township is uneven, and somewhat 
mountainous. The most noted sum- 
mit is Mount Zion, so named by Ethan 
Allen. There are several natural 
ponds, the largest of which is Grego- 
ry's Pond, which is about three miles 
long and one broad, and lies partly in 
Sudbury. At its outlet are excellent 
mill privileges, surrounded by a pleas- 
ant little village. 

Berbe's Pond, situated a mile north- 
west of the centre of the town, is one 
and a half miles long and a mile wide, 
and discharges south into Lake Bom- 
bazine. Round Pond, Marsh Pond, 



Keeler's Pond, Black's Pond, and How- 
land's Pond, are smaller. The latter 
discharges into Otter Creek. 

The town is well timbered with 
hard wood and hemlock. Pine was 
formerly plenty, but is now become 
scarce. " The soil is various. The east- 
em pai-t is hard pan, and is very good 
for grass and grain. In other parts 
the soil is slaty loam, and better suited 
to the production of winter grain. 
Plaster, ashes, and lime, are here found 
to be very beneficial for manures. 
Springs of good water are common, 
and in the south-west part of the town 
is a spring, said to possess precisely 
the same properties as the celebrated 
springs in Clarendon. The geological 
character of the township is very in- 

Boundaries. North by Sudbury, east 
by Pittsford, south by Castleton, and 
west by Benson. 

Fi7-st Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in the spring of 1 774, by 
Uriah Hickok and William Trow- 
bridge, with their families, from Nor- 
folk, Ct. Elizabeth, daughter of Mrs. 
Hickok, was bom August 1st of this 
year, and died in September, 1776. 
This was the first biith and first death 
in town. The first bam was built in 
1 785, and the first house in 1787. The 
first settlers of this to^vn suff'ered very 
severely by the Indians and tories. 

First Ministers. The Baptist Church 
was formed Sept. 24, 1787. Elder Na- 
thaniel Culver was their minister from 
1787 to 1792. Elder Nathan Dana 
was settled in 1798, and was regarded 
as their first settled minister. 

Productions.ofthe Soil. Wheat, 1,849 
bushels ; Indian com, 2,957 bushels ; 
potatoes, 12,800 bushels; hay, 3,138 
tons ; maple sugar, 5,557 pounds ; 
wool, 29,862 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty miles south-west 
from Montpelier, and ten north-west 
from Rutland> The great Northern 
Railroad passes in the vicinity of this 


Chittenpen Co. That celebrated 
snmmit of the Green Mountains, called 

CameTs Hump, is in the east part of 
this township. There are some farms 
which produce tolerable crops, but the 
soil is, in most parts, rocky and poor. 
Timber, such as is common to the 
mountain towns. 

Boundaries. North by Bolton, and 
a part of Richmond, east by Duxbury 
and Fayston, south by Avery's and 
Buel's Gores, and west by Stark- 
borough, and Hinesburgh. 

First Settlers. The settlement of this 
township was commenced in March, 
1786, by Jehiel Johns and Elisha Brad- 
ley, emigrants from Manchester and 
Sunderland in this State. 

First Mitnsters. The Freewill Bap- 
tists and Methodists built a meeting- 
house here in 1836. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,423 
bushels; Indian com, 3,615 bushels; 
potatoes, 24,987 bushels; hay, 2,596 
tons; maple sugar, 19,480 pounds; 
wool, 7,738 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty miles west from 
Montpelier, and fifteen south-east from 


Lamoille Co. Hydepark is the 
county town. The Lamoille, Green, 
and other rivers give this town a great 
water power, some of which is advan- 
tageously improved. The soil is gene- 
rally of a good quality and easily cul- 

There are in the north-east part of 
the town twelve ponds, containing from 
one half to fifty acres, beside several 
smaller ones. Trout have been abun- 
dant in most of them, but are becom- 
ing more scarce. Some of them have 
names, such as Great Pond, Clear Pond, 
George's Pond, Zack's Pond, JVfud 
Pond, &c. 

Hydepark village is situated in the 
south-west part of the town, on a beau- 
tiful elevated plain ; it contains a court 
house, jail, and jail house, built in 1836, 
by the inhabitants of the town, at which 
time it became the seat of justice for 
Lamoille County. 

This town, having so valuable a wa- 
ter power, and being surrounded by a 
country rich in agricultural and mine- 



?al productions, and rapidly increasing 
in its manufacturing interest, it would 
not surprise the natives, ir the " Iron 
Horse " should soon take a trip this 
way, to assist them in their laudable 

Boundaries. Northerly by Eden, 
easterly by Wolcott, and a small part 
of Craftsbury, southerly by Morris- 
tOAvn, and westerly by Johnson, and a 
part of Belvidere. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this townsliip was commenced by John 
McDaniel, Esq., who removed his fam- 
ily here July 4, 1787. He emigrated 
from Northfield, N. H. At this time 
the nearest settlements were at John- 
son on the west, and at Cabot on the 
east ; the former distant eii^ht miles and 
the latter about twenty-six. The in- 
tervening country was a perfect wil- 
derness, With no road or guide except 
inarked trees. Through this wilder- 
¥iess Ml-. McDaniel conveyed his fam- 
ily from Cabot to Hydepark, He was 
|oined the same season by William 
Norton, from New York; and those 
two families were the first and only 
families who wintered in town that 
jear. The next spring they were join- 
ed by Capt. Jedediah Hyde, Peter Mar- 
tin, Jabez Fitch, Esq., and sons, and 
Ephraira Garvin. These pioneers were 
followed in a few years by Aaron 
Keeler, Truman Sawyer, Oliver Noyes, 
and Hon. N. P. Sawyer and others. 
The first settlers experienced all the 
privations usual in a wilderness. They 
were under the necessity of getting 
their milling done at Cambridge, 
eighteen miles distant. The town was 
named Hyde's Park in the charter, as 
a compliment to Capt. Jedediah Hyde, 
the first named in that instrument. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2, 1 85 
bushels; Indian com, 3,533 bushels; 
potatoes, 47,816 bushels; hay, 2,501 
tons; maple sugar, 32,570 pounds; 
wool, 7,132 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-seven miles north 
from Montpelier. 

Rutland Co. This township is 
elevated; it contains good land for 

rearing cattle. Castleton River and 
Ira Brook wash a part of the town, but 
afford no valuable mill privileges. 

Boundaries, East by Rutland and 
Clarendon, south by Tinmouth, south- 
west by Middleto^vn, and west by 
Poultney and Castleton. 

First Settlers. The toAvn was orga- 
nized in 1779. Isaac Clark was the 
first town clerk and representative. 

First Ministe)-. A Baptist Church 
was organized in i783, and Elder 
Thomas Skeels was settled over it the 
same year. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 580 
bushels^ Indian corn, 2,305 bushels-; 
potatoes, 11,510 bushels; hay, 1,167 
tons; maple sugar, 10,962 pounds^ 
wool, 17,247 pounds. 

Distances, Forty miles south-west 
from Montpelier, and eight south-west 
from Rutland. The Southern Rail- 
road passes in. this neighborhood, 


Orleans Co. Irasburgh is some- 
what diversified with gentle hills and 
valleys. The soil is easy to culti- 
vate, and, in general, produces good 
crops- Black River passes through 
the township in a north-easterly direc- 
tion, receiving a number of small 
streams, but its current is generally 
moderate, and it affords but few mill 
privileges. Barton River just touches 
upon the eastern comer. Nearly in 
the centre of the township is a small 

Boundaries. Northerly by Orleans, 
easterly by Barton, and a small part 
of Brownington, southerly by Albany, 
and westerly by Lowell, Coventry Gore, 
and a part of Newport. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this toAvnship was commenced a little 
previous to the year 1800. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,1 29 
bushels-, Indian corn, 1,529 bushels; 
potatoes, 39,808 bushels ; hay, 2,847 
tons ; maple sugar, 25,961 pounds ; 
wool, 7,847 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-two miles north- 
east from Montpelier. The Monarch 
Carrier will soon pass in the vicinity of 
Irasburgh, on his way to Montreal. 




Grand Isle Co. An island in the 
western part of the county. It was 
chartered by this name to Benjamin 
Wait and others, October 27, 1789, 
containing 4,620 acres. The name was 
altered to Vineyard. November 1, 1802. 
and again altered to Isle la Motte, 
Nov. 6, 1830. The settlement of this 
town was commenced about the year 
1785. Among the early settlers were 
Ebenezer Hyde, Enoch Hall, William 
Blanchard, and Ichabod Fitch. The 
town was organized about the year 
1790. There are no streams on the 
island. A marsh extends across it 
from east to west, which abounds ivith 
excellent cedar. The rocks are lime- 
stone, and are extensively quarried for 
building, for which purpose they an- 
swer well. 

Boundaries. On aU sides by Lake 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,318 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,717 bushels; 
potatoes, 6,788 bushels ; hay. 505 tons ; 
maple sugar, 3.141 pounds ; wool, 
2,763 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-eight miles north- 
west from Burlington, and thirteen 
nearly west from St. Albans. 


Windham Co. West River passes 
through this township, and, together 
with its tributaries, affords numerous 
and excellent mill privileges. The 
surface of Jamaica is broken and 
mountainous, and the elevations rocky, 
but the soil is, in general, warm and 
productive. A range of primitive lime- 
stone passes through the township, 
from which lime is manufactured in the 
eastern part, Avhere there is a fine lo- 
cality of dolomite. It is granular, flex- 
ible, and of a snow white color. In a 
vein of the dolomite is found the mica- 
ceous oxyde of iron. It is brilliant, 
fine grained, and the particles are sepa^ 
rated by rubbing between the fingers. 
There is a pleasant and flourishing 
village near the centre of the town, in 
whicfi are several stores and manufac- 
turing establishments. The Ball Moun- 

tain Manufacturing Company in this 
town was incorporated in 1848. 

Boundaries. North by Windham and 
Londonderry. eastbyTownshend, south 
by Wardsborough, and west by a part 
of Stratton, and a part of Winhall. 

First Settlers. This settlement waa 
commenced in 1780, by William, Ben* 
jamin, and Caleb Howard, and others, 
from Mendon, Mass., and its vicinity. 

First Minister. The Rev. John 
Stoddard was the first settled minister. 
He was settled over the Congregational 
Chmxh in 1795 ; dismissed in 1798. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,226 
bushels; Indian com, 5,152 bushels; 
potatoes, 44,680 bushels; hay, 3,531 
tons; maple sugar, 13.531 pounds 5 
wool, 8,111 pounds. 

Distances. Ninety miles south from 
Montpelier, and fourteen north-west 
from Newfane. 


Orleans Co. A part of this towd 
is very mountainous--Jay's Peak lying 
in the south-west part : the other part 
is good arable land, and would produce 
good crops if well cultivated. A num- 
ber of streams issue from the mountain 
and produce an ample water power. 

Boundaries. North by Sutton, Can- 
ada, east by Troy, south by Westfield, 
and west by Richford. 

First Settlers. Previous to the late 
war with Great Britain, five or six 
families had settled in this township, 
but during the war they nearly all left 
it. A few families have since returned, 
and the settlement has been advancing. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 885 
bushels ; Indian corn, 268 bushels ; 
potatoes, 10,680 bushels ; hay, 650 
tons; maple sugar, 8.015 pounds; 
wool, 1,112 pounds. 

Distances. Sixteen miles north west 
from Irasburgh, and fifty north from 




Chittenden County. Jericho is 

watered with springs and brooks. 

Winooski River washes the south-west- 



em loundar}^ Brown's River enters 
the t3wn at the north-east, from Un- 
derhiJ, and runs into Essex. little 
River, or Lee's Brook, so called, takes 
its rise in the east, and, running near 
the centre of the town, unites with 
Brown's River at the village, in the 
west part of the town. Mill Brook en- 
ters the township from Bolton, and 
runs into the Winooski about half way 
from Richmond to Essex. On all these 
streams are good alluvial flats, and the 
mill privileges are good, but the best 
and most numerous are on Brown's 
River, near the west village. The soil 
and timber is various in different parts. 
It is a good farming town, and well 
adapted to raising most kinds of grain 
and grass. 

There is a village at the centre of 
the town, containing a good brick 
church, owned by the First Congrega- 
tional Society, an academy, together 
with a number of buildings scattered 
around a handsome common, given by 
Lewis Chapin, one of the early settlers, 
for that purpose. There is another 
flourishing village at the comers, in 
the westerly part of the town. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Under- 
bill, east by Bolton, south by Rich- 
mond, south-west by Williston, from 
which it is separated by Winooski 
River, and westerly by Essex. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Jericho was commenced in 1774, by 
Messrs. Messenger, Rood and Brown, 
with their families, from the western 
part of Massachusetts ; but the settle- 
ment was mostly abandoned during the 
revolution. Mr. Brown settled on the 
flats near Underbill, on what is now 
called Brown's River. He, with his 
family, consisting of a wife, a daughter, 
and two sons, remained unmolested 
during the fore part of the revolution- 
ary war, and had made such improve- 
ment on his land as to raise most of 
the necessaries of life. In the autumn 
of 1780 the family was surprised and 

.made prisoners by a party of Indians. 

^At the time, a young man by the name 
of Olds was in the house, and made 
his escape to the Block house on the 
Winooski River, in the west part of 
the town. The Indians, after securing 


their prisoners, killed the cattle, sheep, 
and hogs belonging to Mr. Bro^vn, set 
the house on fire, and started for Mon- 
treal. The prisoners suff"ered much on 
their journey through the woods, from 
fatigue and hunger, the most of their 
food being raw bear's meat. On their 
arrival at St. Johns, they were sold to 
British officers at $8 per head, and by 
them retained as pi'isoners nearly three 
years, during which time they were 
compelled to labor for their masters, 
and allowed but miserable fare. On 
their return they were enabled to keep 
a part of their land in Jericho, and by 
industry and perseverance accumulated 
a handsome property. The two sons 
settled, lived, and died on the same 
land where they were made prisoners, 
and were among the most respectable 
families in town. Their children still 
own and live on a share of the same 
land. Mr. Messenger settled on the 
Winooski River, and remained there 
until June, 1776, when Grcn. Ira Allen 
<;alled on him to leave for his own 
safety. Mr. Messenger, Avith his fam- 
ily and a small share of their effects, 
in a canoe belonging to Gen. Allen, 
proceeded down the river to what is 
called Hubbell's Falls, in Essex, where 
they unloaded. Mr. Messenger went 
over the falls in the canoe without in- 
jury, except breaking in the bow of the 
canoe. He changed ends, reloaded, 
and proceeded to what has since been 
called the Lawrence farm, where they 
stayed for the night. At the falls in 
Colchester they carried their load 
around, let the boat drift over, and ar- 
rived safe at the lake, where an open 
boat was waiting to receive them, with 
others, when they were transported in 
safety to Skenesboro', (now White- 
hall,) and from thence to Bennington, 
and were there at the battle. On the 
return of peace, Mr. Messenger, with 
his family, returned to Jericho and set- 
tled on his old place, where he lived to 
an advanced age, an industrious and 
respectable farmer. 

First Minister. The Rev. Ebenezer 
Kingsbury was settled over the Con- 
gregational Church in 1791 ; dismissed 
in 1808. 

Productions of the SoU. Wheat, 2,412 



bushels ; Indian corn, 4,566 bushels ; 
potatoes, 32,322 bushels; hay, 3,222 
tons ; maple sugar, 1 1 ,300 pounds ; 
wool, 13,915 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-five miles north- 
west from Montpelier, and twehe east 
from Burlington. The great Northern 
Railroad passes in this vicinity. 


Lamoille Co. The River La- 
moille enters this township, near the 
south-east comer, and running wester- 
ly about two miles, through a rich tract 
of intervale, falls over a ledge of rocks 
about fifteen feet in height into a basin 
below. This is called M'ConneTs Falls. 
Thence it runs north-westerly over a 
bed of rocks, about 100 rods, narrow- 
ing its channel and increasing its velo- 
city, when it forms a whirlpool and 
sinks under a banier of rocks, which 
extends across the river. The arch 
is of solid rock, is about eight feet 
wide, and at low water is passed over 
by footmen with safety. The water 
rises below through numerous aper- 
tures, exhibiting the appearance of the 
boiling of a pot. 

The surface of this township is un- 
even, being thrown into ridges, which 
aire covered ^vith hemlock, spruce, and 
hard wood. The soil is a dark or yel- 
low loam, mixed ^vith a light sand, is 
easily tilled, and very productive. The 
alluvial flats are considerably exten- 
sive, but back from the river the lands 
are in some parts rather stony. In the 
north-eastern part has been discovered 
a quantity of soapstone. 

The village in Johnson is very 
pleasant, and contains a number of 
mills, for the manufacture of various 

Boundaries. Northerly by Belvidere, 
easterly by Hydepark, southerly by 
Sterling, and westerly by a part of 
Cambridge and a part of Belvidere. 

First Settlers. Johnson was first set- 
tled in 1784, by a revolutionaiy hero 
of the name of Samuel Eaton. Mr 
Eaton frequently passed through this 
tOAvnship, while scouting between Con- 
necticut River and Lake Champlain ; 
atad several times encamped on the 

I same flat which he aftenvards occupied 
' as a farm, it being a beautiful tract of 
j intfervale. Like many other settlers 
of this State, he had many difficulties 
to encounter. In indigent circtimstan- 
I ces, and with a numerous famUy, he 
loaded his little all upon an old horse, 
and set out in search of that favorite 
spot, which he had selected in his more 
youthful days. He had to fravel nearly 
seventy miles through the wilderness, 
guided by the trees which had been 
marked by the scouts, and opening a 
path as he passed along. He depend- 
ed, for some time after he arrived 
at Johnson, entirely upon hunting and 
fishing, for the suppcwt of himself and 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,144 
bushels ; Indian com, 2,402 bushels ; 
potatoes, 66,405 bushels; hay, 3,487 
tons; maple sugar, 31,460 lbs. ; wool, 
10,585 pounds. 

Distances. Five miles north-west 
from Hydepark, and thirty-two north- 
west from Montpelier. 


Caledonia Co. There are some 
tracts of good land in Kirby, but the 
township is generally either wet and 
cold, or too mountainous for cultiva- 
tion. It has a number of springs, 
brooks, and a good fish pond. 

Boundaries. North by Burke, north- 
east and south-east by Bradleyvale, 
south-west by St. Johnsbury, and west 
by LjTidon. 

'First Settlers. The settlement of 
this township was commenced about 
the year 1799, by Phinehas Page and 
Theophilus Grout, who were soon after 
joined by Josiah Joslin, Jude White, 
Jonathan Leach, Ebenezer Damon, 
Antipas Harrington, Asahel Burt, Jon- 
athan Lewis, and others, principally 
from New Hampshire and Massachu- 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was formed here in 1812. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,370 
bushels; Indian com, 1,020 bushels; 
potatoes, 29,435 bushels ; hay, 1,887 
tons ; maple sugar, 8,142 pounds ; 
wool, 4,547 pounds. 



Distances. Fifteen miles north- eas.t 
from Danville, six north-east from 
St. Johnsbury, and forty-five north- 

east from Montpelier. The Boston 
and Montreal Kailroad passes in this 


Htdepark is the shire town. This count}' was established in 1836. It is 
bounded north by Franklin and Orleans Counties, east by Orleans and Cale- 
donia Counties, south by Washington County, and west by Chittenden and a 
part of Franklin Counties. This county lies on the Green Mountain range, 
and is the source of many streams. The River Lamoille passes nearly 
through its centre, and, with its tributaries, gives the county a great hydraulic 
power. The elevation of the county renders the soil more adapted for grazing 
than for tillage, yet there are large tracts of excellent meadow bordering its 
streams. Manufactures flourish, and the exports of beef cattle and the pro- 
ducts of the dairy are valuable, and annually increasing. — See Tables. 


The Supreme Court sits at Hydepark, in this county, on the sixteenth Tues- 
day after the fourth Tuesday of December, and the County Court on the second 
Tuesday in June and December. 


Bennington Co. This town is on 
elevated land, at the north-east comer 
of the county. Some of the head 
branches of West River have their 
sources here. The lands are too rough 
and high for much improvement. 

Boundaries. North by Weston, east 
by Weston and Londonderry, south by 
a part of Londonderry, and west by 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced by William Utley and 
family, consisting of a wife and six 
children, in June, 1769, emigrants from 
Ashford, Ct. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 320 
bushels; Indian com, 716 bushels; 
potatoes, 13,550 bushels; hay, 1,204 
tons ; maple sugar, 6,780 pounds ; 
wool, 2,350 poundS. 

Distances. Thirty-three miles north- 
east from Bennington, and seventy 
south from Montpelier. 


Addison Co. Leicester is watered 
by a river of its own name, by Ottet 
Creek, and by a part of Lake Dun- 
more. These waters are too sluggish 
to afford the town much water power. 
The soil is of a sandy loam, inter- 
spersed with some flats of clay. Along 
the rivers the soil is rich and produc- 
tive. The highlands are hard and fit 
for grazing. 

There are in this town several beau- 
tiful ponds, which abound in trout and 
other fish. 

Boundaries. North by Salisbury, 
east by Goshen, south by Brandon, and 
west by Whiting. 



IHrst Settlers. The first settlement 
was commenced in 1773, bv Jeremiah 
Parker, from Massachusetts' The set- 
tlement, however, made but little pro- 
gress till after the revolution. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 772 
bushels ; Indian corn, 3,321 bushels ; 
potatoes, 10,960 bushels ; hay, 4,600 
tons ; maple sugar; 820 pounds ; wool, 
12,900 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty-six miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and ten south 
by east from Middlebury. 

The great Southern Railroad be- 
tween Boston and Burlington, passes 
through this town. 


Essex Co. This is a mountainous 
township, on the west side of Connec- 
ticut River, with a small portion of 
intervale. There are several brooks 
in the town, and a beautiful cascade of 
fifty feet. There is a mountain in the 
town called " The Monadnock of Ver- 
mont," from which circumstance may 
be discovered that this town, generally, 
is not fit for cultivation. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Canaan, 
easterly by Connecticut River, which 
separates it from Colebrook, N. H., 
southerly by Bloomfield, and westerly 
by Averill. 

Prodijctions of the Soil. Wheat, 294 
bushels ; Indian com, 163 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 7,470 bushels ; hay, 503 tons ; 
maple sugar, 1,650 pounds; wool, 757 

Distances. Twenty-five miles north 
from Guildhall, and sixty-four north- 
east from Mon^elier. 


Essex Co. Lewis is an uninhabit- 
ed township, six miles square, in the 
northern part of Essex County ; bound- 
ed north-easterly by Averill, south- 
easterly by Bloomfield, south-westerly 
by Wenlock, and north-westerly by 
Avery's Gore. It was chartered June 
29, 1762. It is mountainous, and has 
no streams of consequence, excepting 
the north branch of Nulhegan River, 
which crosses the north-east comer. 


Addison County. Lincoln is 
considerably uneven. The western 
part is watered by New Haven River, 
which is formed here ; and several 
small branches of Mad River rise in 
the eastern part. The timber is prin- 
cipally hard wood, with some tracts of 

Boundaries. North by Starksboro' 
and Fayston, east by Warren, soutli 
by Avery's Gore, and west by Bristol. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this township was commenced about 
the year 1790. The first settlers were 
mostly of the denomination called 
Friends, or Quakers, There is at pre- 
sent a society of this order, who have 
a house for public worship. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 860 
bushels; Indian com, 1,080 bushels; 
potatoes, 20,400 bushels ; hay, 650 
tons ; maple sugar, 29,510 pounds ; 
wool, 9,000 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-one miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and fifteen north- 
east from Middlebury. 


Windham Co.. West River passes 
through this town, and receives seve- 
ral tributaries in it. The land on the 
streams is rich and fertile ; the up- 
lands are good for grazing, except 
those parts that are mountainous. 

There are in this town two pleasant 

Boundaries. North by Weston and 
a part of Landgrove, east by Windham, 
south by Jamaica, and west by Land- 

First Settlers. The settlement of this 
township was commenced in 1774, by 
James Rogers, S. Thompson, and Jas. 
Patterson, from Londonderry, New 

First Minister. Elder David Sweet 
was ordained over the Baptist Church 
in this place in 1820. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,066 
bushels; Indian com, 2,164 bushels; 
potatoes, 41,579 bushels; hay, 3,422 
tons; maple sugar, 21,076 pounds; 
wool, 9,197 pounds. 



Distances. Twenty-eight miles south- 
west frcm Windsor, and thirty north- 
east from Bennington. 


Okleans Co. The Missisco River 
originates in a small pond, nearly on 
the line between this to^mship and 
Eden, and taking a northerly course, 
and receiving a number of considera- 
ble tributaries, enters Westfield near 
its south-east corner. Several of these 
tributaries are sufficient for mills, and 
the river is increased by tliem to con- 
siderable magnitude, forming meadows 
of considerable extent and fertility be- 
fore lea\'ing the township. Although 
encompassed by mountains on all sides, 
except the north-east, much of the 
township is handsome land, easy to 
till, and generally productive. At the 
grist mill of Asahel Curtis, near the 
centre of Lowell, the whole river 
passes through a hole in the solid 
rock. This natural bridge is situated 
at the foot of a fall in the river of 
about ten feet. The top of the bridge 
is about three feet -wide, and the same 
distance from the surface of the water, 
and under it the water is fifteen feet 

Boundaries. North by Troy, West- 
field, Coventry Gore, and a part of 
Montgomery, south-east by Irasburgh 
and Albany, south-west by Eden and 
Belvidere, and westerly by Avery's 

First Settler. The first permanent 
settlement was made here in 1806, by 
Major Wm. CaldweU. 

Productions of the Soil, Wheat, 591 
bushels ; Indian corn, 397 bushels ; 
potatoes, 22,417 bushels; hay, 1,084 
tons ; maple sugar, 14,635 pounds ; 
wool, 2,107 pounds. 

Distances. Nine miles south-west 
from Irasburgh, and forty north from 


WiNDSOK Co, Black River passes 
through the centre of the tovra, and 
has many valuable mill sites. In the 
apper part of its course it widens into 

four large basins ; the largest in Lud- 
low being nearly circular, and one 
mile in diameter, known as the Lud- 
low and Plymouth Ponds. In the 
north-west corner of the town is the 
" Tiney Pond," several hundred feet 
above the level of the river, and nearly 
half a mile in diameter. No stream 
supplies it, but a small rivulet passes 
from it, tumbling from one rock to 
another in its rugged course, imtU, 
after passing half a mile, it empties 
into the largest Ludlow Pond. The 
only fish it contains is that commonly 
called the horn pout. There is another 
large collection of water in the west- 
em part of the town, and several ex- 
tensive bogs upon both sides of the 
river, now presenting only a surface 
of mud, covered many feet deep with 
moss, but evidently once the bed of 
mountain ponds. These bogs afibrd 
the botanist many rare and curious 
varieties of shrubs and flowers. The 
soil upon the river is alluvial, and 
throughout the town is fertile, and 
well adapted for grazing and cultiva- 

The prevailing rock is mica slate, 
and, imbedded in masses, or forming 
independent boulders, are found the 
white, ferruginous, and smoky quartz, 
black and green hornblende, and stea- 
tite, with localities of ligniform asbes- 
tos, its strands from twelve to twenty- 
four inches in length, plumbago, gale- 
na, and garnet. 

In the western part of the town are 
quan-ies of the carbonate mingled with 
the sulphate of lime, and containing 
beautiful specimens of calcareous spar. 
In the eastern border is a lofty range 
of serpentine, containing the harder 
varieties of asbestos, talc, and horn- 
stone, and forming, near the line of 
Cavendish, that most beautiful variety 
of marble known by the name of vem 
antique. Limestone and serpentine 
mingle, and produce every possible 
shade of green, from the lightest grass 
to an almost perfect black, and these 
shades running into each other in a 
most pleasing and apparently never 
ending variety. 

Boundaries. Noii;h by Plymouth, 
east by Cavendish and Chester, south 



by Andover and Weston, and its west- ; 
em line passes, for about nine miles, 
along the ridge of highlands which 
separate Windsor and Rutland Coun- 
ties, and form the boundary between 
Ludlow and Mount Holly. 

First Settlers. No attempt was made 
at commencing a settlement until 1784- 
5, when Josiah and Jesse Fletcher, 
Simeon Reed, and James Whitney, 
emigrants from Massachusetts, remov- 
ed within the limits of the township, 
and began their clearings upon the 
alluvial flats bordering upon Black 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1806, 
but had no settled minister until 1810, 
when the Rev. Peter Kead became 
their pastor. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,S85 
bushels : Indian com, 3,060 bushels ; 
potatoes, 23,626 bushels; hay, 3,600 
tons ; maple sugar, 5,154 pounds ; 
wool, 9,069 pounds. 

Distances. Sixty-one miles south 
from Montpelier, and eighteen south- 
west from Windsor, 


Essex Co. This town is on the 
west side of Connecticut River, and 
watered by Neal's Branch and Pond, 
and Catbow Branch, good mill streams. 
Some of the land is very good, but the 
most of it is stony, apparently of dilu- 
vial formation, consisting of rounded 
masses of granite, embedded in clay 
and gravel. This is a good grazing 
town, and produces some cattle, and 
butter and cheese for market. 

Boundaries. North-west by Victory, 
north-east by Guildhall, south-east by 
Connecticut River, south-west by Con- 
cord, and is opposite Dalton, in New 

First Settlers. This town was prob- 
ably settled as early as 1770. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1802, 
and the next year they settled the Rev. 
John Willard for their pastor. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,308 
bushels; Indian com, 1,628 bushels; 
potatoes, 81,630 bushels; hay, 3558 

tons; maple sugar, 18,210 pounds; 
wool, 6,147 pounds. 

Distances. Thirteen miles south 
from Guildhall, and fifty-flve miles 
north-east by east from Montpelier 


Caledonia Co. Lyndon is one of 
the best townships in the State ; its 
surface is undulating, with a soil of 
rich loam, free from stone, easy to cul- 
tivate, and very productive of wool, 
cattle, pork, butter, and cheese. It is 
well watered by the Passumpsic and 
some of its tributaries. Two impor^ 
tant falls of that river are in the town ; 
one of sixty-five feet in the distance 
of thirty rods ; the other of eighteen 
feet. These are called Great and Lit^ 
tie Falls^ and afford a water power of 
great extent. Agaric mineral, used for 
chalk, and a good substitute for Span^ 
ish white, is found here= The princi^ 
pal village is very pleasant, and the 
seat of considerable business. The 
scenery about the town is picturesque 
and interesting. There is probably 
no interior town in the State that con- 
tains more valuable water privileges 
than Lyndon. 

Boundaries. North by Sutton and 
Burke, east by Kirby, south by St. 
Johnsbury, and west by Wheelock. 

First Settler. The settlement of the 
town was commenced by Daniel Ga- 
boon, Jr., in 1788. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized in 1817, and 
settled the Rev. Samuel G. Tenney in 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,370 
bushels ; Indian com, 7,277 bushels ; 
potatoes, 113,934 bushels; hay, 6,015 
tons ; maple sugar, 68,364 pounds ; 
wool, 15,850 pounds. 

Distances. Fourteen miles north- 
east from Danville, forty-four north- 
east from Montpelier, and about ten 
miles north from St. Johnsbury. The 
Railroad to Montreal passes through 
this town 


Essex Co. This township is wa- 
tered by Paul's Stream, which run^ 



through the north part, and by Maid- 
stone Lake, which is three miles long 
and half a mile wide, lying in the 
western part, and discharging its wa- 
ters into Paul's Stream. The settle- 
ment here is mostly confined to the 
margin of Connecticut River, along 
which a road passes through the town- 

The settlement of this township was 
probably commenced about the year 

Boundaries. Northerly by Bruns- 
wick, easterly by Connecticut River, 
which separates it from Northumber- 
land, N. H., southerly by Guildhall and 
a part of Granby, and westerly by Fer- 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 853 
bushels ; Indian com, 962 bushels ; 
potatoes, 15,310 bushels; hay, 863 
tons; maple sugar, 11,200 pounds; 
wool, 3,356 pounds. 

Distances. Three miles north from 
Guildhall, and seventy-one north-east 
from Montpelier. 


Bennington Co. One of the coun- 
ty towns. Situated between the Green 
Mountains on the east, and Equinox 
Mountain on the west. The latter is 
3.706 feet above the sea. There are 
two neat villages in this valley ; the 
county buildings are in the south vil- 
lage. The scenery here is very beau- 
tiful. The town is watered by the 
Battenkill and its branches, and affords 
good mill sites. 

The soil along the water (bourses is 
good, but the principal part of the town 
is better for grazing than tillage. Here 
are large quarries of beautiful marble, 
some manufactures, and a curious cav- 

There are a variety of minerals in 

Boundaries. North by Dorset, east 
by Winhall, south by Sunderland, and 
west by Sandgate. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Manchester was commenced in 1764, 
by Samuel Rose and others, from Dut- 
chess County, N. Y. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,48 1 

bushels; Indian com, 5,764 bushels; 
potatoes, 30,576 bushels ; hay, 3,553 
tons ; maple sugar, 34,950 pounds ; 
wool, 23,010 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-five miles north 
by cast from Bennington, and about 
forty west from Bellows Falls across 
the mountains. 


Lamoille Co. This rough and 
mountainous township was annexed to 
Stowe in 1848. 


Windham Co. The town is well 
watered by" the west branch of West 
River, Wlietstone Brook, and Green 
River. It has a good soil, and is very 
productive in wheat, rye, and other 
grain, fruit and potatoes. 

Here are a pleasant village, several 
fine trout ponds, various kinds of min- 
erals and medicinal springs. Marl- 
borough suffered some by the Indians, 
and did much for the cause of inde- 

Boundaries. North by Newfane, and 
a part of Dover, east by Brattleborough, 
and a part of Dumraerston, south by 
Halifax, and west by Wilmington. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced as early as the spring of 
1763, by Abel Stockwell, from West 
Springfield, Mass., and Thomas Whit- 
more, from Middletown, Ct. Whit- 
more came in by the way of Halifax, 
and settled in the south part of the 
town, and Stockwell by the way of 
Brattleborough, and settled in the east- 
em border. These families spent 
nearly a year in tov/n, and endured 
many hardships, without any know- 
ledge of each other, each considering 
his own the only family in town, 
Whitmore brought his provisions from 
Deerfield, Mass., on his back, distance 
from twenty to thirty miles. Mrs. 
Whitmore spent most of the winter of 
1765 alone, her husband being absent 
in the pursuit of his calling, as a tinker. 
Mrs. Whitmore was very useful to the 
settlers, both as a nurse and a midwife. 
She possessed a vigorous constitution. 



and frequently travelled through the 
woods on snow shoes, from one part of 
the to^vn to another, both by night and 
day, to relieve the distressed. She 
lived to the advanced age of eighty- 
/seven years, officiated as midwife at 
more than 2,000 births, and never lost 
a patient. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized in this town by 
Rev. Joseph Lyman, of Hatfield, Mass., 
in 1776, and in 1778 the Rev. Gershom 
C. Lyman was settled over it. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 857 
bushels ; Indian com, 2,982 bushels ; 
potatoes, .51,648 bushels ; hay, 3,695 
tons ; maple sugar, 23,545 pounds ; 
wool, 8,439 pounds. 

Distances. Eight miles south from 
Newfane, and twenty-four east from 

Washington Co. The surface of 
this township is very uneven. That 
part of it west of the river is timbered 
with hard wood, and the soil is good. 
East of the river the timber consists 
principally of evergreens, and the sur- 
face is broken, wet and stony. The 
town is watered principally by Wi- 
nooski River. Here, in this stream, is a 
.fall, said to be 500 feet in the distance 
of thirty rods. A good view of it may 
be had from the road leading from 
Marshfield to Cabot, and it is worthy 
the attention of the traveller. In the 
north-east part of the town is a consid- 
erable natural pond. The rocks are 
principally slate and granite. In the 
north part of the town is a pleasant 

Boundaries. Northerly by Cabot, 
easterly by Peacham, and Han-is' Gore, 
^southerly by Plainfield, and westerly 
by Calais and part of Montpelier. 

First Settlers. The town was grant- 
ed to the Stockbridge tribe of In- 
dians, October 16, 1782, and chartered 
to them June 22, 1790, containing 
23,040 acres. The township was pur- 
chased of the Indians by Isaac Marsh, 
Esq., of Stockbridge, Mass., from whom 
the town derives its name, for 140/. 
lawful money, and was deeded to him, 

July 29, 1789. The deed was signed 
by eighteen Indians, who were then 
residents of New Stockbridge, in Mont- 
gomery County, N. Y. The improve- 
ments were commenced here in the 
spring of 1790, by Martin and Calvin 
Pitkin from East Hartford, Ct. They 
left the town in the fall, and returned 
again the succeeding spring, accompa- 
nied by Gideon Spencer. Thus, they 
continued to spend the summer here, 
and abandon the township in the win- 
ter till 1794. This year, Caleb Pitkin, 
Gideon Spencer, and Aaron Elmore 
moved their families here in the winter, 
while the snow was more than four feet 
deep. In the summer they were join- 
ed by Ebenezer Dodge and family. 
John Preston Davis, son of Ebenezer 
Dodge, was bom September 1 7, of this 
year, and was the first child bom in 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,351 
bushels ; Indian com, 3,202 bushels ; 
potatoes, 50,256 bushels; hay, 3,966 
tons ; maple sugar, 14,790 pounds ; 
wool, 6,731 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles north-east 
from Montpelier. 


Rutland Co. There is some good 
land in the town, but it is generally 
too high up the Green Mountains for 

Boundaries. Northerly by Chitten- 
den, easterly by Sherburne, southerly 
by Shrewsbury, and west by Rutland. 

First Settlers. Mendon "was char- 
tered to Joseph Banker and others, 
Feb. 23, 1781, by the name of Med- 
way. Parker's Gore was annexed to 
it, and the whole incorporated into a 
township by the name of Parkerstown, 
Nov. 7, 1804; and Nov. 6, 1827, the 
name was altered to Mendon. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 385 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,658 bushels; 
potatoes, 7,897 bushels ; hay, 1,013 
tons; maple sugar, 11,961 pounds; 
wool, 4,533 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-seven miles south 
south-west from Montpelier. The 
great Southern Railroad passes through 
the neighboring town of Rutland. 




Addison Co. Chief town. This 
is a lartre and flourishinfj town on botli 
sides of Otter Creek. The surfiice of 
the town is generally level. Chipman's 
Hill, 439 feet above 'Otter Creek, is the 
highest elevation. 

The soil is fertile and prodnctivc, 
and furnishes large quantities of wool, 
beef, pork, butter, and cheese. The 
town is admirably watered by Otter 
Creek and Middlebury River. At the 
falls on Otter Creek, the site of the 
flourishing village, are extensive man 
ufacturing establishments ; and large 
quantities of white and variegated mar- 
ble, with which the town abounds, are 
sawed and polished for various uses 
and transported to market. Middle- 
bury is a very beautiful town, and the 
mart of a large inland trade. 

Nearly on the line between this town- 
ship and Salisbury, is a bed of the sul- 
phuret of iron, connected with the car- 
bonate of lime. It is thought to exist 
in large quantitieSand has a powerful 
effect upon the magnetic needle. 

Middlebury is a delightful place of 
residence, and has long been the site 
of considerable manufactures. The 
advantages of a great hydraulic power, 
united with a speedy conveyance, by 
railroad, cannot fail of rendering Mid- 
dlebury one of the most important 
marts of trade and manufactures in the 
State. This is the site of a flourishing 
college. — See Colleges. 

Boundaries. North by New Haven 
and Bristol, east by Ripton, south by 
Salisbury, and west by Cornwall and 

First Settlers. The first clearing was 
commenced by Col. John Chipman, in 
1766, on the north bank of Middlebury 
River, where the west and centre road 
from Salisbury now unite. At this 
time there was no dwelling-house in 
the State, on the west side of the moun- 
tains, north of Manchester, distant six- 
ty miles from Middlebun*'. The pros- 
pects were so discouraging that Mr. C. 
soon returned to Connecticut, and did 
not visit the township during the seven 
succeeding ycai-s. In 1773, Col. Chip- 
man and the Hon. Gamaliel Painter, 


from Salisbury, Ct., determined to risk 
their all in effecting a settlement of 
this township. They came into the 
town in May of this year with their 
families, and threw up a small log hut 
for a shelter from the weather. Ben- 
jamin Smalley had previously com- 
menced and built a log house, which 
was the first house built here, 
Chipman located himself on the lot 
which he had commenced clearing 
seven years before, and Painter erected 
his habitation near the road leading to 
Salisbury, on the west bank of Middle- 
bury River, near a spot of alluvial 
land, which had been an Indian en- 
campment. On this spot are found 
numerous articles of Indian manufac- 
ture, such as arrows, hammers, &c, 
some being made of flint, others of jas 
per. A pot composed of sand and clay, 
of curious workmanship and holding 
about twenty quarts, was dug up here 
nearly entire in 1820. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized in 1790. It 
was placed the same year under the 
pastoral care of the Rev. John Barnet, 
who was dismissed in 1795. The Rev. 
T. A. Merrill was settled in 1805. 
The Episcopal Church was organized 
in 1810. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,310 
bushels; Indian corn, 7,500 bushels; 
potatoes, 23,023 bushels; hay, 8,900 
tons; maple sugar, 1,200 pounds; 
wool, 52,300 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty-five miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and thirty-three 
south south-east from Burlington. 
The great Southern Railroad between 
Boston and Burlington passes through 
the town. 


Washington Co. The south part 
if Middlesex is watered by Winoo- 
ski River, Avhich furnishes here one of 
the best stands for mills in the county. 
The north branch of this river run* 
across the north-east corner of the 

Middlesex is uneven, but the on- 
ly mountain of consequence lies along 
the line between the town and Water- 



bury, and is called the Hogback. The 
timber is such as is common to the 
mountain to^vnS; and the soil generally 
good. There are some fine intervales 
along the river, but the flats are not 

The channel worn through the rocks 
by Winooski River, between this to"\vn- 
ship and Moretown, is a considerable 
curiosity. It is about thirty feet in 
depth, sixty in width, and eighty rods 
in length, the rocks appearing like a 
wall upon each side. Over this chasm 
a bridge is thrown, which is perfectly 
secure from floods. But little is yet 
known of the mineralogy. Some fine 
specimens of rock crystal have been 
picked up. 

On the bank of the Winooski River 
at the falls, near the middle of the 
south line of Middlesex is a flourish- 

Boundaries. Northerly by Worces- 
ter, easterly by Montpelier, southerly 
by Moretown, from which it is separa- 
ted by Winooski River, and westerly 
by Waterbur}^ 

First Settlers. Mr. Thomas Mead 
was the first settler of this township, 
and also the first settler of Wa.shington 
C!ounty. He began improvements in 
Middlesex in 1781 or '82, and the next 
year moved his family here from 
Chelmsford, Mass. Mr. Harrington 
moved his family into town the year 
following, and two Messrs. Putnams 
the year after. The town was organ- 
ized about the year 1788. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,182 
bushels : Indian com, 3.708 bushels ; 
potatoes, 32,395 bushels: hay, 3,206 
tons; maple sugar. 18,117 pounds; 
wool, 5,045 pounds. 

Distances. Six miles north-west 
from Montpelier. The great Northern 
Railroad passes through the town. 


Rutland Co. This town lies be- 
tween two mountains, is watered by 
Poultney River, and has a good soil 
for grazing. It has a neat and flour- 
ishing village, with some manufactur- 
ing establishments. 

Boundaries. North-west by Poult- 

ney, north-east by Ira, south-east by 
Tinmouth, and south-west by Wells. 

First Settlers. A settlement was 
commenced here and mills erected a 
short time before the Revolution, by 
Thomas Morgan and others. 

Fi7-st Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized about 1784, and 
the Rev. Heniy Bigelow was settled 
over it in 1805 till his death in 1832. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,108 
bushels ; Indian corn, 3,057 bushels j 
potatoes, 18,040 bushels; hay, 2,947 
tons ; maple sugar, 9,820 pounds ; wool, 
17,640 pounds. 

Distances. Fourteen miles south- 
west from Rutland, and foity-five north 
from Bennington. 


Chittenden Co. Milton is bound- 
ed on the west by Lake Champlain, and 
is finely watered by the River Lamoille. 
The soil of the town is generally good. 
There are some places in Milton wor- 
thy of the travelled notice. A little 
distance from the neat and flourishing 
^^llage are the Great Falls, on the La- 
moille. In the course of fifty rods the 
whole river falls 150 feet. About the 
middle of the rapid is a small island. 
by which the Avater passes on each 
side, with great violence and loud roar- 
ing. The scenery on the banks of the 
i-ivcr is wild and beautiful. There arc 
some mills on the river, and considera- 
ble trade on the lake. 

There is another pleasant village 
two miles west of the falls, called 
Checker-Berry. The water power of 
this town is so immense, and the facili- 
ties afforded it by Lake Champlain for 
an extensive commerce, together with 
the improved power of steam which it 
will shortly possess, and seated in a 
fertile and healthy region, will, doubt- 
less, render this place a site of im- 
portant business. A bridge is now 
constructing (1849) called the Sand 
Bar Bridge, connecting this town with 
South Hero. 

Boundaries. North bv Georgia, etiat 
by Westford, south by Colchester, and 
west by Lake Champlain. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 



iVtikon was commenced Feb. 15, 1782,' 
by William Iiish. Leonard 0\Ven, Amos ; 
Mansiield, Absalom Taylor, and Thos. [ 
Dewey : and they were soon after join- 
ed by Gideon Hoxsic, Zebadiah Dewey, 
Enoch and Elisha Ashley, and others. 
The first settlers suffered many priva- ' 
lions and hardships, but tliere is noth- { 
ing in the early history which is pecu- j 
liarly interesting. j 

First Minister. Rev. Joseph Cheney j 
was ordained over the Congregational ' 
Church in 1807; dismissed in 1817. 

ProdiictiensoftheSoil. Wheat, 4,425 
"bushels; Indian corn, 16,603 bushels: 
Jjot^toes, 43,791 bushels: hay, 5,978 
tons; maple sugar, 19,204 pounds; 
wool, 31,686 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles north from 
iBurlington, and forty north-west from 
Montpelier. The Burlington and Mon- 
treal Railroad ])as3es through the 


Addisox Co. The western part of 
the town is watered by Little Otter 
Creek, and the eastern part by Pond 
Brook, which rises from a considerable 
pond nearly on the line between Monk- 
ton and Bristol, and runs north through 
the township into Lewis Creek in j 
Hinesburgh. Lewis Creek also runs a I 
short distance in the north-eastern j 
part. These streams afford bet few j 
mill privileges. Monkton Pond lies in ! 
the north part of the town, and is | 
about a mile in length and half a mile | 
wide. A mountain called the Hog- : 
hack, extends along the eastern boun- j 
dary of iSIonktou, and there are sev- 1 
eral other considerable elevations. ! 
"Iron ore is found in the south part of j 
ihis township in large quantities. The I 
<'olor of the surface of this ore is a vel- ! 
vet black, and that of the interijor 
A bro^^^lish black. Its structure is 
fibrous and commonly radiated. This 
ore makes excellent iron, and is exten- 
sively manufivctured at Bristol and 
other places. Connected with the iron 
ore, is found the black oxyde of man- 

" About a mile north of the iron ore 
bed, on the east side of a ridge of land 

running north and soutli, is an exten- 
sive bed of kaolin, or porcelain earth. 
It is white, sometimes grayish white ; 
dry to the touch, and absorbs water 
with rapidity. It is evidently decom- 
posed feldspar, or rather, graphic gran- 
ite, as these substances are found in 
the bed, in all stages of decomposition, 
from the almost entire stone, down to 
the finest and purest porcelain earth. 
It might be manufactured into the best 
China ware. The quantity is immense, 
sufficient to supply the world with this 
ware for centuries. By mixing this 
earth with common clay in different 
proportions, various kinds of pottery 
are produced." " In the south part of 
this township is a pond, curiously lo- 
cated on the summit of a considerable 
hill. In the north-western part is a 
remarkable cavern. The orifice, by 
which it is entered, is at the bottom of 
a large chasm in the rocks on the side 
of a small hill. After descending about 
sixteen feet, you arrive at a room thirty 
feet long and sixteen wide. From this 
is a passage leading to a second apart- 
ment, which is not quite so large but 
more pleasant" 

Boundaries, North by Hinesburgh 
and Charlotte, east by Starksborough, 
south by Bristol, and west by Fenns- 

First Settlers. Monkton was set- 
tled in 1774, by John and Ebene^r 
Stearns, Barnabas Burnham, and John 
Bishop. They left duiing the war. but 
returned in 1784. 

Productions of the Soil. WTieat, 1,840 
bushels ; Indian corn. 7,430 bushels ; 
potatoes, 39,340 bushels ; hay, 5,708 
tons ; maple sugar, 9,340 pounds ; 
wool, 18,940 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-seven miles west 
from Montpelier, and sixteen north 
from Middlebury. The great Northern 
Railroad passes through the town, 


Fran'klik Co. This town lies in 
a mountainous country, but it has a 
valuable tract of land on Trout River, 
a good mill stream, a branch of the 

Boundaries. North by Richford, east 



by Westfield, south by Lowell and 
Avery's Gore, and west by Enos- 

First Settlers. Montgomery was 
granted March 13, 1780, and chartered 
October 8. 1789, to Steplien R. Brad- 
ley and otiiers. Capt. Josliua Clap, a 
respectable revolutionary officer, re- 
moved his family from Worcester 
County, Mass., into this town, in March, 
1793, and this was for two years the 
only family in town. Hon. Samuel 
Barnard, Ileuhen Clap, and James Up- 
ham, E.s(|., all from Mass., w^ere among 
the earliest settlers. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized in 1802, over 
which the llev. Averv Ware was set- 
tled in 1825. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,110 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,344 bushels; 
potatoes, 26.425 bushels; hay, 1,498 
tons ; maple sugar, 23,875 pounds ; 
wool, 3,797 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty miles north from 
Montpelier, and twenty-seven east 
north-east from St. Albans. 


Washington Co. ISIontpelier is 
the county town, and capital of the 
State. The township is watered by the 
Winooski River, which runs through 
the south-east corner, and along the 
southern boundary by the Little North 
Branch, which crosses the south-west 
comer, by Kingsbury Branch, which 
crosses the north-east corner, and by 
several smaller streams. The mill 
privileges are both good and numer- 

The surface of the town is uneven, 
but the soil is very warm, is uncom- 
monly fine, and there is scarcely an 
acre of waste land in JNIontpelier, — the 
most of it richly, and all of it fairly 
rewarding the labors of the industrious 
fam^.er. The prevailing character of 
the rocks is slate and lime, sometimes 
distinct, but more generally combined. 
Rare minerals have not been found 
here, unless the sulphurets of iron, 
copper, and talc, which are common 
in the slate rocks, be reckoned. Some 

; years ago there was a company form- 
j ed and a charter obtained, for boring 
I for salt ; and, by the aid of machinery, 
a hole was perforated to the depth of 
! 800 feet, through a solid rock, below 
I the falls on Winooski River, but no 
salt water obtained. From the sedi- 
ment drawn up, it appeared that the 
rock, the slate limestone, preserved its 
character, Avith an occasional layer of 
flint or sand stone, through the whole 
of that depth ; and -. one or two 
springs, impregnated with iron, which 
were come across in the course of the 
drilling, were the only discoveries 
made, till the project was relinquished. 
Montpelier Village^ incorporated in 
1818, embracing a square mile, and in 
the south-west corner of the toAvnship, 
on the bank of Winooski River, and 
on both sides of the Little North 
Bram-h. It is about ten miles north- 
easterly from the geographical centre 
of the State, and, besides being the 
point of intersection of the roads from 
all parts, is the great thoroughfare be- 
tween the ocean and Canada ; the travel 
going through not only in this, but in 
all directions. The situation is low, 
but the streets and building ground 
have been raised so much, that it is 
now as dry as other places of the like 
soil. The whole site of this village 
bears unequivocal evidence of having 
been the bed of a lake about forty feet 
deep, the original surface of the water 
being indicated by the strata of earth 
and rocks on all the surrounding hills, 
and the whole having been drained, 
probably, by the deepening of the 
channel at Middlesex Narrows. The 
place has had a rapid growth, and is 
now one of the most flourishing inte- 
rior villages in New England. 

The public buildings are, the beautiful 
and durable State House, built under 
the superintendence of A. B. Young, 
architect, in 1836-7, which is superior, 
perhaps, to any State House in the 
Union, unless we except the recent 
one in North Carolina, — a court liouse, 
jail, a brick academy, a spacious brick 
meeting house, and two handsome 
wooden ones. The academy, or county 
grammar school, was incorporated Nov. 
7, 1800, and is now a flourishing institu- 


fion, with a library, philosophical ap- 
paratus, &c. 

Montpelier has already become a 
place of considerable manufacture and 
trade, by tlie laudable enterprize of its 
citizens ; but the passage of a railroad 
within its borders, uniting a large and 
fertile country with the Atlantic shores, 
is a new era in the history of the town, 
and will be found to accomplish very 
important services, both to the town 
and its enterprising projectors. — See 
Public Buildings. 

A manufacturing company was in- 
corporated at Montpelier in 1847. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Calais, 
easterly by Plainfield and a small part 
of Marshfield, southerly by Berlin, 
from which it is separated by Winoo- 
eki River, and a })art of Barre, and 
westerly by Middlesex. 

First Settlers. The first attempt to 
settle in this town was made in the 
spring of 1786, when Joel Frizzle, a 
hunter and trapper, felled a few trees, 
planted a little corn among the logs, 
after the Indian fashion, and erected a 
very small log cabin on the bank of 
Winooski River, in the south-west cor- 
ner of this township, and moved his 
family, himself and wife, a little French 
woman, into it, from Canada, the same 
season. But the first permanent clear- 
ing and settlement was not made till 
the spring after. On the 4th of May, 
1787, Col. Jacob Davis and Gen. Parly 
Davis, from Charlton, Worcester Co., 
Mass., with one hired man and one 
horse, each loaded with pork, flour, 
beans, and other necessaries, came and 

First Ministers. The religious denom- 
inations in this town are two societies 
of Congregationalists, and one each of 
Methodists, Universalists, and Friends. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,652 
bushels ; Indian coi-n, 7,630 bushels ; 
potatoes, 66,860 bushels ; hay, 7,205 
tons ; maple sugar, 67,070 pounds ; 
wool, 12,941 pounds. 

Distances. It is one hundred and 
feighty-two miles west from Augusta, 
Me ; ninety-seven north north-west 
from Concord, N. H. ; one hundred 
and sixty north-west by north from 
BoatOQ, Mass. ; two hundred north by 


west from Providence, R. I. ; two hun- 
dred and five north from Hartford, Ct. j 
one hundred and forty-eight north-east 
from Albany, N. Y. ; and five hundred 
and twenty four miles from Wasliing- 

The above distances ai-e by the old 
mail routes, and vary spme by the new 
mode of ti-avelling by railroads. 

The Iron Horse paid his first visit 
to this beautiful mountain town in the 
autumn of 1848, and is determined to 
press his course northward in the most 
amicable manner, to induce the Cana- 
dians to make the Atlantic shoi'es of 
New England the deposit of a large 
share of their great and increasing 


Washixgton Co. Mad River, a 
branch of the Winooski, waters this 
town, and gives it good mill sites. The 
surface is mountainous, and a great 
part of the soil unfit for cultivation. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Middle- 
sex and a part of Water bury, from 
which it is separated by Winooski 
River, easterly by Berlin, southerly by 
Waitsfield, and westerly by Duxbury. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this township was commenced about 
the year 1790, and the to\vn was organ- 
ized three or four years after. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,795 
bushels ; Indian corn, 4,104 bushels ; 
potatoes, 38,848 bushels ; hay, 3,171 
tons ; maple sugar, 28,791 pounds . 
wool, 6,570 pounds. 

Distances. Thirteen miles south-west 
from Montpelier. The great Northern 
Railroad passes in this vicinity. 


Orleans Co. The surface of the 
town consists of swells and valleys, 
and is mostly susceptible of cultivation. 
Timber generally hard wood. Soil 
good. A head branch of Clyde River, 
called Farrand's River, passes through 
the east part of Morgan ; and Sey- 
mour's Lake, which is about four miles 
long and nearly two -wide, lies in the 
central part. It discharges its waters 



to the south, througli Eolio Pond, into i 
Clyde River. i 

Boundaries. North by Holland and 
a part of Derby, easterly by Wcnlock 
and Warner's Gore, and south-west by 
Charleston and Salem. 

First Stttler. The settlement of this 
township was commenced about the 
the year 1800 by Nathan Wilcox. 

First Minister. A Conjrregational 
Church was orfranizcd here in 1823. 

Productions of the Soil. AVheat, 1 ,617 
bushels; Indian corn, 303 bushels: 
potatoes, 17,675 bushels: liay, 1.037 
tons; maple sugar, 16,102 pounds; 
wool, 1,889 pounds. 

Distances. Eighteen miles north- 
east from Irasburgh, and sixty-nortli- 
ea*t from Montpelier. 


Lamoille Co. The soil of this 
town is of a good quality, and easily 
cultivated. Morristown is, in point 
of agricultural products, the second in 
tlie county. The timber is maple, 
beech, bii-ch, hemlock, &c. The La- 
moille River enters the to\m near the 
north-east comer, passing by Morris- 
ville and CadysviUe, and after running 
four miles in the north part of the 
to\vn, returns into Hydepark. Along 
tliis river, in Morristown. are some fine 
tracts of intervale, and on it are two 
excellent mill sites. There are several 
other streams in town on which mills 
are erected. 

Morrisville is a pleasant, flourishing 
village, situated near the Great Falls. 
Here is one of the finest situations for 
manufacturing estalilishments which 
the State afl^ords. At the falls a few 
rods west of the village, may be found 
curious specimens of the wonder work- 
ing power of water, in wearing holes 
into the solid rock, some of which are 
nearly eight feet deep and four feet 
broad. The river at this place pours 
itself into a channel cut directly across 
the stream, twenty feet deep and thirty 
broad. This channel the early settlers 
denominated the jmlpit, from the re- 
semblance of the rocks at the north 
end to that structure. On the west 
side of this chasm the rocks rise per- 

pendicularly to the height of thirty^ 
feet ; and the l)cliolder, Avhile standing' 
on the edge of this precijiice, sees the 
whole body of the river plunged doMTi 
at his feet into this boiling cauldron, 
from which it esca])es through a chan- 
nel at the south end, and immediately 
spreading itself out. encircles numer- 
ous islands, whose higb.. jagged points 
are covered Avith a thick growth of 
cedar and fir, and altogether presenting 
a scene of grandeur and beauty seldom 
found surjiassed. CadysviUe is situa- 
ted two miles below Morrisville, and 
bids fair to become a place of consid- 
erable business. At the centre of the 
town is a small village, pleasantly lo- 
cated, and wanting only the facilities 
of water power, to make it the princi- 
pal place of business. In the south- 
east corner of the town is a pond call- 
ed Joes Pond, from an old Indian pen- 
sioner who lived by the side of it. 

The People's Academy, in this to\ni, 
j was incorporated in 1847. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Hydepark, 
I easterly by Elmore, southerly by Stowe, 
and westerly by Sterling. 

First Settlers. This settlement was 
commenced in the spring of 1790, by 
Mr. Jacob Walker, who came from 

First Minister. The first sermon 
preached in town was by the Rev. Mr. 
Bogue, a missionary, in the summer of 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,454 
bushels; Indian corn, 5,614 bushels; 
potatoe.'*, 66,720 bushels ; hay, 5,095 
tons ; maple sugar, 44,120 pounds ; 
wool, 8.342 pounds. 

Distances. Three miles south from 
Hydepark, and thirty miles north from 


Rutland Co. Mill River, which 
rises in the south part of this township, 
and runs through the north-east corner 
of Wallingford and the south-west cor- 
ner of Shrewsbury, and unites with 
Otter Creek in Clarendon, is the only 
stream of consequence. In the north- 
eastern part is a considerable pond, 
called Palches Pond. In soil and tim- 



ber It is simiUir to the mountain towns 
generally, being much better adapted 
to the production of grass than grain. 
On the summit of the Green Moun- 
tains is found amianthus, common and 
lignifoiTn asbestos, and fossil leather. 
Its color is a grayisli white, and it is 
very abundant. Ludlow mountain is 
a considerable elevation, lying along 
the line between Mount Holly u^il 

Boundaries. North by Plymouth 
and Shrewsbury, east by Ludlow, south 
by Weston, and west l)y Wallingford 
and a part of JNIount Tabor. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Mount Holly was commenced in 1781, 
by Ichabod G., Stephen, and John 
Clark, Jonah. Amos, and Ebenezer 
Ives, from Connecticut, Jacob Wil- 
cox, from Rhode Island, and Joseph 
Green, David Bent, Abraham Crowly, 
and Nathaniel Pingrey, from 

First Minister. Elder Parker was 
settled over the Baptist Church, in 

Productions of the Soil. AVTieat, 1 ,832 
bu-shels ; Indian corn, 836 bushels ; 
potatoes, 65.930 bushels; hay, 5,317 
tons; maple sugar, 44.120 pounds; 
wool, 8,342 pounds. 

Distances. Sixty miles south-west 
from Montpelier, and seventeen south- 
east from Rutland, 


RuTLAXD Co. Otter Creek rises in 
this town, by a branch on each side of 
a mountain. Most of the land is unfit 
for cultivation, it being so high on the 
Green Mountain range. 

Although the surface of tlie town is 
elevated and uneven, it affords good 
pasturage for cattle. The town was 
chartered in 1761. Apart of Danby 
was annexed to it in 1848. 

Boundaries. North by Wallingford, 
east by Weston and a part of Mount 
Holly,' south by Peru, and west by 

Productions of the Soil. Wlietit. 329 
bushels ; Indian corn, 390 l)ushels ; 
potatoes, 6,000 bushels; hay, 550 tons ; 

i ma])le sugar, 3,585 pounds ; avooI, 1,760 

Distances. Sixty-six miles south by 
west from Montpelier, and nineteen 
south by east from Rutland. 


Cai>edoxia Co. The Passumpsic 
River is formed in this town by a col- 
I lection of streams issuing principally 
i from ponds. The town is not moun- 
i tainous, but the soil is cold and gene- 
rally unproductive. The settlement 
of this town commenced about the year 

Boundaries. North-easterly by Brigh- 
ton, south-easterly by East Haven, 
south-westerly by Burke and Sutton, 
and north-westerly bv Westmore. 

Profiuctions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,756 
busliels ; Indian corn, 315 bushels; 
potatoes, 18,260 bushels; hay, 801 
tons; maple sugar, 21,813 pounds; 
wool, 1,679 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-six miles north- 
east from Danville, and fifty-six north- 
east from Montpelier. 


Orange Co. This ;s a beautiful 
town on the west side of Connecticut 
River, and supplied with mill privi- 
leges l)y Wells River, and Hariman'.s 
and Hill's Brooks. These brooks have 
their sources in ponds of considerable 

Newbury comprises the tract com- 
monly called the Great Oxbow, on a 
bend in Connecticut River. This tract 
is of great extent, and celebrated for 
its luxuriance and beauty. The agri- 
cultural productions of the to^Ti are 
very valuable, consisting of beef cattle, 
wool, and all the varieties of the dairy. 
The town contains a number of mine- 
ral springs, of some celebrity in scrofu- 
lous and cutaneous complaints. 

The villages of Newbury and Wells 
River are very jjleasant ; they command 
a flourishing trade, and contain manu- 
facturing establishments of various 
kinds. Some of the buildings arc very 
handsome. The scenery of the wind- 
insrs of the liver through this fine tract 



of alluvial meadow, contrasted witli 
the abrupt acclivities in the north part 
of the town, is very striking and beau- 

The town is connected with Haver- 
hill, N. H. by two bridges. 

Newbury village is tlie site of a well 
conducted seminary, under the patron- 
age of the Methodist Episcopal Church ; 
but it is open to all denominations. 

The Newbury Steam Manufacturing 
Company was incorporated in 1848. 

Boundaries. North by Ryegate, east 
by Connecticut River, which separates 
it from Haverhill, N. H., south by 
Bradford, and west by Topsham. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this township was commenced in the 
spring of 1762. The first family was 
that of Samuel Sleeper. The next 
were the families of Thomas and Rich- 
ard Chamberlain. John Hazleton also 
moved his family to Newbury in 1762, 
and his daughter Betsey, bom in 176.3, 
was the first child bom in town. Ja- 
cob Bailey Chamberlain, son of Thom- 
as C, born the same year, was the first 
male child. The parents of the latter 
received a bounty of 100 acres of land, 
agreeably to a promise of the proprie- 
tors of the to^vnship. Among the first 
settlers, in addition to the above, may 
be mentioned Gren. Jacob Bayley, Col. 
Jacob Kent, Col. Thomas Johnson, 
John Taplin, Noah and Ebenezer 
White, Frye Bayley, and James Ab- 
bott. The early inhabitants were most- 
ly emigrants from the south-eastern 
parts of New Hampshire, and from 
Newbury, Mass. They had peculiar 
hardships to endure, there being no in- 
habitants on Connecticut River, at this 
time, north of No. 4, now Charlestown, 
N. H., or between this place and Con- 
cord. Nor were there any roads through 
the wilderness, or anything, but mark- 
ed trees, to facilitate the communica- 
tion between this and the civilized set- 
tlements. The nearest mill was at 
Charlestown, distant more than sixty 
miles. To that they went for their 
grinding, carrying their grain down 
Sie river in canoes during the summer, 
and drawing it upon the ice in the win- 
ter. The crank, for the first saw mill 
built in Newbttry, was drawn from 

Concord, N. H., distant nearly eighty 
miles, upon a hand-sled. Gen. Bayley 
was very active in forwarding the set- 
tlement of this part of the country, and 
distinguished himself as a general offi- 
cer in the revolutionary war. 

First Minister. The Congregational 
Church of this town was formed at 
HoUis, Mass., in September, 1764. 
The Rev. Peter Powers, the first min-^ 
ister of Newbury, was installed over 
this church Feb. 27, 1765, and he 
preached his own installation sermon. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 6,358 
bushels; Indian com, 11,297 bushels ; 
potatoes, 91,689 bushels; hay, 5,616 
tons ; maple sugar, 32,755 pounds ; 
wool, 20,758 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-seven miles south- 
east from Montpelier, and twenty north- 
east from Chelsea. The Connecticut 
River Railroad passes through this 


Windham Co. County town. The 
tOAvn is watered by a branch of West 
River, and several other streams. The 
surface of the town is diversified by 
hills and valleys ; the soil is good, and 
produces white oak and walnut in 
abundance. There is but little waste 
land in the town ; the uplands are in- 
ferior to none for grazing, and the in- 
tervales afford excellent tillage. New- 
fane exhibits a great variety of mine- 
rals, among which are some of value. 
Perhaps no town in the State presents 
a more inviting field for the mineralo- 
gist than this. 

There are two pleasant villages in 
the town. The centre village contains 
the county buildings ; it is on elevated 
land, and commands a very extensive 
and delightful prospect 

Boundaries. North by Townshend, 
east by Dummerston, Putney, and 
Brookline, west by Wardsborough and 
Dover, and south by Marlborough. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this town was commenced in the month 
of May, 1766, by Dea Jonathan Park, 
Nathaniel Stedman, and Ebenezer 
Dyer, who emigrated from Worcester 
County, Mass. 



First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was formed in 1774, and Mr. 
Taylor was ordained over it the same 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 973 
bushels; Indian corn, 6,472 bushels; po- 
tatoes, 37,504 bushels ; hay, 3,584 tons ; 
maple sugar, 14,505 pounds ; wool, 
9,663 pounds. 

Distances. One hundred miles south 
from Montpelier, and twelve north- 
west from Brattleborough. 


Addison Co. The soil of this town 
is various, consisting of marl, clay and 
loam, and is generally productive. 
The waters of Otter Creek, Middlebury 
River, and Little Otter Creek give the 
town a good water power. There 
some manufactures in the town, but 
agricultui-e is the chief pursuit of the 
inhabitants. Quarries of excellent 
marble are found in almost every part 
of this town. 

Boundaries. North by Bristol and 
Fen-isbargh, east by Bristol, south by 
Middlebury and Weybridge, and west 
by Addison and Waltham. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
New Haven was commenced in 1769, 
by a few emigrants from Salisbury, 
Ct., on that part which is now set off 
to Waltham. The settlement was, 
however, broken up and abandoned in 
76, ill consequence of the revolutionary 
war. Near this settlement, and on 
that part of the township, now consti- 
tuting a part of the city of Vergennes, 
a fort was erected and garrisoned by 
troops, commanded by Capt. EbenezeV 
Allen, and others, to protect the fron- 
tier settlements from the common ene- 
my tlie '• Yorkers." At the close of the 
war the settlers returned, and in '85 
the town was organized. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was formed here in 1797, over 
which the Rev. Silas L. Bingham was 
installed in 1805. 

Productions of the Soil. ^Vheat, 1,964 
bushels; Indian com, 10.368 bushels; 
potatoes, 59,482 bushels ; hay, 9,867 
tons ; maple sugar, 9,468 pounds ; wool, 
59,388 pounds. 

Distances. Forty miles west south- 
west from Montpelier, and seven north- 
west from Middlebury. This town is 
easily approached by the Southern 
Railroad, which passes through Mid- 


Orleans Co. Newport is separa- 
ted from Derby by Memphremagog 
Lake, and is watered by a branch of 
Missisco River. The settlement of 
this township was begun before the 
year 1800. 

Boundaries. North by Patton, Can- 
ada, east by Orleans and Memphre- 
magog Lake, which separates it from 
Derby, south by Coventry Gore, and 
west by Troy. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,047 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,034 bushels; 
potatoes, 21,080 bushels; hay, 1,224 
tons ; maple sugar, 33,920 pounds ; 
wool, 2,527 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles north from 
Irasburgh, and fifty-two north-east from 


Washington Co. The principal 
stream in this to\vn is Dog River, which 
runs through it in a noitherly direc- 
tion, and affords a great number of 
valuable mill privileges. The timber 
is hemlock, spruce, maple, beech and 
birch, intermingled with fir, pine, ash, 
butternut. &c. The soil is generally 
good, and in many places, is easily cul- 
tivated. A range of argillaceous slate 
passes through the township from south 
to north. The surface is uneven, and 
a range of high lands passes from north 
to south through the town, botli on the 
eastern and western side of the river. 
There are four villages in this town, 
in which are considerable manufactur- 
ing operations. The railroad between 
Boston and Burlington which passes 
here will greatly enhance the value of 
real estate in this and the neighboring 
towns. The Northfield Manufacturing 
Company Avas incorporated in 1848. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
was made here in 1785, by Amos and 



Ezekiel Robinson, and Staunton Rich- 
ardson, from Westminster. The first 
land was cleared by Hon. Elijah Paine. 

First Ministers. There are a num- 
ber of ordained ministers of various de- 
nominations in the town, but the dates 
of their settlement are not stated. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 7,1 59 
bushels; Indian com, 4,362 bushels; 
potatoes, 57,367 bushels; hay, 3,862 
tons ; maple sugar, 24,.515 pounds ; 
wool, 15,057 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles south-west 
from Montpelier. The great Northern 
Railroad between Boston and Burling- 
ton passes through the town. 


Grakd Isle Co. The soil of North 
Hero is of an excellent quality, and 
produces grain of all kinds in abun- 
dance. It has no streams of any con- 
sequence, and no mills or mill privi- 
leges. Its public buildings are a stone 
court house and jail. This is the shire 
town of Grand Isle County. 

First Settlers. The settlement of this 
township was commenced in 1783, by 
Enos and Solomon Wood, the former 
from Bennington, in this State, and the 
latter from Norwich, Ct. The British 
erected a block house here, at a place 
called Dutchman's Point, which was 
garrisoned, and not given up till 1796, 
The town was organized in 1789. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 4,005 
bushels; Indian com, 3,127 bushels; 
potatoes, 14,525 bushels: hay, 1,317 
tons; maple sugar, 5,185 pounds; 
wool, 8,044 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty-seven miles north- 
west from Montpelier, and twenty'Cight 
north north-west from Bmlington. 


Essex Co. An uninhabited town- 
ship in the north-west corner of Es- 
sex County. It is twelve miles long 
from east to west, and four from north 
to south. The land is said to be good 
and well timbered, considerable tracts 
of it with pine. The charter of the 
to^vnship was burnt, and it is difficult 
getting a valid title to the lands. There 

are two considerable ponds lying part' 
ly in the town. The outlet of Nor- 
ton Pond is the head branch of Coa- 
tacook River, which unites with the 
Masuippij in Ascot, and then utiites 
With the St* Francis, at Lenoxville. 
Farrand's River, also, heads here and 
runs south. 

Boundaries. North by Bradford and 
Barnston, Canada, east by Averillj 
south by Avery's, Warner's, and War* 
ren's Gore, and west by Holland* 


Windsor Co. The Connecticut 
River Washes the eastern boundary of 
this township, and is from thirty to 
forty rods in width. It is fordable in 
three places at low water. Ompompo- 
noosuc River enters Norw'ich from 
Thetford, two miles west of Connecti* 
cut River, and, after running three 
miles across the north-east corner, min- 
gles its waters with those of the Con- 
necticut. It is a rapid stream, Avith a 
gravelly bottom, about six rods in 
width, and affords several eligible mill 
sites. Bloody Brook arises wholly in 
this township, and, passing a little wes- 
terly of Nonvich Plain, falls into the 
Connecticut just below the bridge lead- 
ing from Norwich to Dartmouth Col- 
lege. On this stream arc several ex- 
cellent mill sites. It is said to have 
had its name from a bloody battle 
fought here during the French war. 

The surface of the township is un- 
even, but nearly all admits of cultiva- 
tion. It produces all kinds of grain 
and grass, and some of the finest or- 
chards in the State. Extensive beds 
of iron ore are found in the north-west 
corner of the town. 

On the bank of Connecticut River, 
about seventy rods above the mouth 
of the Ompomponoosuc, is an Indian 
burying ground, where human bones, 
stone pots, arrows, &c., are frequently 
found. Between the Connecticut and 
the Ompomponoosuc is a high bluff, 
where explosions were formerly heard, 
like the report of cannon, to the great 
teiTor of the inhabitants. 

Norwich village is pleasantly situated 
on a plain near Connecticut River, and 


16 the site of the Norwich University, 
now given up. This is a beautiful 
town and a fine place for residence.^ 

Boundaries. North by Thetford, east 
by Connecticut River, which separates 
it from Hanover, N. H., south by Hart- 
ford, and west by Sharon, 

First Settlers. In 1762, the township 
was partly lotted, and the next year 
Jacob Fenton, Ebenezer Smith and j 
John Slafter came here from Mans- 1 
field, Ct, built them a camp, and be- 
gan improvements. 

First Minister. The First Congrega- 
tional Church was organized in 1770 


and the Rev. Lyman Potter ordained 
over it in 1775. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,801 
bushels j Indian corn, 11,119 bushels; 
potatoes, 5.3,480 bushels; hay, 5,265 
tons; maple sugar, 15,730 pounds; 
wool, 27,639 pounds. 

Distances. Forty miles south-ea^t 
from Montpelier, and nineteen north 
from Windsor. The Connecticut 
River Railroad passes through the 
town ; and the great Northern Railroad 
between Boston and Burlington passes 
through the neighboring town of Hart- 


Chelsea is the chief town. This county is bounded north by Washington 
and Caledonia Counties, east by Connecticut River, south by Windsor Coun- 
ty, and west by Addison and Washington Counties. The eastern range of the 
Green Mountains extends along the north-western part of the county. The 
principal rivers, besides the Connecticut, are the Ompomponoosuc, Wait's, 
branches of the White, and Stevens' branch of the Winooski. 

The lands in Orange County are generally good for grazing, and supply 
many cattle and all the varieties of the dairy, of which a large amount is an- 
nually sent to market. 

This county contains some excellent tracts of land on the banks of the Con- 
necticut. Iron and lead ores, slate and granite, are abundant. 


The Supreme Court commences its session at Chelsea on the fifth Tuesday- 
after the fourth Tuesday in January, and the County Court on the third Tues- 
days of June and December. 


Obanoe Co. Knox Mountain in 
the north-easterly part of the town is a 
considerable elevation, and affords in- 
exhaustible quantities of granite for 
building stone. The timber is chiefly 
hard wood, except along the streams, 
where it is spruce, liemlock, cedar, pine 
and fir. The soil in some parts of the 
town, pai'ticularly on the heights, is 

rather cold and wet ; in other parts and 
on the streams it is rich and productive. 
The principal stream of water is Jail 
Branch. Coming from Washington, 
it receives a considerable stream froni 
the north, called Cold Branch, and the^ 
passes into Barre. Orange possesses a 
large and valuable water power. 

Boundaries. North by a part of 
Plainfield, Goshen, Harris' Gore and 
I Groton, east by Topsham, south by a 



part of Corinth and Washington, and 
west by Barre. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
was commenced by Ensign Joseph 
Williams in 1793 on the south line of 
the town. 

First Minister. The Rev. Enos Bliss 
was settled over the Congregational ! from Chelsea. 
Church in 1799. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,04ft 
bushels; Indian corn, 2,189 bushels; 
potatoes, 60,316 bushels; hay, 3,412 
tons ; maple sugar, 22,208 pounds ; 
wool, 11,619 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles south-east 
from Montpelier, and twelve north 


Irasburgh is the chief to\vn. This county is bounded north by Lower 
Canada, east by Essex and Caledonia Counties, south by Caledonia County, 
and west by Franklin and Lamoille Countie.s. This county lies between the 
eastern and western ranges of the Green Mountains. The surface is gene- 
rally handsome, and the soil well adapted for wheat, rye, and grass ; the 
climate is rather too cold for corn, and some parts of the county are low and 

Orleans County is watered by Missisco, Black, Barton, and other rivers. It 
contains more ponds than any county in the State. Much of its trade goes 
to Canada by the way of Memphremagog Lake, which lies in this county and 
Canada. — See Tables. 


The Supreme Court sits at Irasburgh, on the seventeenth Tuesday after the 
fourth Tuesday in December ; and the County Court on the fourth Tuesday in 
June and December. 


Addison Co. Some of the land 
in this township is broken and hilly ; 
the remaining part is very level, hand- 
some land, and produces abutidant 
crops of all kinds of grain. 

The principal streams are East 
Creek, which nse.s in Benson and falls 
into Lake Champlain, on the north 
side of Mount Independence, and Le- 
monfair River, which here consists of 
two branches, running parallel with 
each other, along the eastern border, 
and uniting near the north line of the 
town. On these streams are several 
mill privileges, which are good during 

a part of the year. The watei-s, where 
the land is clayey, are slightly impreg- 
nated with Epsom salts, or the sul- 
phate of magnesia. There is a spring 
on the lake shore, about 100 rods south 
from the north-west corner, the waters 
j of which are strongly impregnated ; 
' and from these salts have been mann- 
! factured in considerable quantities. 
{ In the compact limestone in this 
' town are shells of various kinds. In 
i the compact limestone on Mount In- 
dependence, flint is found. Specimens 
of blende, or the snlphuret of zinc, 
have also been found. 

The width of the lake between Mt 
Independence and Ticonderoga is about 



eighty rods. A mile further south, 
at a oh\ce called Sholes Landing, it 
is only forty rods wide. The average 
width of the lake against Orwell is 
about one mile, and the widest place 
tvvo miles. May 1-3, 1820, a piece of 
land in the town, of more than five 
acres area, sunk about forty feet, and 
slid into the lake. The impulse made 
upon the water was so great, as to 
raise the lake three feet at the oppo- 
site shore, a mile and a half distant. 
The ground was partly covered Avith 
small trees, some of which moved off 
erect, while others were thrown down. 
A part of Benson was annexed to Or- 
well in 1847. 

In common vnth most of the towns 
on Lake Champlain, the scenery in 
Orwell and its vicinity is tnily de- 

Boundaries. North by Shoreham, 
east by Sudbury and a part of Whit- 
ing, south by Benson, and west by 
Lake Champlain, being, opposite to 
Ticonderoga, N. Y. 

First Settlers. The first permanent 
settlement was made in 1783, by Amos 
Spafford, Shadrach Hathaway, Eber 
Mun-ay, Ephraim and William Fisher, 
and John Charter, upon Mount Inde- 

First Minister. Elder E. Phelps was 
settled over the Baptist Church, about 
the vear 1789. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,702 
bushels ; Indian corn, 6.456 bushels ; 
potatoes, 16,960 bushels; hay, 7,053 
tons ; maple sugar, 5,525 pounds ; 
wool, 77,485 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty miles north-west 
from Rutland, and forty-seven south- 
west from Montpelier. 


Addison Co. Panton is bounded 
west by Champlain Lake, and east 
by Otter Creek. A sluggish stream 
passes through it ; yet, although thus 
watered, it does not possess a good 
mill site, the country being exceedingly 

A part of Ferrisburg was annexed 
to Panton in 1847. 

Boundaries. North by Ferrisburgh, 

east by Otter Creek, which separates 
it from Waltham, and by a part of 
Vei-gennes, south by Addison, and 
west by Lake Champlain. 

First Settlers. A settlement was com- 
menced here in 1770, by John Pang- 
born and Odle Squire, from Cornwall, 
Ct., who Avere soon joined by Timothy 
Spalding and others, from the same 
place, and by Peter Ferris, from Nine 
Partners, N. Y, Ferris settled at the 
bay where Arnold blew up his fleet 
during the revolution. The wrecks 
of this fleet are now to be seen here at 
low water. During the revolution this 
settlement was broken up. Most of 
the men were made prisoners, their 
dwellings burnt, and the women and 
children driven to the south. The set- 
tlers returned after the war, and in 
1784 the town was organized. 

First Ministe)\ Elder Henry Cham- 
bers was ordained over the Baptist 
Church, in 1800, and dismissed in 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 671 
bushels ; Indian corn, 2,334 bushels j 
potatoes, 5,722 bushels: hay, 2,971 
tons ; maple sugar, 22,022 pounds ; 
wool, 24,890 pounds. 

Distances. Forty miles west south- 
west from Montpelier, and thirteen 
north-west from Middlebury. 


Rutland Co. Pawlet River runs 
south-westerly nearly through the cen- 
tre of the town, and Indian River, 
which runs the same course across the 
south-west corner. The latter rises 
from a spring of pure water, sufficiently 
large to carry a grist mill. It abounds 
in trout, and takes its name from the 
great number of Indians who formerly 
resorted here for the purpose of fish- 
ing. Pawlet is divided nearly in the 
centre by a range of mountains, ex- 
tending through it from south to north. 
The most remarkable summit is a lit- 
tle north of the centi'C, and is called 
Haystack Mountain. The soil is dry 
and warm, easily cultivated, and pro- 
duces good crops of grain and grass. 

Boundaries. North by Wells, east 



by Danbj, south by Rupert, and west 
by Granville, N. Y. 

First Settlers. The settlement of the 
tOAvn was commenced in 1761, by Si- 
meon Barton and Win. Fairfield. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized August 8, 1781. 
The Rev. Lewis Beebe, the first settled 
minister, was settled over it from June 
14, 1787, to May 6, 1791; the Rev. 
John Griswold. from Oct. 23, 1793, to 
Aug. 11, 1830. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,477 
bushels; Indian corn, 10,950 bushels ; 
potatoes, 41,920 bushels ; hay, 6,931 
tons; maple sugar, 10,300 pounds; 
wool, 49,422 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-one miles south- 
west from Rutland, and twenty-seven 
south-east from "^Yhitehall, N. Y. 


Caledonia Co. Onion River Pond, 
so called from its giving rise to one of 
the principal branches of Onion or 
Winooski River, lies in the western 
part of the town, and covers about 300 
acres. There are two considerable 
streams passing off to the east into Ste- 
vens' Branch, which afford numerous 
mill privileges. 

A ridge of land passes through the 
Avestem part, but there is no very con- 
siderable elevation in the town. The 
western part is a hard soil, but the 
eastern is rich, and pleasantly diversi- 
fied with hills and valleys, being inhab- 
ited by a great number of respectable 
and wealthy farmers. There is, in the 
eastern part of the tOAvn, a natural bog 
meadow, containing an inexhaustible 
quantity of shell marl, from which lime 
has been manufactured to a considera- 
ble extent. The color of the marl is a 
blnish white. 

There is also plenty of limestone, 
from which lime is made. 

One of the most remarlcable occur- 
rences in the town was the loss of a 
man's great toe, by frost, in the month 
of June. Mr. Walker, the gentleman 
who sustained the loss, was eighty-four 
years old, and was frozen, in conse- 
quence of being lost in the woods, and 

lying out through the night of the 8th 
of June, 1816. 

There is a pleasant village situated 
on an elevated spot near the centre of 
the tOA\Ti, which is a place of consider- 
able business. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Danville, 
easterly by Bamet, southerly by Gro- 
ton, and westerly by Marshfield and 

First Settlers. In the spring of 1775 
Jonathan Elkins came to Peacham, 
with several hired men, and began im- 
provements upon the lot he had pitch- 
ed the year before. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1794, 
and in 1799 they settled the Rev. Leon- 
ard Worcester for their pastor. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 5,491 
bushels ; Indian corn, 2,377 bushels ; 
potatoes, 67,816 bushels; hay, 4,001 
tons: maple sugar, 21,180 pounds; 
wool, 17,786 pounds. 

Distances. Six miles south-west from 
Danville, and thirty east from Mont- 
pelier. This town lies in the neighbor- 
hood of the Connecticut River Rail- 


I Bennington Co. This is a Green 
Mountain toAvnship, high and broken. 
It contains two large fish ponds, from 
which issue beautiful mountain streams. 
Here is fine fishing and delightful 

Boundaries. North by Mount Tabor, 
east by Land grove, south by Winhall, 
and west by Dorset. 

First Setthr. The settlement of this 
town was commenced about th^ year 
1773, by Wm. Bariow, from Wood- 
stock, Ct. 

First Minister. The Rev. Oliver 
Plympton was ordained over the Con- 
gregational Church in 1813, and died 
the next year. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 534 
bushels : Indian com, 320 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 23,100 bushels ; hay, 1,290 tons ; 
maple sugar, 7,640 pounds; wool, 1,610 

Distances. Thirty- miles north north- 
east from Bennington, and thirty south- 
west from Wrndsor. 




RuTLAXD Co. Tvyeed Rivex' is 
formed in this town by two branches, 
which afford mill sites : it empties into j 
White River, which passes through ; 
the north-east corner. The si\rface of 
ihe town is mountainous, and the soil j 
hard. I 

Boundaries. Eastei-ly by Rochester, \ 
south-easterly by Stockbridge, and west- 
erly by Chittenden and Goshen. 

Fi7'st Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1786, by Thomas Hodg- 
kins, Stephen Holt, George Martin, 
Daniel and Jacob Bowe, and a Mr. 

First Minister, A Congregational 
Church was organized in 1793: Rev. 
Justus Parsons was settled over it 
from 1814 to 1831. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 584 
bushels^ Indian corn, 1,531 bushels^ 
potatoes, 16,373 bushels 5 hay, 1,632 
tons ; wool, 5,220 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty-five miles south- 
west from Montpeiier. and seventeen 
north-east from Rutland. 


Rutland Co. Otter Creek, which 
flows through the middle of Pittsford, 
from south to north, with a gen- 
tle meandering current is the princi- 
pal stream, and its A^idth here is from 
forty to fifty yards. Furnace Brook, a 
considerable tributary of Otter Creek, 
is formed by the union of East Creek 
and Philadelphia River. Along these 
streams are extensive meadows of the 
rich alluvial soil. On Furnace Bix>ok 
and its branches are numerous mill 
privileges, Avhich are well improved. 

There are two ponds in the town : 
one in the south-eastern part, covering 
about twenty acres ; and the other in 
the north-eastern, covering about thii-ty 
acres. There are no mountains. 

The soil is generally loam, with 
some tracts which are sandy, and some 
of clay. The timber is oak, of several 

Pittsford abounds in iron ore, which 
makes the best of ware and bar iron, 
and has inexhaustible quarries of ex- 

cellent marble. The iron ore yields 
about twenty-five per cent, of metallic 
iron. The marble is coarse grained, 
and somewhat flexible. Much of it is 
conveyed down Otter Creek to Mid- 
dlebury, to be sawn and manufactured 
into jambs, &c. The oxyde of man- 
ganese is also found in this town. 

In the eastern part of Pittsford is a 
deep cavern in which ice may common- 
ly be found in the months ©f July and 

There are two pleasant and flourish- 
ing villages in the town ; one near the 
centre, the other on Furnace Brook. 
These A-illages will be greatly benefit- 
ted by the railroad from Rutland, 
which passes near them, 

A female child was lx»rn here in 1784, 
who died at the age of nine years, and 
weighed 200 jxiunds. 

Boundaries. North by Brandon, east 
by Chittenden, south by Rutland, and 
west by Hubbardton and a small part 
of Ira. 

First Settlers. Tlie settlement of 
the town was commenced in the year 
1769, by Messrs. Gideon and Benjamin 
Cooley- from Greenwich, Mass. 5 they 
wei-e soon joined by Roger Ste- 
vens, Felix Powell, Ebenezer Hopkins, 
Stephen Mead, Moses Olmsted, Ed- 
ward Owen, Joshua Woodward, and 
others, from Massachusetts and Con- 

First Minister. Elder Elisha Rich 
was ordained over the Baptist Church 
in 1784. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 1 ,837 
bushels; Indian com, 13,425 bushels ; 
potatoes, 30,661 bushels; hay, 7,162 
tons ; maple sugar, 20,539 pounds ; 
wool, 54,1 28 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-four miles south- 
west from Montpeiier, and eight north 
from Rutland. 

The great Southern Railroad be- 
tween Boston and Burlington passes 
through Pittsford. 


Washington Co. Plainfield is 
watered by Winooski River, which 
passes through the north-west comer, 
and by Great Bi-ook, which passes 



through the town in a nortlnvesterly 
direction into Winooski River. At 
the junction of these streams is a neat 

There is a small pond in the eastern 
part, which is well furnished >\4th ex- 
cellent trout. There is also a mineral 
spring, similar to those in Xewbury, 
which is a place of some resort for in- 
valids. It is situated so near the mar- 
gin of Great Brook, as to be overflowed 
at high Avater. 

The surface of the tovm is uneven, 
but is well timbered. There is but lit- 
tle waste land, and the soil is generally 
of a good quality. 

Boundaries. North by Marshfield, 
east by Goshen Gore, south by Barre 
and Orange, and west by Montpelier. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced about the year 1794, by 
Theodore Perkins, Joseph Batchelder, 
and Seth Freeman. They were joined 
the next year by Jonathan and Brad- 
ford Kinney, Moulton Batchelder, John 
Moore, and others, from different parts 
of New England. 

First Ministers. A Congi'egational 
Church was organized here about the 
year 1796 or 1797 ; a Methodist, about 
the year 1800; and a Universalist So- 
ciety, about the year 1820. These so- 
cieties have generally been supplied by 
itinerant preachers. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 4.298 
bushels; Indian corn. 1,036 bushels: 
potatoes, 26,316 bushels; hay, 2,832 
tons; maple sugar, 13,980 pounds; 
wool, 11,201 pounds. 

Distances. Nine miles south-east from 


Windsor Co. The principal stream 
in this township is Black Rivei*, which 
is formed here, and runs south-easterly 
into Ludlow. On this stream are sev- 
eral good mill sites, and a number of 
natural ponds, which abound in fish. 
Two considerable branches of Quechee 
River also rise in this tOA^m. A large 
share of the rocks are primitive lime- 
stone, which makes the best of lime. 
Not less than 2,000 hogsheads are an- 
nually manufactured, and transported 

to different paits of the country. Some 
of the limestone makes excellent mar 
ble : and in 1 834 a factory, where 1 50 
saws can be put in operation, was 
erected on Black River for its manu- 
facture. Some of the marble is white, 
and some beautifully variegated. 

The surface of Plymouth is consid- 
erably broken. Two mountains ex- 
tend through it, parallel to the river, 
and at no great distance from it. That 
on the north-eastern side is very ab- 
rupt, and is known by the name of 
Mount Tom. Near the meeting-house 
is an extensive bed of steatite, or soap- 

At the foot of the mountain, on the 
south-western side of the river, and 
about eighty rods from it, is situated 
the Plymouth Cave. This cavern was 
discovered about the 1st of July, 1818. 
— See Caves. 

Boundaries. North by Bridgewater, 
east by Reading, south by LudloAv and 
a part of Mount Holly, and west by 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Plymouth was commenced in 1777, by 
John Mudge, who Avas soon followed 
by Aaron HcAvett and others. 

First Ministers. The religious soci- 
eties are Congregationalists, Baptists, 
Methodists, Christians, and Freewill 
Baptists. The Congregational Church 
was formed in 1806, and the Rev. 
Prince Jennie settled over it for five or 
six years. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,9 1 
bushels; Indian corn, 3,374 bushels; 
potatoes, 59,840 bushels ; hay, 4,127 
tons ; maple sugar, 13,480 pounds ; 
Avool, 17,105 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty-two miles south 
from Montpelier, and fifteen west by 
north from Windsor. 


Windsor Co. The surface of this 
toAVTi is considerably uneven, but the 
soil is generally good. There are to 
be seen here the traces of a hurricane, 
which formerly passed through the 
toAvnship from Avest to east. The tim- 
ber Avas, probably, all laid prostrate, 
through the distance of seven or eight 



miles, and about one hundred rods in i are two pleasant villages in Poultney, 
width. I called East Poultney and West Poidt- 

White River touches upon the north- ! ney. Both of these villages are very 
east comer, and Quechee River touches ' flourishing in their trade and manufac- 
upon the south-east corner. The other { tures, and contain a number of hand- 

streams are small 

Boundaries. North by Sharon, east 
by Hartford, south by Woodstock, and 
west by Barnard. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Pomfret was commenced in the sirring 
of 1770, by Bartholomew Durkee, from 
Pomfret, Ct., Avho came into it Avith 
his family, consisting of a wife and 
five children, on the 6th day of March. 
In coming into the town, the family 
proceeded on foot, upon a snow shoe 
path, six miles, drawing their furniture 
upon hand-sleds. In the course of a 
few days they were joined in the set- 
tlement by Mr. John Clieedle and 

Fiist Ministers. The first settled 
minister was the Rev. Elisha Hutchin- ' tons ; maple sugar. 
son, of the Congregational order. He j wool, 34,946 pounds 

some buildings. 

Boundaries. North by Castleton, east 
by IN'Iiddletown and Ira, south by Wells, 
and west by Hampton. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1771, by Thomas Ash- 
ley and Ebenezer Allen. The early 
settlers were mostly emigrants from 
Connecticut and the western part of 

First Ministers. Rev. Ithamer Hib- 
bard was settled over the Congrega- 
tional Church in 1780; dismissed in 
1796. His successor was Rev. James 
Thompson, from 1803 to 1820. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,6 1 3 
bushels ; Indian com, 22,082 bushels ; 
potatoes, 28,724 bushels; hay, 5,013 
10,765 ipounds; 

was ordained Dec. 14, 1784, and dis- 
missed Jan. 8, 1795. He was succeed- 
ed by the Rev. Ignatius Thompson, 
who was ordained Nov. 20, 1805, and 
dismissed April 26, 1811. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 4,435 
bushels; Indian corn, 11,021 bushels; 
potatoes, 65,135 bushels ; hay, 5,947 
tons ; maple sugar, 39,264 pounds ; 
wool^ 32,683 pounds^ 

Distances. Forty-five miles south 
from Montpelier. and twenty north 
north-west from Windsor. 

The great Northern Railroad passes 
through this town. 


Rutland Co, This township is 
watered by Poultney River and its nu- 
merous tributaries, which afford a 
number of valuable mill sites. The 
soil is generally warai and productive, 
and the surface pleasantly diversified 
with hills and valleys. Along Poultney 
.River the alluvial flats are extensive 
and very productive. The timber is 
mostly deciduous, there being but few 

A violent freshet, in July, 1811, 
swept off a number of mills. There 

Distances. Sixty miles south-west 
from Montpelier, and thirteen south- 
west from Rutland. 


Bennington Co. The surface of 
this to^vnship is considerably uneven, 
but the soil is generally good, and pro- 
duces plentiful crops. It is well adapt- 
ed to the production of grain and 
grass, and here are kept some of the 
finest dauies in the State. The prin- 
cipal stream is Hoosic River, which is 
[formed here and passes oflf in a north- 
westerly direction into the to-wTi of Hoo- 
sic, N. Y. Along this stream are some 
rich and beautiful tracts of intervale, 
and on it are several valuable stands 
for mills. 

Some of the head branches of Wal- 
loomscoik River x'ise in the north-east- 
ern part of PoAVTial, and pass off into 

Boundaries. North by Bennington, 
east by Stamford, south by Williams- 
town, Mass., and west by Hoosic, New 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Pownal, under the New Hampshire 
charter, was commenced in the spring 




of 1762, there being at that time four 
or five Dutch families within the limits 
of the township, claiming under the 
" Hoosic Patent," granted by the gov- 
enament of Ne^v York. Among the 
early .settlers of the town were the 
families of Wright, Gardn£j:,-M«;:o;an, 
Dunham, Noble, Card 
and Seelye, but the 
they severally came 
not ascertained. 

Productions of the 
bushels ; Indian co: 
potatoes, 28,215 bui 
tons ; maple sugar 
wool, 22,367 pounds. ^_^ 

Distances. Thirty miles ' west by 
south from Brattleborough, and eight 
south from Bennington. 


Windham Co. This town is finely 
located, on the west side of Connecti- 
cut River, and embosoms a large tract 
of excellent intervale land, called the 
" Great Meadows." There is also a 
good tract of intervale on Sacket's 
Brook, a fine mill stream, with beau- 
tiful falls, on which are erected valu- 
able mills for the manufacture of wool- 
len goods, paper, and various other 

Sacket's Brook is a large and con- 
stant stream; it falls 150 feet in the 
course of 100 rods. There are various 
mineral substances in the town worthy 
of the notice of the geologist. The 
village is pleasant, and bears the marks 
of taste and prosperity. 

On the 19th of August, 1788, a vio- 
lent tempest prostrated a great part of 
the forest trees here. In 1770 the 
town was oveiTun by immense swarms 
of worms, which, like the swarms of 
Egypt, ate up every green thing ; also, 
to a limited extent, in 1823 and 4. 

Bowidaries. ' North by Westminster, 
east by Connecticut River, which sepa- 
rates it from Westmoreland, N. H., 
south by Dummerston, and west by 

Fi7-st Settlers. A settlement was 
commenced and a fort built on the 
" Great Meadow," so called, in the 

vious to the breaking out of the French 
war, in 1744; but on the commence- 
ment of hostilities the fort was evacu- 
ated, and the inhabitants, together with 
those from adjacent towns, retired to 
Northfield, Mass., which was the fron- 
tier post during that war. One cir- 
cumstance took place, however, pre- 
ious to the breaking up of the fort, 
" ich undoubtedly hastened that event, 

ich was as follows : — "A man by 
name of William Phipps was hoe- 
corn, on the 5th of July, 1745, near 
south-west corner of the meadow, 
vhen two Indians sprang upon him, 
and dragged him into the woods near 
by. Here, after a short parley, one of 
the Indians departed, leaving the pris- 
oner under the care of his comrade. 
Phipps, with the hardihood character- 
istic of the pioneers in these wilds, 
watching an opportunity, struck his 
keeper down with his hoe, and, seizing 
his gun, gave the other, who was re- 
turning, a fatal wound. Thus at lib- 
erty again, he sought refuge in the fort, 
but, unfortunately, before he reached 
it, he fell in with three other Indians, 
who butchered the brave fellow in cold 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized Oct. 17, 1776, at 
which time they settled the Rev. Josiah 
Goodhue, who died November 14, 1797. 
His successors have been Rev. Jaims 
Remington, from Feb. 12, 1800, to Feb. 
15, 1803. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 993 
bushels; Indian com, 12,225 bushels; 
potatoes, 26,390 bushels; hay, 2,849 
tons ; maple sugar, 8,830 pounds ; 
wool, 13,730 pounds. 

Distances. Nine miles east from 
Newfane, and nine north from Brattle- 
borough. The Connecticut River Rail- 
road passes through the town. 


Orange County. Randolph is wa 
tered by the second and third branch 
of White Rivei-; the former running 
through the eastern, and the latter 
through the western part of the town. 
These streams and their tributaries 

eastern part of the town, a little pi-e- 1 aflTord a number of advantageous sitna- 



tions for mills. The timber is, prin- 
cipally, maple, beech, and birch, with 
some hemlock, and spruce. The sur- 
face of Randolph is considerably ele- 
vated, but is less broken than that of 
the towns generally in this vicinity. 
The soil is productive, and the fanning 
interest extensive. 

There are here three pleasant vil- 
lages ; one in the centre of the town, 
another in the eastern, and the other in 
the western part. The Centre Village 
is very handsomely situated on elevated 
ground. These villages are places of 
considerable business and some manu- 

The West Randolph Academy was 
incorporated in 1847. 

Boundaries. North by Brookfiel(^ 
east by Tunbridge, south by Bethel^ 
and west by Braintrec. 

First Settlers. This to^yn was char- 
tered in 1781, and was settled three or 
four years before by Wm. Evans and 
family, Edward Evans, John Park, and 
Experience Davis. 

First Ministers. The Rev. Elijah 
Brainard was ordained over the Con- 
gregational Church in 1786, and dis- 
missed in 1798. The Rev. Tilton 
Eastman Avas settled in 1801, and dis- 
missed in 1830. 

Productions of the Soil. "Wheat, 5,525 
bushels ; Indian com, 1 8,499 bushels ; 
potatoes, 112,598 bushels; hay, 8,831 
tons ; maple sugar, 34,660 pounds ; 
wool, 40,782 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-three miles south 
from Montpelier, and nine south-west 
from Chelsea. 

The great Northern Railroad passes 
through the town. 


Windsor Co The surface of this 
town is uneven, and the elevations | 
pretty abrupt. Towards the w^est part j 
is an elevated tract of land, extending j 
through the town from north to south, | 
from which issues its principal streams, j 
It is worthy of remark, that no water j 
runs into this town. In the south-west 
part, and on the line betw^een Reading \ 
and Plymouth, is a natural pond, about ! 

200 rods in length and Mty in breadth. 
The outlet of this pond is to the south, 
and leads into Plymouth Pond. From 
the north-west part of the town the 
streams take a northerly direction, and 
fall into Quechee River at Bridgewa- 
ter. From the middle and north-east 
parts the streams take an easterly di- 
rection, and imite with Connecticut 
River at Windsor ; whilst those in the 
south-east part take a south-easterly 
direction, and fall into Black River at 
Weathersfield. Some small streams, 
however, I'ise in the north part, and, 
taking a north-easterly direction, fall 
into Quechee River, at Woodstock, 
North Village. The streams in Read- 
ing, though generally small, afford a 
tolerable supply of water for common 

The soil in Reading is of a mid- 
dling quality, and affords excellent pas- 

There are three villages in the town ; 
Reading Centi-e Village, South Read- 
ing, and Felchville. These places 
have considerable trade and manufac- 

Boundaries. North by Woodstock, 
east by Windsor, south by Cavendish, 
and west by Plymouth. 

First Settlers. The settlement of the 
township was commenced about the 
year 1772, by Andrew Spear, who re- 
moved his family here from Walpole, 
N. H. This was' for several years the 
only family in town. About the year 
1778, John Weld, Esq., moved his fam- 
ily from Pomfret, Ct. 

First Minister. On the 23d of Nov. 
1787, the Rev. Nahum Sergeant was 
ordained to the pastoral care of the 
Congregational Church in Reading, 
with a permanent salary for life. A 
log meeting house was erected about 
the same time. The chm-ch, however, 
were not long blest with his labors ; 
for in visiting his friends in Chelsea, 
Mass., he died of the small-pox, in 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,950 
bushels ; Indian com, 3,984 bushels ; 
potatoes, 22,540 bushels; hay, 4,177 
tons ; maple sugar, 24.215 pounds ; 
wool, 18,379 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty-three miles south 



from Montpelier, and ten west from 


"Bennington Co. This is a moun- 
tainous township, at the south-east cor- 
ner of the county, watered by Deer- 
field River. Much of the land in the 
town is too elevated to admit of culti- 
vation. When it was first settled is 

Boundaries. North by Searsburgh, 
east by Whitingham, south by Rowe, 
Mass., and Avest by Stamford and a 
part of Woodford. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 249 
bushels ; Indian com, 972 bushels ; 
potatoes, 20,952 bushels; hay, 2,146 
tons; maple sugar, 27,217 pounds; 
wool, 5,376 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles south-east 
from Bennington, and eighteen west 
by south from Brattleborough. 


Franklin Co. This is a moun- 
tainous township at the north-east cor- 
ner of the county, on the line of Can- 
ada, and watered by Missisco River 
and its branches. There is some good 
land along the river ; and the upland, 
though rough, affords good grazing. 

Boundaries. North by Sutton, Can- 
ada, east by Jay, south by Montgom- 
ery, and west by Berkshire. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1797 ; the town was 
organized in 1799. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,238 
bushels; Indian com, 2,112 bushels; 
potatoes, 39,706 bushels; hay, 2,236 
tons; maple sugar, 19,505 pounds; 
wool, 5,168 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty miles north by west 
from Montpelier, and twenty-four north- 
east from St. Albans. 


Chittenden Co. The town is 
finely watered by Winooski and Hun- 
tington Rivers, on the banks of which 
are good mill sites and large tracts of 
beautiful meadow. The village is 

neat, and the centre of considerable 
travel. This is a healthy place, and 
noted for the longevity of its inhab- 

Boundaries. Northerly by Jericho, 
easterly by Bolton, southerly by Hun- 
tington, and westerly by Williston. 

First Settlers. The first attempt to 
forai a settlement here was made in 
1775, by Amos Brownson and John 
Chamberlain, with their families ; but 
they abandoned the town in the fall, 
and did not i-eturn till the close of the 
revolutionary war. In the spring of 
1784 they returned to the farms, on 
which they had made beginnings, ac- 
companied by Asa and Joel Brownson, 
Samuel and Joshua Chamberlain, Jas. 
ijplly, Joseph Wilson, and Jesse Mc- 

First Ministers. The religious deno- 
minations are the Congregationalist, 
Baptist, Free-nUl Baptist, and Univer- 
salist. Elder Ezra Wilmot was or- 
dained over the Baptist Chui'ch, and 
continued several years. He was the 
first settled minister, and there was no 
other in town till Sept. 25, 1823, when 
Elder John Peck was settled over the 
same church. There is a meeting- 
house in the centre of the town having 
sixteen sides, with a steeple rising from 
the centre, and owned by the several 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,94 1 
bushels; Indian com, 7,864 bushels; 
potatoes, 38,115 bushels; hay, 3,767 
tons; maple sugar, 11,650 pounds; 
wool, 11,717 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-five miles north- 
west from Montpelier, and thirteen 
south-east from Burlington. The North- 
em Railroad passes in this vicinity. 


Addison Co. This is a mountain- 
ous township, the surface and soil of 
which are too broken and cold for much 
cultivation. Middlebury River and the 
Tumpike from Royalton to Vergennes 
pass through it. 

This town was granted in 1781, and 
chartered to Abel Thompson and asso- 

Boundaries. North by Avery's Glore 



and Bristol, east by Granville, south 
by Goshen, and west by Middlebury. 

Productions of tJie Soil. Wheat, 1 70 
bushels; Indian corn, 120 bushels; 
potatoes, 9,360 bushels ; hay, 690 
tons ; maple sugar, 4,200 pounds ; 
wool, 1,796 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-six miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and nine east 
from Middlebury. 

This town is easily approached from 
the great Southern Railroad. 


Windsor Co. The principal stream 
is White River, which runs through 
the township from north to south. 
About half a mile south of the centre, 
it receives a considerable tributary from 
the west, which originates in Goshen. 
On each of these streams are good sit- 
uations for mills. 

Rochester is mountainous and bro- 
ken, but contains much good land. 
The intein-ale along the river is hand- 
some, but not extensive. The timber 
is mostly hard wood. 

There is a pleasant village situated 
near the centre of the to^\^l, on the 
eastern bank of White River, and is a 
place of some business. 

A part of Goshen was annexed to 
Rochester, in 1847. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Braintree 
and a small part of Kingston, easterly 
by Bethel, southerly by Pittsfield, and 
westerly by Hancock. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Rochester Avas commenced about the 
close of the revolutionary war. 

First Minister. Rev. Salmon Hurl- 
but wa3 settled over the Congregation- 
al Church in 1822. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,367 
bushels ; Indian corn, 4,446 bushels ; 
potatoes, 44,945 bushels ; hay, 5,250 
tons ; maple sugar, 39,110 pounds; 
wool, 29,980 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty miles south south- 
west from Montpelier, and thirty-seven 
north-west from Windsor. The great 
Northern Railroad passes in this A'ici- 
nity, through the town of Bethel, about 
six miles distant. 


Windham Co. Connecticut River 
washes the eastern border of this town- 
ship. William's River runs through 
the central part, and unites with the 
Connecticut about three miles north 
of Bellows Falls. Saxton's River runs 
through the south part, and falls into 
the Connecticut a mile south of Bel- 
lows Falls, in the north-east comer of 
Westminster. These streams afford 
a great number of valuable sites for 

The surface of Rockingham is some- 
what broken, but the soil is in general 
warm and productive. 

Bellows Falls are in Connecticut 
River, near the south-east comer of 
this town. The breadth of the river 
above the falls is from sixteen to twen- 
ty-two rods. At the falls a large rock 
divides the stream into two channels, 
each about ninety feet wide. TMien 
the water is low, the eastern appears 
crossed by a bar of solid rock, and the 
whole river flows into the western 
channel, where it is contracted to the 
breadth of sixteen feet, and flows vnth. 
astonishing rapidity. There are seve- 
ral pitches, one above another, for the 
distance of half a mile, the largest of 
which is that where the rock divides 
the stream. Notwithstanding the ve- 
locity of the current, the salmon for- 
merly passed up this fall, and were 
taken many miles above ; but the shad 
were never taken above here. 

In 1785, Col. Enoch Hale erected a 
bridge over the Connecticut at these 
falls. Its length was 365 feet, and it 
was supported in the middle by the 
great rock mentioned above. Till 1 796 
this was the only bridge across the 
Connecticut. The bridge here is about 
fifty feet from the water, and from it 
the traveller has ani interesting and 
sublime view of the fkOs. The whole 
descent of the river ar- these falls is 
forty-two feet. They are passed by a 
canal, on the Rockingham side, con- 
sisting of nine locks, and are half a 
mile in length. Around these falls 
is an interesting locality of minerals. 
The rocks are principally gneiss. 

There are in Rockingham several 



pleasant villages. Bellows Falls Village, 
situated on the bank of the Connecti- 
cut at Bellows Falls, in the soutli-east- 
em part of the town, is the most im- 
portant. Rockingham Village is situa- 
ted near the centre of the town. «Sa:r- 
ton^s River Village is situated on the 
stream of that name, in the south part 
of Rockingham. The village of Cam- 
bridge Port is in the south-west corner 
of the town. These villages are veiy 
neat, and contain many handsome 

Boundaries. North by Springfield, 
east by Connecticut River, which sep- 
arates it from Charlestown, N. H.. 
south by AVestminster, and west by 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Rockingham was commenced in 1753, 
by Moses Wright, Joel Bigelow, and 
Simeon Knight, who emigrated from 
Massachusetts. The attention of the 
first settlers was principally directed 
to fisliing for salmon and shad, which 
were then taken in great abundance at 
Bellows Falls. For this reason agri- 
culture was, for many years, much 

First Minister. The Congregation- 
al Church was organized about 1770. 
Rev. Samuel Whiting was settled over 
it from October 27, 1773, to May 18, 

Manufactures. There are large and 
important manufactures in this town, 
the statistics of which, we regret to 
say, we cannot give at present. The 
immense water power, Avhich this and 
its neighboring town of Walpole pos- 
sesses, the salubrity of the climate, the 
industry of the inhabitants, and lo- 
cated Jn the heart of a fertile country. 
are circumstances which give promise 
of great prosperity to their location. 
When to these advantages is added 
the power of steam, to facilitate the 
transportation of persons and property 
to and from the Atlantic, no one can 
doubt that this place stands, for all 
manufacturing purposes, almost with- 
out a rival in New England. 

The Phoenix Mill Co. in this town 
was incorporated in 1847. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,69.5 
bushels; Indian com, 1,221 bushels: 

potatoes, 25,855 bushels : hay, 2,055 
tons : maple sugar. 16,198 lbs.: wool, 
32,371 pounds. 

Distances. Eighty-five miles south 
from Montpelier, and eighteen north- 
east from Newfane. 

This place is accommodated by the 
passage through it of the great South- 
ern Railroad, which runs from Boston 
to Burlington, by the Connecticut Ri- 
ver Railroad, and by the Sullivan 
Railroad, on the opposite side of the 


Washikgtox County. Roxburj- 
is situated on the height of land be- 
tween Winooski and "\ATiite Rivers, 
and has consequently no large streams. 
The waters in the north part flow- 
through Dog River into Winooski 
River, and those in the south part 
through Ayres' Brook, and the third 
branch into White River. 

The surface of Roxbui-y is uneven, 
but the soil is well adapted to the pro- 
duction of gi-ass, and in general yields 
good crops of grain. The timber is 
mostly hard wood. The rocks in the 
eastern part are argillaceous slate, and 
abound with cubical crystals of the 
sulphuret of iron. Iron ore is found 
in the south-eastern part. 

There is a small village in the north- 
east comer, on a principal branch of 
Dog River. 

Bou7idaries. North by Northfield, 
east by Brooldield, south by Braintree 
and Granville, and west by AVarren. 

First Settler. The settlement of 
Roxbury was commenced in 1789, by 
Christopher Huntington. He was ori- 
ginally from Mansfield, Ct., but resid- 
ed a while in Norwich, in this State, 
previous to his moving into the town. 
He, like many other settlers of new 
townships, had to draw his eflfects sev- 
eral miles upon a hand-sled, and had 
many hard.ships to encounter. 

First Ministeis. The various denom- 
inations of Christians in this town 
generally depend on itinerant preach- 

Productions of the Soil. AMieat, 2,695 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,221 bushels; 



potatoes, 25,855 bushels ; hay, 2,055 
tons; maple sugar, 16,198 lbs. ; wool, 
9,061 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles south-west 
from Montpelier. 

This place borders on Northfield, 
through wliich the Northern Railroad 


Windsor Co. The surface of this 
township is somewhat broken and hilly, 
but the soil is good, particularly along 
White River and its branches, where it 
is of a superior quality. White River 
runs through the town in an easterly 
direction, and receives here its first 
and second branches, which are the 
only streams of much consequence. 

Royalton Village is pleasantly situated 
on the bank of White River, about half 
way between the mouths of the first 
and second branches, and near the cen- 
tre of the town. 

Boundaries. North by Tunbridge, 
east by Sharon, south by Barnard, and 
west by Bethel. 

First Settlers. The first permanent 
settlement was made in 1771, by Mr. 
Robert Havens, who this year moved 
his family into the town. The next 
year he was joined in the settlement 
by Mr. Elisha Kent and family, and 
the inhabitants were so much increased 
in the course of a few years, that the 
town was organized. 

First Ministers. The Rev. John 
Searle was the first settled minister. 
He was ordained over the Congrega- 

tional Church in 1783, and died in 
1787 or 88. In 1789 the Rev. Azel 
Washburn Avas ordained in liis place, 
and dismissed in 1792. Rev. Martin 
TuUer was ordained in 1794, and died 
in 1813. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,727 
bushels; Indian com, 11,383 bushels; 
potatoes, 60,835 bushels; hay, 5,173 
tons ; maple sugar, 30,470 pounds ; 
wool, 20,828 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty miles south from 
Montpelier, and twenty-five north north- 
west from Windsor.' The Northern 
Railroad passes through this town. 


Bexxington^ Co. A part of this 
township is mountainous, but the soil 
is generally good for grazing. Rupert 
produces some fine cattle. It is wa- 
tered by Pawlet River, and a branch 
of the Battenkill, on which streams are 
mills of various kinds. 

Boundaries. North by Pawlet, east 
by Dorset, south bv Sandgate, and west 
by Hebron, N. Y. ' 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this town was commenced in 1767, by 
Isaac Blood. Reuben Harmon, Oliver 
Scott, and a Mr. Eastman. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,442 
bushels; Indian com, 5,417 bushels; 
potatoes, 30,920 bushels; hay, 4,804 
tons ; maple sugar, 5,900 pounds ; 
wool, 26,446 pounds. 

Distances. Seventy-eight miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and twenty-five 
north from Bennington. 


Rutland is the chief town. This county is bounded north by Addison 
County, east by Windsor County, south by Bennington County, and west by 
the State of New York. The principal streams are Otter Creek, Black, White, 
Que^chy, and Pawlet Rivers. There is some fine land in this county along 
Otter Creek, but a large portion of it is elevated, and some parts mountainous. 
The soil, however, is generally warm, and well suited for grazing. Many 
cattle ar« annually taken to market. Excellent iron ore is found at the base 
of the mountains, and a range of marble quarries extends the whole length of 



the county, from north to south. This marble is of a fine quajity ; much of 
it is wrought and transported. — See Tables. 


The Supreme Cowt commences its session at Rutland, on the first Tuesday 
after the fourth Tuesday of January ; and the County Court on the second 
Tuesdays in April and September. 

The United States Circuit Court sits here annually on the third, and the 
District Court on the sixth day of October. 


Rutland Co. This is a shire 
town. The principal stream in Rut- 
land is Otter Creek, which enters the 
town about the middle of the south 
line, and leaves it about the middle of 
the north line, cutting it into two near- 
ly equal parallelograms. Tributary to 
this are West River, rising in Tin- 
mouth, and East Creek, one of whose 
branches rises in Chittenden, and tlie 
other in Mendon, the latter entering 
Otter Creek one mile above Gookin's 
Tails, and the former about forty rods 
below. In addition to these, there are 
two other streams of less magnitude, 
floAving in above East Creek, on the 
right bank ; the first of which, near 
the south line, is Cold River, the other, 
one mile and a half below, is the con- 
fluent stream fonned by the union of 
the Moon and Mussey Brooks, so call- 
ed. Near the north-west corner of the 
town, on the north line, another stream, 
called Castleton River, enters ; and, 
after pursuing a southerly course about 
three miles, turns to the right, and 
passes off into. Ira. On all of these 
streams are convenient sites for mills, 
and other machineiy, most of which 
are already occupied. 

The soil of Rutland presents all the 
varieties from heavy loam to a light 
sand ; the eastern half appearing to 
be chiefly of primitive formation^ while 
that of the western is transitrrry. Among 
the useful minerals are found consi- 
derable quantities of iron, superior 

clay for bricks, and an abundance of 
lime in almost all its various forms. 
In the west part, several quarries of 
veiy beautiful white and clouded mar- 
ble have been opened, and from which 
fire places, monuments, and other use- 
ful and ornamental articles, are manu- 
factured, both for domestic use and for 
the New York and other markets. 
The quarry opened within a few years, 
near Sutherland's Falls, is exceedingly 
fine and beautiful, and is wj-ought to 
great extent. 

Rutland is divided into two parish- 
es, denominated East and West parish. 
Rutland Village, situated in the East 
Parish, is the most important place. 
It is handsomely situated, principally 
on a street running north and south, 
and contains many beautiful buildings. 
In the West Parish are two small vil- 
lages, called West Rutland and Gook- 
kin''s Falls. 

This town has hitherto possessed all 
the advantages of soil, climate, and 
water power, to render it as prosper- 
ous as any part of our country : but 
now, when this site of industry and 
Aveaith is brought within a few hours 
ride of the Atlantic coast, by that mag- 
nificent power which sets at defiance 
all horse teams, stage coaches, baggage 
wagons, and caiTyalls, and unites the 
town and country almost by magic, nc 
one can doubt the fortunate destiny 
which awaits Rutland and its neigh- 
boring towns. 

The village of Rutland was incor- 
porated in 1847. 



Boundaries. North by Pittsford, east 
by Mendon, south by Clarendon, and 
west by Ira. 

First Settlers. Tliis town was char- 
tered in 1761. During the war of the 
revokition, it was, for some time, a 
frontier town, and was subject to all 
the commotions and inconveniences 
incident to its situation. Through it 
lay the only military road from Charles- 
town, N. H., to Ticondcroga and Crown 
Point, on Lake Champlain. During 
the Avar, the Vermont troops, or Green 
Mountain Bo>/s, erected here two small 
picket forts, sufficient to contain about 
100 men each. One of them was sit- 
uated on the ground occupied by the 
present village, in the East Parish, 
about twelve rods from the spot where 
the court house now stands. The 
other fort was situated at the head of 
the falls in Otter Creek, then called 
Mead's Falls. As a means of check- 
ing the incursions of the enemy, and 
of facilitating the communications be- 
tween the eastern part of the State and 
Lake Champlain, these forts were found 
to be very ijgeful. 

First Ministers. The first Congre- 
gational Church was organized in the 
West Parish, in 1773, and has had the 
folloAving settled ministers. Rev. Be- 
najah Root, from 1774 to 1787 ; Rev. 
Lemuel Haynes, from March, 1788, to 

"Productions of the Soil. AVheat, 3, 708 
bushels; Indian corn, 19,347 bushels; 
potatoes, 48,193 bushels; hay, 10,025 
tons : maple sugar, 51,833 pounds ; 
wool, 69,902 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty miles south-west 
from Montpelier. 

The great Southern Railroad be- 
tween Boston and Burlington passes 
through this town, 


Caledonia Co. This town is sit- 
uated on the west bank of Connecticut 
River, opposite to Bath, N. H. Rye- 
gate is watered by Wells River, some 
smaller streams, and sevei-al ponds. 
"There is not much intervale land on 
the river, in the town, but the soil is 
generally rich, and very productive of 


all kinds of vegetables and grain, but 
more particularly of grass. The pro 
ducts of the soil annually transported 
to market are very considerable. 

Ryegate was first settled by emi- 
grants from Scotland, in the year 1774. 
A large part of the present population 
of Ryegate are of Scotch descent, and 
are said to follow, in a great degree, 
the peculiar habits, in regard to diet, 
which Scotchmen are accustomed to 
in their own country. Xhey annually 
prepare large quantities of oatmeal for 
cakes, and lay in a good stock of hull- 
ed barley for broth, soups, and pud- 
dings. The people of Ryegate are 
generally frugal and industrious, good 
farmers and good livers. They manu- 
facture their own apparel, and some 
for their neighbors. 

Boundaries. North by Barnet, east 
by Connecticut River, south by New- 
buiy, in the county of Orange, and 
west by Groton. 

First Ministers. The first I'eligious 
society in this town was the Associate 
Presbyterian, organized about 1790. 
From 1791 to 1822, they enjoyed a 
part of the serWces of the Rev. David 
Goodwillie, of Barnet. In September, 
1822, they settled the Rev. Thomas 
Famer,and, in 1830, the Rev. William 

Productions of the Soil. Wlieat, 3,421 
bushels : Indian com. 3,389 bushels ; 
potatoes, 47,176 bushels; hay, 3,959 
tons; maple sugar, 11,308 pounds; 
wool, 9,200 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles south from 
Danville, and forty south-east from 

The Connecticut River Railroad 
passes through this town. 


Franklin Co. This is the shire 
town. The soil of St. Albans is fer- 
tile, and, under the management of 
good farmers, is rendered very produc- 
tive. The exports of wool, and other 
productions of the soil, are large and 

The water communications by the 
lake to New York and Canada, render 
St. Albans a mart of considerable 



trade from the surrounditig country. 
The first vessel from Lake Champhiin 
that arrived at New York, by the 
northern canaL Avas from, built, and 
owned at St. Albans. 

The Village of St. Albans is beauti- 
fully situated on elevated ground, and 
commands a fine prospect. It con- 
tains many handsome buildings, and 
is a busy jplace in the manufacture of 
various articles. It lies three miles 
from the lake, and fifteen from the line 
of Canada. 

Boundaries. North by Swanton, east 
by Fairfield, south by Georgia, and west 
by Lake Champlain. a part of which 
separates it from North Hero. 

First Settlers. J. Walden is suppos- 
ed to have been the first civilized per- 
son who settled in this town. He 
removed here during the revolutionary 
war, and began improvements at the 
bay. There was no addition to the 
settlement till 1785, when Andrew Pot- 
ter emigrated to the town, and from 
that time the settlement advanced rap- 
idly, by emigrants from the south part 
of this State, and from the other 
States of New England. Among the 
earliest settlers Avcre the families of 
Messrs. Potter, Morrill, Gibbs, Green, 
and Meigs. 

First Minister. Eev. Jonathan Nye 
was settled over the Congregational 
Church, from 1807 to 1810. 

Productions of the Soil. AVheat. .5,250 
bushels ; Indian com, 7,112 bushels : 
potatoes, 33,325 bushels; hay, 5,180 
tons ; maple sugar, 5,000 pounds : 
wool, 39,175 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-six miles north- 
west by noi-th from Montpelier, and 
twenty-five north from Burlington. 

The business of this place will be 
greatly enhanced, by the passage 
through it of the Burlington and Mon- 
treal Railroad. 


Chittexden Co. The surface of 
this town is very uneven, with consid- 
erable elevations. The timber is prin- 
cipally maple, beech, and birch. There 
are no streams of consequence, and no 
mills or mill privileges. 

A part of Shelbume was annexed to 

St. George in 1848. 

Boundaries. North and north-east 
by "VVilliston, south by Hinesburgh,and 
west by Shelburae. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced here in the spi-ing of 1784. 
by Joshua Isham, from Colchester, Ct. 
The next year several others joined the 

Productions of t/ie Soil. Wheat, 217 
bushels; Indian corn, 616 bushels: 
potatoes, 4,635 bushels : hay, 566 tons ; 
maple sugar, 1,130 pounds ; wool, 2,368 

Distances. Twenty-eight miles west 
by north from Montpelier, and eight 
south-cast from Burlington. 


Caledoxia Co. The Passumpsic 
River runs through this town from 
north to sonth. and receives, just below 
the Plain, the Moose River, a consid- 
erable stream from the north-east, and 
Sleeper's River, a smaller tributary, 
from the north-west. The amount of 
available water power, 'furnished by 
these streams within the tOMm, exceeds 
that of any other town in this part of 
the State, and affords facilities for man- 
ufacturing operations to any desirable 

The business of the town centres in 
three Aillages. The Centre Village, so 
called, lies upon the Passumpsic River, 
in the northerly part of the town. It 
hm been of rapid growth, and does a 
prosperous business. 

The East Village, situated upon 
Moose River, in the cast part of the 
town, is the natural centre for the busi- 
ness of parts of St. Johnsbury, Water- 
ford, Concord, Kirby, Victory, and 

The pleasant village called the Plain 
is situated in the southerly part of the 

All these villages are important 
places of business, and contain very 
handsome public and private build- 
ings. The Village of the Plain is of 
superior beauty, and contains an excel- 
lent academy. 

The soil in this town is rich and 



productive : tlie suifi\ce uneven, and 
somewhat hilly, though not broken; 
and the farms are in a high state of 

St. Johnsbury presents a fine speci- 
men of Yankee industry and persever- 
ance. Although slmt up in a cold 
region, amid the craggy mountains of 
tlie North, and hitherto a three days' 
toilsome journey to any Atlantic city^ 
tliis mountain villa lists 5ent forth, 
throughout our wliole countrv and to 
foreign lands, articles of manufactui-e 
which w^ould vie in workmanship and 
utility with any of those produced in 

Until the present day, the location 
of our cities and trading towns have 
been selected for their proximity to 
the ocean, or situated on some naviga- 
ble stream. Now the gre^it considera- 
tions are, in the choice of a location. 
Does the place possess a good hydi-au- 
lic power ? Is it situated in a fertile 
and healthy country '? Does the Mon- 
arch Carrier pass that way ? These 
three things attained, St. Johnsbury, 
like many other places similarly situa- 
ted, throws into the shade many large 
towns, whose sites were selected solely 
for being situated on the banks of some 
shallow river, or at the head of some 
navigable creek. 

The giant power which unites the 
business communities of States and 
distant countries, as it were, by magic, 
will take the burthen of a ship's 
cargo and 500 passengers from Boston 
to St. Johnsbury, 170 miles, in less 
time than it takes the swiftest steamer 
to ptiss from Albany to New York, a 
distance of 145 miles, and that in any 
day of any season in the year. 

The ^ionarch Carrier will com- 
m^ence his trips this way in the course 
of the year 1850. After whistling a tune 
in honor of the entei-prise of the cit- 
izens of St Johnsbury, he will visit 
the Canadians, to solicit the pleasure 
of becoming the medium of communi- 
cation between the Atlantic coast and 
the largest and most important mart 
of British commerce in America. 

Boundarks. Northerly by Lyndon, 
north-east by Kirby, south-east by AVa- 
terford, and southwest by Danville. 

j First Settlers. James Adams, and 
! his son Martin Adams, with their fam- 
j ilies, commenced the settlement on 
j '• Benton's Meadow," and Simeon Cole 
I on the '• Butler Meadow,"' in 1786, and 
I the next year Dr. Jona, Arnold, Dr. 
; Jos. Lord, Barnabas Barker, and others, 
I moved into town, 

First Ministers. The Fii"St Congrega- 
! tional Church was organized Nov. 21, 
I 1809. The Rev. Pearson Thurston 
j Avas settled over this church from Oct. 
i25, 1815, to Oct. 13, 1817. The Rev. 
; Josiah Morse was settled Feb. 21, 
1833, The Second Congregational 
j Church was organized April 7, 1825. 
The Rev, James Johnson was settled 
'over it from Feb. 28, 1827, to May 3, 
1838. Rev. John H. Worcester was 
, settled Sept. 5, 1839. A third Con- 
gregational Church was organized in 
j the East Village, Nov. 25, 1840. 
I Productionsof the Soil. Wheat, 2,478 
, bushels 5 Indian corn, 6,950 bushels ; 
I potatoes, 74,115 bushels; hay, 4,953 
j tons ; maple sugar, 50,520 pounds j 
j wool, 14,599 pounds. 
j Manufactures. The establishment of 
, Messrs. E. & T. Fairbanks & Co., for 
the manufacture of their celebrated 
I Platform Scales, is upon Sleeper's Ri- 
: ver, near the south end of the Plain. 
From 100 to 150 men are constantly 
employed in this establishment, while 
an equal number find, indirectly, em- 
ployment and support, in connexion 
AV'ith these operations. 

These balances are manufactured 
ver^' extensively, from the small coun- 
ter scale used by traders and mer- 
chants, to the ponderous railroad scale 
50 to 100 feet in length for weighing 
trains of cars. 

The improvement has been patent- 
ed in the United States and in Eng- 
land, and the article now is in exten- 
sive use in both countries, possessing 
the entire confidence of the public. 

It is worthy of remark, that the 
mechanics of this establishment seldom 
leave the place, and, as a class, are 
respectable and worthy citizens, in in- 
dependent circumstances. 

Near the north end of the Plain 
there is a blast furnace, a machine 
shop, grist mill, saw mill, and sash and 



blind factory. In the other villages 
are various kinds of mechanical opera- 

Distances. Seven miles north-east 
from Danville, ten miles from Con- 
necticut River, thirty-seven north-east 
from Montpelier, foi-ty-tive south of 
Canada line at Stanstead, one hundred 
and seventy miles north froni Boston, 
three hundred and twenty-tive from 
New York, and 140 from Montreal. 

Orleans Co. Clyde Eiver runs 
through this town in a north-westerly 
direction, and falls into Salem Pond, 
which is partly in Salem and partly in 
Derby. There is no other stream of 
consequence, and no mills nor mill 
privileges. There are two other ponds : 
one of which lies in the course of 
Clyde River, and the other on the line 
between this town and Brownington ; 
and they are each about one mile in 
length and three-fourths of a mile in 
breadth. South Bay of Lake Mem- 
phremagog lies between Salem and 
Newport. The surface of this town is 
uneven, but not mountainous. 

Boundaries. North by Derby, north- 
east by Morgan, south-east by Charles- 
ton, and south-west by Brownington 
and Orleans. 

First Settlei's. The settlement of 
Salem was commenced by Epliraim 
Blake, in March, 1798. Amasa Spen- 
cer came into to^vn in 1801, and David 
Hopkins, jr., in 1 802. The town was 
organized April 30, 1822. 

Proiluctions of the Soil. Wheat, 791 
bushels ; Indian corn, 454 bushels ; 
potatoes, 13,270 bushels ; hay, 689 
tons; maple sugar, 19,420 pounds: 
wool, 1,871 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles north-east 
from Irasburgh, and fifty-three north- 
cast from Montpelier. 


Addison Co. Otter Creek forms 
the western boundary of tliis town. 
The other streams are Middlebury Ri- 
ver, which touches upon the north part, 
and Leicester River, v^hich waters the 

southern part. Lake Dunmore is abotit 
', four miles long and from half to three 
i fourths of a mile Avide, and lies partly 
in Salisbury and partly in Leicester. 
j On the outlet of this pond, called Lei- 
\ ccster River, are several falls, which 
I afford some fine mill privileges, around 
\ which, near the south line of the town, 
I is a tliriving village. 
' The surface is somewhat uneven, but 
the soil is generally good. The eastern 
part extends on to the Green Moun- 
tains. In the western part are some 
fine tracts of meadow. 

In the mountain east of Lake Dun- 
more is a cavern which consists of a 
lai'ge room, and is thought to have been 
inhabited by the Indians, as their ar- 
rows and other instruments have been 
found here. 

Boundaries. North by Middlebury, 
east by Grt)shen, south by Leicester, 
and west by Cornwall and Whiting. 

First Settlers. The first person Avho 
came into Salisbuiy with a view of 
settling, Avas Amos Storey. He built 
a log hut which was consumed by fire, 
and he himself was killed by the fall 
of a tree, before his family moved here. 
Thomas Skeeles and Abel Waterhouse 
were the two next to make beginnings. 
The Avidow of Mr. Storey, and eight 
or ten small children, were the first 
family which moved into town, and 
Mrs. Storey was consequently entitled 
to 100 acres of land, by a vote of the 
original proprietors. She came into 
the tOMTi the 2 2d day of February, 
1775. She endured almost every hard- 
ship : laboring in the field, chopping 
down timber, and clearing and cultiv- 
ating the soil. She retreated several 
times to Pittsford during the revolu- 
tion, on account of the danger appre- 
hended from the enemy, but at length 
she and a Mr. Stevens prepared them- 
selves a safe retreat. This was effect- 
ed by digging a hole horizontally into 
the bank^ just above the water of Otter 
Creek, barely sufficient to admit one 
person at a time. This passage led to 
a spacious lodging room, the bottom 
of which was covered with straw, and 
upon this their beds were laid for the 
accommodation of the families. The 
entrance was concealed by bushes, 



which hung over it from the bank 
above. They usually retired to their 
lodgings in the dusk of the evening, 
eind left them before light in the morn- 
ing, and this was effected by means of 
a canoe, so that no path or footsteps 
were to be seen leading to their subter- 
raneous abode. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized Feb. 8, 1804, 
and the same year a meeting-house Avas 
built. The Rev. Rufus Pomroy was 
settled over this church from Sept. 15, 
1811, to Nov. 19, 1816. 

Productions of the Soil WTieat, 1,460 
bushels ; Indian com, 5,060 bushels ; 
potatoes, 20,240 bushels; hay, 2,150 
tons ; maple sugar, 5,600 pounds .; 
wool, 15,900 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty-four miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and about six 
miles south from the Southern Rail- 
road depot in Middlebury. 


Bennington Co. The people of 
this town are favored with mountain 
air, and Avith crystal streams which even 
the Bostonians might reUsh. 

Shetterack and Bald Mountains are 
in the north-west part of the town ; 
Spnice and Equinox are in the north- 
east; Red Mountain is in the south- 
east ; and Swearing Hill in the south- 
west. Between these elevations is some 
good land, which produces grass and 
grain ; and which, with the mountain 
browse, affords feed for large flocks of 

Boundaries. North by Rupert, east 
by Manchester, south by Arlington, and 
west by Salem, N. Y. 

First Settler. The settlement of this 
town was commenced in 1771, by a 
Mr. Bristol. 

The religious denominations are Con- 
gregationalists and Methodists. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 621 
bushels ; Indian com, 3,427 bushels : 
potatoes, 23,278 bushels; hay, 3,145 
tons ; maple sugar, 5,725 pounds ; 
wool, 17,020 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty miles north from 
Bennington, and thirty-one south by 
west from Rutland. 



Bennington Co. Searsburgh is 
too elevated on the Green Mountains, 
either for cultivation, population, or 
wool growing. It pi-es^nts, from al- 
most every point, wild and beautiful 

Boundaries. North by Somerset, 
east by Wilmington, south by Reads- 
borough, and west by Woodford. 

Prwiuctions of the Soil. Wheat, 8 
bushels -, potatoes, 2,240 bushels ; hay, 
158 tons ; maple sugar, 5,640 pounds ; 
wool, 234 pounds. 

Distances. Eleven miles east from 
Bennington, and twenty miles west 
from Brattleborough. 


Bennington Co. Shaftsbury lies 
between the Battenkill and Walloom- 
scoik Rivers ; it has no large streams. 
Some tributaries of each of these ri- 
vers rise here, which afford several 
mill privileges. West Mountain lies 
partly in this town and partly in Ar- 
lington. It extends into Shaftsbury 
about three miles, and is about two 
miles in width. This mountain is tim- 
bered with chestnut, oak, maple, birch, 

The soU is generally of a good qual- 
ity, and, in the south-western part, is 
probably not exceeded in fertility by 
any in the State. The timber on the 
highlands is mostly chestnut and oak. 
The minerals are iron ore, of an excel- 
lent quality, and a beautiful white 
marble, which has been extensively 

Boundaries. North by Arlington, 
east by Glastenbury, south by Ben- 
nington, and west by Cambridge, New 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this town was commenced about the 
year 1763. Among the early settlers 
may be mentioned Messrs. Cole, Wil- 
loughby, Clark, Doolittle, Waldo, and 
several families of Mattisons. 

The Hon. Jonas Galusha, late Gov- 
ernor of Vermont, came into this town 
in the spring of 1775. During the 
revolutionary war he was made cap- 
tain of one of the two companies of 



militia in this to-\vn, and the other was 
commanded by Captain Amos Hun- 
tington. Capt. Huntington was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Hubbardton, 
and sent to Canada, after which the 
two companies were united, under the 
command of Captain Galusha, who 
fought at their head in Bennington 

First Ministers. The Baptists are 
the most numerous religious denomi- 
nation, and they have two societies. 
The town gives name to the Baptist 
Association in this section of the State, 
it being called the " Shaftsbury Asso- 
ciation," and is one of the first formed 
in the State. The Rev. Caleb Blood 
was, for many years, a zealous and 
successful preacher of the gospel here. 
He removed to Boston about the vear 

Productims of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,999 
bushels; Indian corn, 12,684 bushels ; 
potatoes, 50,000 bushels; hay, 4,380 
tons ; maple sugar, 9,527 pounds ; 
wool, 43,682 pounds. 

Distances. Ninety-seven miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and eight north 
from Bennington. 


Windsor Co. White River passes 
through Sharon, and affords it an 
abundant water power. Here are mills 
for the manufacture of woollen goods, 
paper, and other articles It contains 
a handsome and flourishing village. 
The surface of the town is broken, but 
the soil is warm and productive. 

Boundaries. North by Strafford, east 
by Norwich, south by Pomfret, and 
west by Royalton. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Sharon was commenced about the year 
1765, by emigrants from Connecticut. 
As near as can be ascertained, Robert 
Havens and family were the first who 
wintered in the toA\Ti. 

First Ministers. The Congregational 
was the first church formed, and was 
organized September 11, 1782. The 
Rev. Lathrop Thompson was ordained 
over this church December 3, 1788, and 
dismissed March 16, 1793. The Rev. 
Sam'l Ba«eom was settled Mar.l2, 1806. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,^74 
bushels ; Indian corn, 9,142 bushels ; 
potatoes, 41,735 bushels; hay, 3,813 
tons ; maple sugar, 8,580 pounds ; 
wool, 20,602 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-two miles north 
from Windsor^ and thirty -four south- 
east from Montpelier. 

The great Northern Railroad passes 
through Sharon. 


Caledonia Co. This town lies on 
the height of land, between Connecti- 
cut River and Memphremagog Lake. 
Branches of Passumpsic and Barton 
Rivers both rise here. It is watered 
by several ponds. The lands are 
generally broken, and not very produc- 

The settlement of this town was 
commenced about the year 1792. 

Boundaries. North-east by Glover 
and a part of Barton, easterly by Sutton, 
and south and south-Avest by Whee- 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,396 
bushels ; Indian com, 725 bushels ; 
potatoes, 39,200 bushels; hay, 2,292 
tons ; maple sugar, 25,615 pounds ; 
wool, 4,273 pounds. 

Distances. Sixteen miles north from 
Danville, and forty-six north-east from 


Chittenden Co. Shelburne is fine- 
ly watered by La Piatt River, a pond 
covering 600 acres, and by the waters 
of Lake Champlain. 

Shelburne Bay sets into the town, 
about four miles from the north-west, 
and affords the tOA\Ti a good harbor, 
and a depot of the interior trade on the 
beautiful Champlain. 

The soil of the town is strong, fer- 
tile, and generally well improved. 

A part of this town was annexed to 
St. George in 1848. 

Boundaries. North by Burlington, 
east by St. George, south by Charlotte, 
and west by Lake Chamjjlain. 

First Settlers. A small settlement 



Was made in this town previous to the 
revolntionary war. The earliest sct- 
tlei"s were two Germans, by the name 
of Logan and Pottier, who commenced 
upon two points of hind extending 
into Lake Champlain, which still bear 
the names " Pottier's Point," and " Lo- 
gan's Point." The first settlers were 
employed principally in getting out 
lumber for the Canada market, and 
tradition says that Pottier and Logan 
were murdered for their money, near 
the north end of Lake Champlain, by 
a party of soldiers sent out from Mon- 
treal to protect them from the Indians, 
on their return after having sold a raft 
of lumber. 

First Ministers. The principal reli- 
gious denominations are Episcopa- 
lians and Methodists. The Methodist 
Church is the most numerous, and has 
a neat chapel, built in 1831, and par- 
sonage at the centre of the town. 
There was a small Episcopal parish 
here, under the charge of the Rev. Be- 
thuel Chittenden, soon after the town 
was settled. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,768 
bushels ; Indian corn, 5,854 bushels ; 
potatoes, 25,281 bushels ; hay, 2,158 
tons; maple sugar, 1,220 pounds; 
wool, 36,677 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty-three miles west 
by north from Montpelier, and seven 
south from Burlington. 

The great Southern Railroad from 
Boston to Burlington passes this way. 


Franklin Co. This is a good 
township of land, productive of wool, 
grain, and other northern commodi- 
ties. The River Missisco passes through 
the town, and Black Creek, a branch 
of that river, gives Sheldon an ample 
water power. The village is a thriv- 
ing place, both in its manufactures 
and trade. 

Boundaries. North by Highgate and 
Franklin, east by Enosburgh, south by 
Fairfield, and west by Swanton. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Sheldon was commenced about the 
year 1 790, by Colonel Elisha Sheldon, 
and Samuel B. Sheldon, emigrants 

from Salisbury, Connecticut. The set- 
tlement advanced with considerable 
ra}ndity, and the toyra was soon organ- 

Fii'st Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized in 1816; and 
an Episcopal Church, by the name of 
Grace Church, not far from the same 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,850 
bushels ; Indian corn, 5,000 bushels ; 
potatoes, 66,185 bushels; hay, 4,340 
tons ; maple sugar, 29,270 pounds ; 
wool, 14,721 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-six miles north 
west from Montpelier, thirty-two north 
by east from Burlington, and ten north 
north-east from St. Albans. 


Rutland Co. Killington Peak, 
3,924 feet in height, several ponds, and 
Thundering Brook, with a handsome 
fall, lie in this town. Queechy River 
rises in this tOAvn, and along its banks 
is some good land ; but the lands are 
generally too elevated, even for pas- 

Boundaries. North by Stockbridge, 
east by Bridgewater, south and west by 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced here in 1785, by Isaiah 
Washburn. The town was organized 
in 1794. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was formed here in 1823. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 686 
bushels ; Indian corn, 762 bushels ; 
potatoes, 12,245 bushels; hay, 1,295 
tons ; maple sugar, 6,970 pounds ; 
wool, 4,257 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles north-east 
from Rutland. 

This town is but a few mUes from 
the Southern Railroad depot at Rut- 


Addison Co. Shoreham lies on 
the east side of Lake Champlain, and 
is watered by Lemonfair River, a good 
mill stream. The lake here is about a 
mile wide. The surface of Shoreham 



is level, and the soil remarkably good. 
This is one of the best fanning towns 
in the State. There are some manu- 
factures in the toA\Ti, and a pleasant 
and flourishing village on the banks of 
the lake. Most of the waters here are 
impregnated with Epsom salts. 

This is the site of Newton Acad- 

Boundaries. North by Bridport, east 
by Whiting and Cornwall, south by 
Orwell, and west by Lake Champlain. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced about the year 1766, by 
Col. Ephraim Doolittle, Paul Moore, 
Marshal Newton, and others. They 
adopted the Moravian plan, and had 
all things common, until the settle- 
ment was broken up during the revo- 
lutionary war. On the return o*" peace 
the settlement was recommenced, by 
some of the former settlers and others 
from Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
and the town was soon organized. 

First Ministers. Rev. Abel Woods, 
of the Baptist order, was the first set- 
tled minister. The Congregational 
Church was organized in May, 1792. 
Rev. Evans Beardsley was settled over 
it from December 26, 1805, to May 9, 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,348 
bushels; Indian com, 8.580 bushels; 
potatoes, 26,180 bushels; hay, 13,560 
tons: maple sugar, 2,160 pounds; 
wool, 95,276 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles south-west 
from Middlebuiy , about forty-two south- 
west from Montpelier, and twenty-six 
north from Whitehall, N. Y. 


RuTLAKD Co. Shrewsbury lies 
mostly on the Green Mountains and 
the eastern part is very much elevated. 
In the north part is Shrewsbury Peak, 
which is one of the highest summits of 
the Green Mountains, and is more 
than 4100 feet above the tide water. 
This is often mistaken for Killington 
Peak. Mill River runs through the 
south-west part of the township, and 
Cold River through the north part, 
both of which are suflBciently large for 
mills. There are two considerable 

ponds in the southerly part called Peal's 
and Ashley's Pond. Shrewsbury is 
well adapted to the production of 
grass, and the timber is such as is com- 
mon to the mountain towns. The 
town Avas chartered in 1763. 

Boundaries. North by Mendon, east 
by Plymouth, south by Mount Holly, 
and west by Clarendon. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 528 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,658 bushels ; 
potatoes, 55,005 bushels; hay, 4,788 
tons ; maple sugar, 38,981 pounds ; 
wool, 11,835 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-two miles west 
from TVindsor, and nine south-east 
from Rutland. The great Southern 
Railroad passes near the border of this 


Windham Co. Mount Pisgah and 
other elevations give to the surface of 
this township so rough and dreary an 
aspect, that but few are bold enough to 
attempt the cultivation of its soil. It 
is watered by the upper branches of 
Deerfield River. It would put the 
neighboring towns into a pretty pickle 
if it should turn a Somerset. 

Boundaries. North by Stratton, east 
by Dover and a part of Wardsborough, 
south by Searsburgh and a part of 
Wilmington, and west by Glastenbury. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 115 
bushels; Indian com, 151 bushels; 
potatoes, 9,930 bushels ; hay, 777 tons ; 
maple sugar, 5,440 pounds ; wool, 
993 pounds. 

Distances. Fourteen miles north- 
east from Bennington, and sixteen 
north-west from Brattleborough. 


Grand Isle Co. Lake Champlain 
bounds this town on all sides. The 
passage in the lake however, is very 
narrow between the towns of North 
and South Hero. The lake is forda- 
ble a considerable part of the year on 
the Vermont side. The town was 
formerly a part of North Hero, and 
was separated from it in 1788. It is 
supposed that all the lands of this 



island county were once covered by the 
water? of the lake, as clam sliells arc 
found incorporated with the rocks in 
the highest places. The scenery around 
these islands is beautiful. This vicin- 
ity was a favorite resort for the Indians, 
as appears from a large number of 
their implements found on the islands. 
It seems they manufactured hatchets, 
spear heads, chisels, arrows, and a va- 
riety of other implements at this place, 
from a flint stone not found in this re- 
gion, but brought from a distance. 
This town furnishes a great abundance 
of food for the inhabitants, and some 
for exportation. This is a pleasant 
stopping place for the angler, the i)aint- 
er or the geologist. The Sand Bar 
Bridge now constructing (1849) will 
connect this island with the main land 
at Milton. 

Boundaries. North by the township 
of Grand Isle, and on all other parts 
by Lake Champlain. 

First Settlers. Sotith Hero was char- 
tered together with Grand Isle, North 
Hero, and Vineyard, to Ethan Allen, 
Samuel Herrick and others, October 
27, 1779. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was formed here in 1799, and 
a Methodist Society in 1802. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,917 
bushels : Indian corn, 3,000 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 13,076 bushels ; hay, 2,182 tons ; 
maple sugar, 6,852 pounds ; wool, 23,044 

Distances. Twelve miles north-west 
from Burlington, and sixteen south 
south-west from St. Albans. 


Windsor Co. The land in Spring- 
field is generally rich, with a deep soil 
suitable for grass or tillage ; on the 
rivers are extensive intervales, forming 
some of the most beautiful farms in the 

The principal village is situated on 
Black River Falls, near the centre of 
the town. These falls are about four 
miles from the confluence of Black 
Eiver with the Connecticut ; their de- 
scent is rapid over a rocky bed, about 
•sixty rods, when the waters are con- 

tracted, and precipitated fifty or sixty 
feet down an abnipt ledge into a nar- 
row channel. This ravine extends 
about twelve rods ; it is sixty or sev- 
enty feet deep, and is walled by per- 
pendicular ledges of mica slate. Over 
this ravine has been erected a bridge, 
from Avhich may be had a full view of 
the falls. A mist constantly arises, 
in which may be seen, in a fair day, all 
the colors of the rainl)ow. 

This is a very flourishing town, and 
the scenei-y around its neat and hand- 
some village is delightful. 

Boundaries. North by Weathersfield, 
east by Connecticut River, which sepa- 
rates it from CharlestOA\Ti, N. H., south 
by Rockingham, and west by Chester, 
and a small part of Baltimore. 

First Settlers. It was chartered Au- 
gust 20, 1761, containing 26,400 acres. 
Among the first settlers were Mr. Sim- 
eon Stevens and the Hon. Lewis R. 

First Ministet's. There are varions 
denominations of Christians in this 
town. The CongregationaUsts built a 
church in 1792, and settled the Rev. 
Robinson Smiley in 1801. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,305 
bushels; Indian com, 3,181 bushels; 
potatoes, 46,603 bushels; hay, 6,345 
tons ; maple sugar, 13,247 pounds ; 
wool, 48,412 pounds. 

Distances. Seventy miles south from 
Montpelier, and twenty-four south from 
Woodstock. The Connecticut River 
Railroad passes through the town. 


Bennington Co. A mountain 
to\vnship on the line of Massachusetts. 
Branches of the Hoosack and Wal- 
loomsack rise here. There are several 
fine fish ponds among the mountains ; 
and some good land ; but the lands in 
Stamford are generally too elevated 
for culture. The township was char- 
tered in 1753. 

Boundaries. North by Woodford, 
east by Reedsborough, south by Clarks- 
burgh, Mass., and west by PoMTial. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 267 
bushels; Indian com, 569 bushels; 
potatoes, 14,755 bushels: hay, 1,652 



tons ; maple sugar, 21,050 pounds 
wool, 3,059 pounds. 

Distances. Nine miles south-east 
from Bennington, and twenty-one west 
by south from Brattleborough. 


Addison Co. This town is watei-- 
ed by Lewis Creek and Huntington 
River, which are good mill streams. 
There are three springs in the town, 
not more than twenty rods apart, Avhich 
unite and form a stream of sufficient 
power for a number of mills, and is 
thus improved. The to^vn is rough 
and mountainous. 

Hog's Back Mountain skirts its wes- 
tern border, and East Mountain passes 
through its centre, and divides the wa- 
ters of the rivers. There is some good 
land in the town, but a large portion 
of the territory is too ele\ ated for cul- 
tivation. Here are two pleasant vil- 
lages, and the manufactures of iron are 

Boundaries. North by Huntington 
and Hinesburgh, east by Huntington 
and Buel's Gore, south by Lincoln and 
Bristol, and west by Monkton. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in April, 1788, by George 
Bidwell and Horace Kellogg with their 
famihes. John Ferguson and Thomas 
V. Ratenburgh came into that part of 
Monkton which has since been added 
to this township, about the same time. 
The first settlers emigrated principally 
from New York and Connecticut. Mr. 
Bidwell lived fifty-two years on the 
place where he settled, endured at first 
many privations and hardships, but by 
industry and economy acquired a hand- 
some landed property, and died April 
13, 1840, aged eighty-four. He was in 
his day one of the piincipal men in the 
town, and he is still remembered w^ith 
gratitude and affection. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1804. 
There is in this town a society of 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,4 7 8 
bushels ; Lidian corn, 5,800 bushels ; 
potatoes, 30,200 bushels; hay, 3,120 

tons ; maple sugai\ 10,690 pounds ; 
wool, 10,260 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-two miles west 
by south from Montpelier, and eighteen 
north by east from Middlebury. 


Lamoille Co. Sterling Peak, in 
the south part of this towm, ranks 
among the most elevated summits of 
the Green Mountain range. Some 
streams issue from this mountain town. 
It was first settled in 1799, and con- 
tains 23,040 acres of land. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Johnson, 
easterly by Morristown, southerly by 
Mansfield, and westerly by Cambridge. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 536 
bushels ; Indian corn, 262 bushels ; 
potatoes, 10,870 bushels; hay, 8.33 
tons ; maple sugar, 5,400 pounds ; 
wool, 1,806 pounds. 

Distances. Five miles south-west 
from Hydepark, and thirty-two north- 
west from Montpelier. 


Windsor Co. White River runs 
through the northerly part of this town, 
and in its passage receives the fourth 
branch, or Tweed River, from the 
Avest. The mill privileges are sufl&- 
ciently numerous, but those at the 
Great Narrows in White River are the 
best. The whole river is here com- 
pressed into a channel but a few feet in 
width. Steatite is found here. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Bethel, 
easterly by Barnard, southerly by Sher- 
burne, and westerly by Pittsfield. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Stockbridge was commenced in 1784, 
and 1785 by Asa Whitcomb, Elias 
Keyes, John Durkee and Joshua Bart- 
let, with their families. 

First Minister. The Rev. Justin 
Parsons was settled over the Congre- 
gational Church in this town and Pitts- 
field September 15, 1812. He contin- 
ued till 1827. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 1 ,746 
bushels; Indian corn, 4,982 bushels; 
potatoes, 4(2,680 bushels; hay, 4,057 



tons ; maple sugar, 34,320 pounds ; 
woo, 18,005 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty-six miles south 
by west from Montpelier, and twenty- 
six north-west from Windsor. The 
great Northern Railroad passes through 
the neighboring town of Bethel. 

Lamoille Co. "Waterbury River 
and its branches give this iovnx a good 
water power, and by which several 
mills are put into operation. 

Stowe is situated between the Mans- 
field and Hog's Back Mountains, and 
contains a large ti*act of level, fertile 
land, which appears to have been of al- 
luvial formation. This valley contains 
some very beautiful and productive 
farms. The exports of agricultural 
products are valuable. Stowe is a 
flourishing town, and contains four 
neat and pleasant mountain valley 

All that tract of land formerly called 
Mansfield was annexed to this town in 

Boundaries. North by Morristown, 
east by Worcester, south by Water- 
bury, and west by Mansfield. 

First Settlers. ' The settlement was 
commenced about the year 1793. 

The first meeting-house built in this 
town was in 1818. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 2,636 
bushels ; Indian corn, 5,337 bushels : 
potatoes, 75,957 bushels; hay, 4,812 
tons; maple sugar, 31,150 pounds; 
wool, 16,628 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles south from 
Hydepark, and thirty-seven north fi-om 
Montpelier. The Northei-n Railroad 
passes through a neighboring town. 


Orange Co. Strafford contains 
two pleasant -s-illages. The surface is 
uneven, but the soil is generally good. 
It is watered by a principal branch of 
Ompomponoosuc River, which aff'ords 
several good mill privileges, on which 
are erected a number of mills and other 

In the north-easterly part is a pond 
covering about 100 acres, called Po- 
dunk Pond, which is a place of consid- 
erable resort for amusement and ang- 

In the south-east comer of Straff'ord 
is an extensive bed of the sulphuret of 
iron, from which immense quantities 
of copperas are manufactured. 

" Strafford Coppe>-as Works. This 
establishment was formerly styled the 
Vermont Mineral Factory Company, 
but is now called the Vermont Cop- 
peras Company; the o-vvners, residing 
chiefly in Boston, having united this 
with a mine they own in Shrewsbury. 
It is situated in the extreme south- 
eastern comer of the tOAvn, on the east 
side of a hill, which contains an inex- 
haustible ridge of the ore, or, techni- 
cally, sulphuret of iron. This mass of 
solid rock, in appearance, is usually 
covered with what miners call the cap, 
a petrifactive soil of various depths, 
in Avhich roots, leaves, and limbs 
of trees, beech-nuts, hazle-nuts, and 
acorns, are often found turned into 
stone or iron. There are two facto- 
ries, each about 267 feet in length by 
ninety-four in width. These contain 
eight' vats made of lead, ten feet by 
twelve feet, twenty-one inches in depth 
and three fourths of an inch in thick- 
ness, used for boilers. Lead is the 
only metal that will endure the opera- 
tion of the copperas liquor, and this 
requires constant repair. An unlimit- 
ed quantity can be made : the facilities 
for manufiicturing being, perhaps, un- 
surpassed in the world. The copperas 
made hei-e is used by most of the 
manufactories of New England, and 
is sent to all parts of the United States. 
It is supposed to excel for dyeing pur- 
poses any copperas offered in market. 
The process of making is as follows. 
The ore is blasted from the bed, by 
means of powder. It is then broken 
into pieces with sledges, and afterwards 
the miners assort and break it up still 
finer vnth hammers. It is then thrown 
into large heaps, where it ignites spon- 
taneously, or fire is sometimes set to 
it to hasten the process. In this con- 
dition it generally bums for the space 
of two months ; in that time the sul- 



phur is converted into sxdphtric acid, 
and unites itself with the iron, form- 
ing sulphate of iro}7, or copperas. The 
smoke gives to vegetation, and to all 
surrounding objects, a sterile and sick- 
ly appearance, hxit the health of the 
workmen is not affected. These heaps 
of pyriteS) being now thoroughly pul' 
verized by fire, are carried to places 
where water, from a fountain on the 
summit of a hill, is made to run upon 
and leach this mass of crude sulphate 
of iron. The lye is now drawn off into 
large wooden reservoirs, and thence 
into the leaden vats as fast as wanted. 
In these vats the lye or liquor is boiled 
to a certain strerfgth, tested by acidim- 
eters, and then drained off into wooden 
vats, where it remains to crystalize. 
Branches of trees Avere formerly throAvn 
in, for the crystals to adhere to ; but 
Mr. Reynolds made an improvement. 
Pieces of joist three inches square, six 
feet long, laid across the top of the 
A^ats, with holes bored, and round sticks 
eighteen inches long by three quarters 
of an inch in diameter, inserted at 
intervals of about six inches, are now 
used with great advantage. This 
makes a great saving of labor, al- 
though it has in some measure de- 
stroyed the fanciful shapes which the 
crystals formerly assumed upon some 
favorite branch ; and the poet, had he 
been born on copperas hill, would have 
written, ' as the twig is bent the cop- 
peras is inclined.' The crystals ai'e 
multangular, and of a beautiful trans- 
parent green color. These twigs, yv\t\\ 
specimens varnished, may be seen in 
the cabinets of many scientific gentle- 
men in various parts of the country. 
After crystalization takes place the 
liquor is drained off, and the copperas 
is shovelled into the packing rooms. 
When dry, it is usually put into 
casks, holding about half a ton each, 
but frequently into casks of every 

" The mine was discovered in 1793, 
by two men who were tapping sap- 
trees. Tradition says they discovered 
a spontaneous combustion among the 
leaves, but it is more probable that 
they found copperas in some wet spot 
spontaneously formed. The works 

were first commenced by Mr. East- 
man, but were not successfully prose- 
cuted until tvnthin about thirty years, 
when the stock was taken up in Bos- 
ton by the Messrs. RejTiolds and the 
late energetic Col. Binney. President 
Monroe visited the works, in his tour 
in the summer of 1817. In 1827, the 
company employed from thirty to forty 
hands to make about the same quan- 
tity of copperas they now make Avith 
ten hands. A thousand tons of coppe- 
ras has been made in a year " 

Boundaries. North by Vershire, east 
by Thetford, south by Sharon, and west 
by Tunbridge. 

First Settlers. The settlement of this 
town Avas commenced just before the 
rcA'olutionary war. 

First Ministers. The first meeting- 
house was built in tOAvn by the Bap- 
tists, in 1794, and the second in 1799. 
The Rev, Joab Young was the first 
settled minister. He was settled by 
the UniA'ersalists in 1799, and died in 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 4,382 
bushels : Indian com, 6,640 bushels ; 
potatoes, 51,634 bushels; hay, 4,909 
tons ; maple sugar, 28,485 pounds ; 
wool, 13.550 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty miles south south- 
east from Montpelier, and eleven south- 
east from Chelsea. 

This toAATi adjoins Thetford, through 
which the Connecticut River Railroad 


Windham Co. This is a moun- 
tainous to-«ni in the Avest part of the 
county. Branches of Deei-field and 
Winhall Rivers rise here from two 
ponds. The soil is cold and generally 

Stratton Avas settled principally by- 
emigrants from Massachusetts. Among 
the early settlers were families by the 
name of Morsman and Patch. A 
meeeting-house Avas built here about 
the year 1809. 

Boundaries. North by Winhall, east 
by Jamaica and Wardsborough, south 
by Somerset, and west by Sunder- 



Productions of tJie Soil. "Wheat, 169 
bushels ; Indian corn, 141 bushels ; 
potatoes, 942 bushels: hay, 837 tons; 
maple sugar, 2,672 pounds 5 wool, 
1,637 pounds. 

Distances. Eighteen miles north- 
east from Bennington, and twenty-two 
north-west from Brattleborou2:h. 


Rutland Co. Otter Creek touches 
upon the eastern border of this town. 
The other streams arc small. Hub- 
bardton Pond extends into the south 
part, and there are in town several 
smaller ponds, of which Hinkum Pond 
is the most considerable. The surface 
is uneven, and a high ridge of land 
extends through the town, near the 
centre, from south to north. The soil 
is generally a rich loam. The timber 
is principally pine, beech, and maple. 
There is a small village in the easterly 
part of the town. 

Boundaries. North by AAHiiting, east 
by Brandon, south by Hubbardton, 
and west by Orwell and a part of Ben- 

First Settlers. This town was char- 
tered in 1761 ; the early settlers were 
generally from Connecticut. 

First Minister. Rev. Silas Parsons 
was settled over the Congregational 
Church in 1806. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,488 
bushels; Indian corn, 3,890 bushels; po- 
tatoes, 13,315 bu.shels ; hay, 3,009 tons ; 
maple sugar, 550 pounds ;* wool, 24,718 

Distances. Forty-three miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and seventeen 
north-west from Rutland. 

The Southern Railroad passes in 
this vicinity. 


Bennington Co. The Battenkill 
River passes through the north-western 
part of this town, in a south-westerly 
direction. On this stream are some 
fine alluvial fiats, which are overflowed 
every spring. Roaring Branch origin- 
ates in several large ponds in the east- 
em part of the town, and, running 


westerly, unites ^vith the Battenkill in 
Arlington. On this stream are several 
excellent situations for mills and other 
machinery. The soil consists of allu- 
vion, loam, and marl. Near the foot 
of the Green Mountains, the sulphate 
of iron is found in considerable quan- 
tities. On the side of the mountain a 
vein of lead ore has been discovered in 
granular limestone. 

Boundaries. North by Manchester, 
east by Stratton, south by Glastcnbury, 
and west by Arlington. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Sunderland was commenced in 1766, 
by Messrs. Brownson, Bradley, War- 
rens, Evarts, Chipman, and Webb, 
emigrants from Connecticut. 

First Minister. Rev. Chancey Lee 
was settled over the Congregational 
Church in 1786 ; dismissed in 1795. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 125 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,861 bushels; 
potatoes, 7,804 bushels ; hay, 1,232 
tons ; maple sugar, 5,577 pounds : 
wool, 4,349 pounds. 

Distances. Eighty-seven miles south- 
west from Montpelier, and fifteen north 
by east from Bennington. 


Caledonia Co. Sutton is wa- 
tered by two considerable branches, 
which unite near the south line of 
Burke, and join the Passumpsic River 
in Lyndon. There are several ponds, 
of Avhich Fish Pond is the largest, 
and it lies in the north-west comer. It 
covers about 200 acres, and discharges 
its waters into Barton River. 

The surface of Sutton is generally 
even, and considerable tracts of it are 
so low and wet as to be incapable of 
cultivation. There are several bogs of 
marl in this to^vn. 

Boundaries. North-easterly by West- 
more and a part of Newark, east by 
Burke, south bv Lyndon, and west bj 

First Settlers. The settlem'ent of 
Sutton was commenced about the year 
1791, by a Mr. Hacket, who was soon 
after joined by other families from B, 
Island and Connecticut. 

First Minister. Elder Amos Beck- 



with was settled over the Baptist Church 
in 1804. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,876 
bushels; Indian com, 1,372 bushels; 
potatoes, 61,175 bushels; hay, 3,088 
tons ; maple sugar, 85,430 pounds ; 
wool, 7,755 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-one miles nortli 
from Danville, and fifty-one north-east 
from Montpelier. 


Franklin Co. This township is 
situated on the east side of Lake Cham- 
plain, opposite to North Hero and Al- 

Missisco River passes through Swan- 
ton, and fertilizes a considerable por- 
tion of its territory. This river is 
navigable for lake vessels to Swanton 
Falls, six miles from its mouth. These 
falls descend twenty feet, and, with 
other smaller streams, give to Swanton 
a Avater power of great value. 

Bog iron ore is found in this town, 
and an abundance of beautiful marble. 
This marble is of various colors, and 
large quantities of it are wrought into 
all desired patterns, polished, and trans- 

The surface and soil of Swanton 
are favorable to agricultural pursuits, 
with the exception of a part bordering 
the lake, Avhich is low, wet, and cold: 
and which is the favorite abode, in 
summer, of wild geese, ducks, and other 
water fowls. 

The village of Swanton is pleasant- 
ly located, and is the site of a number 
of manufactories, and of an increasing 

Swanton may boast of the purity of 
its air and water, and of a Walter 
Scott, who died in 1815, aged one hun- 
dred and ten years. 

Boundaries. North by Highgate, 
east by Sheldon and Fairfield, south 
by St. Albans, and west by Lake 

First Settlers. Before the conquest 
of Canada by the English, the French 
and Indians had a settlement at Swan- 
ton Falls, consisting of about fifty 
huts, and had cleared some land, on 
which they raised com and vegetables. 

They had also built a church and a 
saw mill ; and the channel cut through 
the rocks, to supply water for the lat- 
ter, still remains. This place was occu- 
pied by the Indians till the commence- 
ment of the revolution. The first per- 
manent settlers here were John Hil- 
liker and family, al>out the year 1787. 
They were soon joined by other set- 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was oi-ganized in 1800, and in 
1825 Eev. Ehen H. Dorman was set- 
tled. In this town is a society of 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 4,290 
bushels; Indian corn, 7,184 bushels; 
potatoes, 46,264 bushels; hay, 4,920 
tons ; maple sugar, 10,474 poimds ; 
wool, 22,759 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty miles nortli-west 
from Montpelier, twenty-eight north 
from Burlington. 

The proposed railroad from Bur- 
lington to Highgate would add much 
to the facilities of the trade of this 
flourishing town. 


Orange Co. This town is pleas- 
antly situated on the west side of Con- 
necticut River, opposite to Lyme, N. H. 
The Ompomponoosuc, and its branch- 
es, give the town an excellent water 
power. There arc several ponds in 
Thetford, one of which is worthy of 
notice. It covers about nine acres, and 
is situated on an elevation, the base of 
Avhich is only four rods from Connec- 
ticut River, and 100 feet in height. It 
is very deep; it has neither inlet or 
outlet, and contains large quantities of 
perch and other fish. 

The surface of the town is generally 
rocky and uneven ; it has but little in- 
tervale, but the soil is strong and pro- 
ductive. There are some manufactures 
in the tOAvn, a rich vein of galena, and 
three neat villages. 

Boundaries. North by Fairlee and 
west Fairlee, east by Connecticut Ri- 
ver, which separates it from Lyme, N. 
H., south by Norwich, and west by 

First Settlers. The settlement was 



commenced here in 1764, by John 
Chamberlain, from Hebron, Ct. The 
next year he was joined by two other 
famines ; one by the name of Baldwin, 
and the other by the name of Hosford. 
Samuel, the son of John Chamberlain, 
was the first English child born in 
town. John Chamberlain was nick- 
named QaailJohn. Being industrious, 
and somewhat pai-simonious, he accu- 
mulated considerable property, and his 
fame has been perpetuated in the fol- 
lowing stanza ; 

" Old Quail John was the first that came on. 
As poor as a calf in the spriug ; 
But now he is rich as Governor Jeitch, 
And Uves like a lord or a king." 

First Minister. A Congregational 
minister, by the name of Clement Sum- 
ner, was ordained here in 1773. He 
became a tory, and went to Swanzey, 
N. H. Rev. Asa Burton was ordained 
in 1779. He continued here till his 
<leath, 1836, aged eiglity-four. 

Prodiictioius of the Soil Wheat, 3,635 
bushels; Indian corn, 15,628 bushels : 
potatoes, 58,957 bushels ; hay, 4,978 
tons; maple sugar, 21,288 pounds; 
wool, 25,798 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty-four miles south 
60uth-eaj<t from ]\Iontpelier, and eigh- 
teen south-east fiom Chelsea. 

The Connecticut River Railroad 
through the town. 


Rutland Co. This town is sepa- 
rated from Wallingford by Otter 
Creek. Furnace Brook rises from a 
pond in the south part of the town, and 
passing through Tinmouth and Clar- 
endon, falls into Otter Creek at Rut- 
land. This stream has been noted for 
great quantities of fish of an extraordi- 
nary size. 

The sux-face of Tinmouth is hilly, 
in some parts mountainous. There is 
some good land on the streams, and a 
large portion of the high land is good 
for pasturage. 

There are several quarries of beauti- 
ful marble in town, iron ore in abun- 
dance, and several iron works. 

Boundaries. Korth bv Clarendon 

and Ira, east by Wallingford, south by 
Danby, and west by Wells and Mid- 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced here about the year 1770. 
Among the first settlers were Thomas 
Peck and John McNeal. This town 
was organized March 11, 1777. Soon 
after, the following oath of allegiance 
Avas imposed upon the freemen of the 
town. '• You each of you swear, by 
the living God, that you believe for 
yourselves that the King of Great Bri- 
tain hath not any right to command, 
or authority in or over the States of 
Ameiica, and that you do not hold 
yourselves bound to yield any alle- 
giance or obedience to him within the 
same, and that you will, to the utmost 
of your power, maintain and defend 
the freedom, independence, and priv- 
ileges of the United States of America 
against all open enemies, or traitors, 
or conspirators whatsoever; so help 
you God." 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1780, 
and has had the following settled min- 
isters. Rev. Benjamin Osborn, from 
1780 to 1787; Rev. Wm. Boies, from 
1804 to 1818. 

Prod>jctions of the Soil Wheat, 1 ,44 1 
bushels ; Indian corn, 2,824 bushels ; 
potatoes, 10,750 bushels; hay, 3,187 
tons; maple sugar, 19,555 pounds; 
wool, 10,759 pounds. 

Distances. Eight miles south from 
Rutland, through which the great 
Southern Raih-oad passes. 


Orange Co. Topsham is on ele- 
vated ground, with a rocky, strong soil, 
adapted to grazing. It contains much 
granite, and is watered by the upper 
branches of Wait's River, which pro- 
pel a number of mills. 

Boimdaries. North by Stratton, east 
by Nevv'bury, south by Corinth, and 
west by Orange. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced about the year 1781, by 
Thomas Chamberlain, Thomas Mc- 
Keith, and Samuel Farnum. In 1783 
they were joined by Robert Mann, 



Samuel Thompson, and John Crown : 
and, in 1784, by Lemuel Tabor. The 
first settlers were generally from New 

The town house, which has been oc- 
cupied as a meeting-house, was erected 
in 1806. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 5,576 
bushels ; Indian corn, 5,653 bushels ; 
potatoes, 63,179 bushels; hay, 4,294 
tons; maple sugar, 31,645 pounds; 
wool, 8,961 pounds. 

Distances. Nineteen miles south-east 
from Montpelier, and fifteen north-east 
from Chelsea. 

The Connecticut River Eailroad 
passes through the neighboring town 
of Newbury. 


Windham Co. West River passes 
through this town, with considerable 
rapidity. Along its banks are some 
tracts of good intervale ; but the sur- 
face of the town is generally hilly, 
and the soil more calculated for graz- 
ing than tillage. There are some man- 
ufactures in the town, a high school of 
good reputation, and two pleasant vil- 

The West Townshend Manufactur- 
ing Co. was incoiporated in 1848. 

Boundaries. North by Grafton and 
Athens, east by Athens and Brookline, 
south by Newfane, and west by Wind- 
ham, Jamaica, and AYardsborough. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
was commenced here in 1761, by Jo- 
seph Tyler, who Avas soon joined by 
John Hazleton, whose mother lived to 
the age of one hundred and four 

Among the early and distinguished 
inhaliitants of Townshend may be 
mentioned the late General Samuel 
Fletcher. He was born at Grafton, 
Mass., in 1745. At the age of seven- 
teen he enlisted as a soldier in the 
contest between the British and French 
colonies, in which service he continued 
one year. On his return he learned 
the trade of a blacksmith, which he 
followed about four years, Avhen he 
married a young lady with a hand- 
some property, and, resigning the 

sledge, removed to TowTishend, to 
wield the axe among the trees of the 
forest. In 1775 he joined the Ameri- 
can standard at Bunker's Hill, with 
rank of orderly serjeant. He returned 
to Townshend in January following, 
where he was made a captain of mili- 
tia. He was, at this time, principal 
leader in the county convention, and 
was ordered, as captain, to raise as 
many minute men as possible in his 
vicinity, who were to hold themselves 
in readiness to march at the beat of 
the drum. His whole company volun- 
teered, and, in 1777, they marched to 
Ticonderoga, for the purpose of i-eliev- 
ing the American anny, which was 
there besieged. On this expedition, 
with thirteen volunteers, he attacked a 
British detachment of forty men, killed 
one, and took seven prisoners, without 
sustaining any loss himself. He soon 
after received a major's commission, 
and continued in the service till after 
the capture of Burgoyne. After his 
return, he rose through the different 
grades of office to that of Major-Gen- 
eral of militia, Avhich office he held six 
years. He was several years member 
of the executive council, and, in 1788, 
was appointed high sheriff of the coun- 
ty of Windham, which office he held 
eighteen years successively, and he was 
three years a judge of the county court. 
He died Sept. 15, 1814, aged about ser- 
enty years. 

First Minister. Rev. Mr. Dudley 
was ordained over the Congregational 
Church in 1777, and dismissed in 1780. 
This chmxh then became extinct until 
1792. when it was re-organized. 

Prodv.ctions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,025 
bushels; Indian corn, 7.946 bushels; 
potatoes, 41,488 bushels: hay, 4,178 
tons; maple sugar, 10,460 pounds; 
wool, 17,276 pounds. 

Dista7ices. Twelve miles north-west 
from Brattleboro', twenty-eight north- 
east from Bennington, and ninety-five 
south from Montpelier. 


Orleans Co. This town is well 
watered by Missisco River, which runs 
through it near the western border from 



south to nox-tk, and by several of its 

The falls on the IMissisco, in the 
north part, are a considerable curiosity. 
Here the river precipitates itself down 
a ledge of rocks about seventy feet 
These falls, and the deep still water 
below, present a grand and interesting 
spectacle, when viewed from a rock 
which projects over them, 120 feet in 
perpendicular height. 

The soil is in genei-al a strong loam, 
suitable for grass and most kinds of 
grain. The surface is generally level, 
and along the river are tiacts of inter- 
vale, of considerable extent and fer- 
tility. The principal rocks are chlorite 
and mica slate, serpentine, limestone, 
and steatite. 

Some yeai-s ago, an immense mass 
of iron ore, of an excellent quality, 
was discovered in Troy, a short dis- 
tance to the eastward of Missisco 
River. A furnace and forge have beep 
erected, which produce annually large 
quantities of iron. The quantity of 
ore is inexhaustible. 

The Orleans Iron Company, in this 
town, Avas incorporated in 1847. 

Boundaries. North by Patton, Can- 
ada, east by Newport, south by LoweU, 
and west by Westfield and Jay. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced about the year 1800, by 
emigrants from different towns on 
Connecticut River. During the late 
war Avith Great Britain, most of the 
inhabitants left the town. A part of 
them, however, returned after the war, 
and the settlement has since advanced 
with considerable rapidity. 

Productions of the Soil." Wheat, 923 
bushels ; Indian corn, 1,880 bushels ; 
potatoes, 30,880 bushels; hay, 2,192 
tons ; maple sugar, 19,0G6 pounds ; 
wool, 5,944 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles north from 
Irasburgh, and forty-seven miles north 
from Montpelier. 


Orange Co. A branch of White 
River passes through this town, on 
which are mills of various kinds. The 
soil is generally a rich loam ; on the 


stream the intervale land is extensive 
and valuable. In some parts of the 
tOAvn the surface is elevated. 

Tunbridge contains a medicinal 
spring of some notoriety in cutaneous 
diseases. Considerable quantities of 
the products of the farms are sent to 

There arc three pleasant villages 
situated -on the first branch of White 

Boundaries. North by Chelsea, east 
by Strafford, south by Royalton, and 
west by Randolph. 

First Settlers. The settlement of the 
township was commenced about the 
year J 776, by James Lyon, Moses Ord- 
way, and others, emigrants from New 

First Minister. Rev. David H. Wil- 
liston was ordained over the Congre- 
gational Church in 1793, and dismissed 
in 1802, 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,310 
bushels ; Indian com, 7,620 bushels j 
potatoes, 67,705 bushels ; hay, 3,430 
tons 5 maple sugar, 31,670 pounds ; 
wool, 18,905 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-six miles south 
by east from Montpelier, and seven 
south from Chelsea. 

This town is in the neighborhood of 
the Northern and Connecticut River 


Chittenden Co. The head branch- 
es of Brown's River water this town. 
The surface is hilly and broken, and 
the soil hard, but tolerable for sheep, 
of which a considerable number are 

The settlement of this to\\Ti was 
commenced about the year 1786. 

A Congregational Church was or- 
ganized in 1802, and in 1804 the Rev. 
James Parker was settled. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Cam- 
bridge, easterly by Mansfield, south- 
erly bv Jericho, and westerly by West- 
ford. " 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 , 1 86 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,954 bushels; 
potatoes, 30,375 bushels ; hay, 1,556 
tons ; maple sugar, 30,827 pounds ; 
wool, 8,010 pounds. 



Distances. Fifteen miles north-east 
from Burlington, and twenty-six noi-th- 
west from Montpelier. 


Addison Co. This city is beauti- 
fully located on Otter Creek, at the 
falls on that stream, and is seven miles 
from Lake Champlain. Otter Creek, 
at this place, is about 500 feet wide, 
and, at the falls, is separated by two 
islands, which form three distinct falls 
of thirty-seven feet. These falls pro- 
duce a great hydraulic power, rendered 
more valuable by being situated in the 
heart of a fertile countiy, and on the 
navigable waters of the lake. 

The creek, or river, betAveen the city 
and the lake, is crooked, but navigable 
for the largest lake vessels. During 
the late war, this was an important 
depot on the lake. Here was fitted 
out the squadron commanded by the 
gallant McDonough, who met the Bri- 
tish fleet off Plattsburgh, N. Y., on the 
11th of September, 1814, and made it 

This is a very favorable position for 
ship-building ; it now jwssesses import- 
ant manufactories, and considerable 
trade.. Although the territory of this 
city is quite small, its peculiarly fa- 
vorable location, and the enterprise of 
its people, waiTant it a great degree of 

This place has become a depository 
for munitions of war. 

The railroad between Boston and 
Burlington passes through this city. 
No passer through this place can but 
observe the peculiar advantages of 
Vergennes. Here are united, in great 
perfection, the two great powers, — wa- 
ter for mills, and steam for transporta- 
tion, — which cannot fail to render any 
place that possesses them an import- 
ant mart for trade and manufacture. 

Boundaries. North-east by Ferris- 
btn*gh, south by Waltham, and west by 
Panton and Ferrisburgh. 

First Settlers. The first settlement 
within the present limits of Vergennes 
was made in 1766, by Donald M'ln- 
tosh, a native of Scotland, who was in 
the battle of Culloden. He came to 

this countiy with Gen. "Wolfe's army, 
during the French war, and died July 
14, 1803, aged eighty-four years. The 
emigrants, who subsequently located 
themselves here, were principally from 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the 
south parts of this State. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was fonned Sept. 17, 1793. 
The Rev. Daniel C. Sanders was set- 
tled over it from June 12, 1794, to Aug. 
24, 1799. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 150 
bushels : Indian com, 1 ,353 bushels ; 
potatoes, 34,200 bushels; hay, 1,284 
tons ; wool, 9,900 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles north-west 
from Middlebury, twenty-one south by 
east from Burlington. 

The great Southern Railroad, be- 
tween Boston and Burlington, passes 
through this smart little city. 


Windham Co. Vernon lies on the 
west side of Connecticut River, oppo- 
site to Winchester, N. H. That River 
bends abruptly at this place, but in 
consequence of its elevated and rocky 
shore, affords comparatively little in- 

The surface is generally mountain- 
ous and rocky. There are in the town 
fine forests of oak and chestnut timber, 
and quarries of slate. 

Boundaries. North by Brattlebo- 
rough, east by Connecticut River, 
which separates it from Hinsdale, N. 
H., south by Northfield, Mass., and 
west by Guilford. 

First Settlers. This was one of the 
first settled towns in the State, but the 
precise time of its commencement is 
not knoAvn. The earliest inhabitants 
were emigrants from Northampton and 
Northfield, Mass. The inhabitants of 
Vernon encountered all the dangers 
and solicitudes of Indian wars, and 
struggled with all those difficulties and 
hardships which are incident to fron- 
tier settlements. Fort Dummer, in 
Brattleborough, Hinsdale's Fort, in 
Hinsdale, and Bridgman's Fort, in this 
town, were all insufficient to shield the 



inhabitants fi-om the incursions of the 

First Ministers. The Baptists are 
the most numerous religious sect. A 
meeting-house was erected here in 
1802. Elder David Newman, a Bap- 
tist, has officiated a number of years. 
The Rev. Bunker Gay, a Congrega- 
tionalist, was oi-dained over the church- 
es in this town and Hinsdale, N. H., in 
1764, and dismissed in 1802. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 127 
bushels; Indian corn, 5,910 bushels; 
potatoes, 7,955 bushels ; hay, 970 tons ; 
maple sugar, 300 pounds ; wool, 1,965 

Distances. Eighteen miles south-east 
from Newfane, and about fifty miles 
south from Windsor. 

The Connecticut Rivei* Railroad 
passes thi'ough the town. 


Orange Co. The surface of Yer- 
shire is uneven and stony, but fur- 
nishes pasturage for a large number of 
sheep, horses, and neat cattle. Branch- 
es of Ompomponoosuc River rise here, 
but give the town no valuable water 

The settlement commenced here in 
1780. The town was organized in 

The Rev. Stephen Fuller, Congre- 
gationalist, and Rev. Ebenezer West, 
Baptist, were the first settled ministers. 

Boundaries. North by Corinth, east 
by West Faii-lee, south by Strafford, 
and west by Chelsea. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 6,303 
bushels; Indian corn, 3,533 bushels; 
potatoes, 65,915 bushels; hay, 3,940 
tons ; maple sugar, 35,375 pounds : 
wool, 14494 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty -five miles south- 
east from Montpelier, and six east by 
soath from Chelsea. 


Essex Co. This unorganized town 
was granted November 6, 1780, and 
chartered September 6, 1781, to Eben- 
ezer risk and others, containing 23,040 

acres. It is watered by Moose River, 
which runs through it from north-east 
to south-west. 

Boundaries. North-westerly by Burke 
and a part of Kirby, north-easterly by 
Granby and a part of East Haven, 
south-east by Lunenburgh and Con- 
cord, and south-west by Bradleyvale. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 200 
bushels ; Indian com, 50 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 2,610 bushels ; hay, 123 tons ; 
maple sugar, 2,450 pounds ; wool, 921 

Distances. Twenty miles west from 
Guildhall, and fifty-four north-east from 


Washington Co. This town is 
settled with industrious, enterprising, 
and generally flourishing farmers. The 
soil is diversified, but generally a mel- 
low loam, deep, and of excellent qual- 
ity, producing grass in the greatest 
abundance. Wheat, rye, barley, oats, 
corn, &c., are raised in such quantities, 
as amply to reward the hand of in- 

Mad River passes through the town, 
near the western boundary, in a direc- 
tion from south-west to north-east, and 
falls into Winooski River in More- 
town, seven miles below Montpelier. 
It receives here Mill Brook and Shep- 
herd's Brook from the west, and Fay's 
Brook and Pine Brook from the east, 
all of which are sufficient for mills. 
Along this river the intervales are ex- 
tensive, and, together with the adjacent 
uplands, make many excellent farms. 
The high lands, too, are of a good 
quality, and there can hardly be said 
to be a poor farm in town. A range 
of high lands runs thi'ough the east- 
em part of the town, the chief summit 
of which is called Bald Mountain. 

Boundaries. North by Moretown, 
east by Northfield, south by Warren, 
and west by Fayston. 

First Settlei-s. Gen. Wait, the first 
inhabitant of this town, was bom at 
Sudbury, Mass., Feb. 13, 1737. He 
possessed a firm and vigorous consti- 
tution, and early manifested a disposi- 
tion and talent for military enterprise. 



At the age of eighteen he entered the 
service of his country, under the brave 
Gen. Amherst. In 1756 he was taken 
by the French, carried to Quebec, and 
from thence sent to France as a pri- 
soner. On the coast of France he was 
retaken by the British, and carried to 
England. ' In the spring of 1757 he 
returned to America, and in 1758 as- 
sisted at the capture of Louisburgh. 
During the two succeeding years, he 
aided in the reduction of Canada. 
After the submission of Canada, he 
was sent, by the commandant at De- 
troit, to Illinois, to bring in the I rench 
garrisons included in the capitulation. 
He left Detroit Dec. 10, and returned 
on the 1st of March following, having 
performed the difficult service with 
singular perseverance and success. At 
twenty-five years of age he had been 
engaged in forty battles and skirmish- 
es ; and his clothes were several times 
perforated with musket balls, but he 
never received a wound. la 1767 he 
removed to Windsor, in this State, and 
constituted the third family in that 
township. He acted a decided and 
conspicuous part in favor of Vermont, 
in the controversy with New York. 
In 1776 he entered the service of the 
United States as captain, and fought 
under the banners of Washington till 
the close of the war, during which 
time he had been raised to the rank of 
colonel. After this he was made a 
brigadier-general of militia, and was 
seven years high sheriff of the county 
of Windsor. Having made a large 
purchase here, he removed his family 
to this town in 1789. Here he lived 
to behold the wilderness converted into 
fruitful fields, in the enjoyment of com- 
petence, and died in 1822, aged eighty- 
six years. 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized in 1796, over 
which Rev. Wm. Salisbury was settled 
in 1801. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 1,615 
bushels ; Indian corn, 3,559 bushels ; 
potatoes, 47,315 bushels; hay, 2,256 
tons ; maple sugar, 30,495 pounds ; 
wool, 17,499 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty miles south-west 
from Montpelier. 

The Northern Railroad passes through 
Northtield, one of the boundary towns. 


Caledonia Co. This is an eleva- 
ted town, between the head waters of 
Winooski and Lamoille Rivers. Cole's 
Pond, a large sheet of water lying in 
the town, produces a small stream, 
called "Joe's Brook." The surface 
is generally rough ; but the soil in 
some parts of the town produces good 

Some years ago a stone mortar was 
found here, supposed to have been 
made by the Indians. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Goshen 
Gore, easterly by Danville, southerly 
by Cabot, and westerly by Hard wick. 

First Settlers. Nathaniel Perkins, 
Esq., moved his family into this town- 
ship, in January, 1789, and his was 
for three years the only family in Wal- 

First Ministers. The religious soci- 
eties are the Methodist, the Universal- 
ist, Baptist, and Freewill Baptist. The 
first was organized in 1810, the second 
in 1829, and the last in 1837. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,81 2 
bushels; Indian com, 486 bushels; 
potatoes, 38,833 bushels; hay, 3,466 
tons ; maple sugar, 40,370 pounds ; 
wool, 4,226 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles north-west 
from Danville, and twenty-five north- 
east from Montpelier. 

■W A lil^INGFORD. 

Rutland Co. This town is water- 
ed by Otter Creek, Mill River, and by 
three ponds, one of which, Hirams 
Pond, covering an area of 350 acres, 
lies on very elevated ground, and is 
one of the principal sources of Otter 
Creek. The other ponds are of less 
size, and less elevated. These moun- 
tain ponds are ,very handsome, and 
contain fish. The soil of the town is 
generally good ; that on the banks of 
Otter Creek is very fertile and produc- 
tive. Wallingford produces all the 
varieties of grain, grass, &c., and feeds 
a large number of sheep. 



A range of primitive limestone passes 
tln-ou^h the western part of the to^vn, in 
wliich have been opened several quarries 
of excellent marble. Green Hill, situa- 
ted near the centre, is composed almost 
entirely of quartz. A part of White 
Rocks, belonging to the Green Moun- 
tain range, appears to be granite, the 
rest quartz. At the foot of White 
Rocks are large cavities, formed by the 
fallen rocks, called the icebeds, in which 
ice is found in abundance thi'ough the 
summer season. 

There are some valuable manufac- 
turing establishments in Wallingford, 
and a flourishing trade. The village 
is pleasantly located on the banks of 
Otter Creek, near one of the ponds. It 
contains some, handsome buildings, 
and presents a variety of picturesque 

Boundaries. North by Clarendon, 
east by Mount Holly, south by Mount 
Tabor, and west by Tinmouth. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1773, by Abraham 
Jackson and family. The early set- 
tlers were mostly emigrants from Con- 

First Ministers. The Baptist Church 
was the first organized in town, and 
Elder Henry Green was the first settled 
minister. The Congregational Church 
was organized about 1802, when they 
settled the Rev. Benjamin Osbom. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,614 
bushels ; Indian com, 7,384 bushels ; 
potatoes, 38.775 bushels; hay, 5,216 
tons; maple sugar, 17,715 pounds; 
wool, 14,560 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles south by east 
from Rutland, and forty-two north 
north-east from Bennington. 

The Southern Railroad, between 
Boston and Burlington, passes thi'ough 
the town. 


. Addison Co. Buck Mountain lies 
near the centre of Waltham, and, as it 
is the highest land in the county, west 
of the Green Mountains, its summit 
exhibits a good view of a delightful 
section of country. 

Waltham lies on the east side of 

Otter Creek, which it separates from 
Panton. Otter Creek, at this place, is 
sluggish in its course, and affords no 
mill privileges. The soil is generally 
good ; that along the stream is excel- 

Boundaries. North by Ferrisburgh, 
east and south by New Haven, and 
west by a part of Vergennes and Ot- 
ter Creek. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
AValtham was commenced just before 
the beginning of the revolutionary war, 
by a family of Griswolds, and others, 
from Connecticut. 

First Ministers. The religious de- 
nominations are Congregationalists and 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 346 
bushels; Indian com, 1,910 bushels; 
potatoes, 7,600 bushels ; hay, 1,730 
tons; wool, 12,652 pounds. 

Distances. Nine miles north-west 
from Middlebury, twenty-four south 
from Burlington, and forty miles south- 
west from Montpelier. 

The Southern Railroad passes 
through a neighboring town. 


Windham Co. The surface of this 
town is hilly, and in some parts rocky ; 
the soil is hard, but rendered produc- 
tive by the industry of its people. 
Wards'borough is watered by West Ri- 
ver, and contains a number of minerals, 
of which tremolite and zoisite are the 
most important, and of which fine spe- 
cimens are found. There are some 
mills in the town, but the water power 
is not extensive. 

Boundaries. North by Jamaica, east 
by Newfane and Townshend, south by 
Dover, and west by Stratton and So- 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Wardsborough Avas commenced June, 
1780, by John Jones, Ithamer Allen, 
and others, from Milford and Star- 
bridge, Mass. 

First Ministers. The Congregation- 
al Church was organized May 1, 1793, 
over Avhich the Rev. James Tufts was 
ordained Nov. 4, 1795. The Rev. E. 



G. Bradford was settled as liis assist- 
ant, Oct. 5, 1836. 

Productions of the Soil. Wlieat, 1,277 
bushels; Indian corn, 2,487 bushels^ 
potatoes, 35,538 bushels ; hay, 2,833 
tons ; maple sugar, 15,810 pounds ; 
wool, 5,442 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles north-Avest 
from Brattleborough, twenty noi'th- 
east from Bennington, and ten north- 
west from Newfane. 


Washington County. Warren is 
watered by Mad River, and, although 
between the two Green Mountain 
rMiges, the surface is not much broken. 

It has some good mill sites, and some 
mechanical operations by water. Many 
cattle are reared in the tOAvn. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Waitsfield 
and a part of Fayston, easterly by 
Roxbury, southerly by Granville, and 
westerly by Lincoln. 

First Settlers. The settlement of this 
town commenced about the year 1797, 
by Samuel Lord and Seth Leavitt. 
There are various denominations of 
Christians in Warren. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,711 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,737 bushels; 
potatoes, 44,081 bushels ; hay, 2,054 
tons ; maple sugar, 26,934 pounds ; 
wool, 14,667 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-three miles south- 
west from Montpelier. 


Montpelier is the chief town. This county is nearly in the centre of the 
State, and the principal part of it lies between the two ranges of the Green 
Mountains. It is bounded north by Lamoille and parts of Chittenden and 
Caledonia Counties, east by Caledonia County, south by Orange and Addison 
Counties, and west by Addison and Chittenden Counties. It was incorporated 
in 1810, by the name of Jefferson, and took its present name in 1814. 

This county is finely watered by its chief river, the Winooski, or Onion, and 
many of its important branches. These streams afford the county an abundant 
water power, and manufacturing establishments increase and flourish in this 
mountainous region. 

The surface of the county is uneven, hilly, and in some parts mountainous, 
but there is much valuable land along the streams, which in many parts are 
sluggish, and form large tracts of excellent intervale. 

The agricultural productions consist of neat cattle, horses, hogs, wool, and 
of the productions of the dairy. There are large bodies of beautiful granite in 
the county, and slate of various kinds. — See Tables. 


The Supreme Court sits at Montpelier, on the sixth Tuesday after the 
fourth Tuesday in January ; and the County Court on the second Tuesday 
in April, and the third Tuesday in November. 




Orange Co. Branches of Winoo- 
ski, Wait's, and White Rivers rise in 
this town, but afford no considerable 
water power. The two former are call- 
ed Jail Branches, from the circumstance 
that the proprietors were required by 
their charter, of 1781, to erect a jail 
within the limits of the town at an 
early period. 

There is some excellent land along 
the streams, and the uplands are gene- 
rally arable, and afford good pas- 

There is a neat village in the town, 
some trade, and manufactures. 

Boundaries. North by Orange, east 
by Corinth, south by Chelsea, and west 
by Williamstown. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1785,^ by Daniel Morse, 
who was soon joined by his brother, 
John Morse. A son of John Morse was 
the first child born here, and received, 
in consequence, fifty acres of land from 
the proprietors. 

There are various denominations of 
Christians in Washington, with some 
handsome meeting-houses. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,647 
bushels ; Indian com, 2,838 bushels ; 
potatoes, 70,770 bushels ; ha}-, 4,381 
tons ; maple sugar, 27,595 pounds; 
wool, 10,836 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles south by 
east from Montpelier. 


Washington Co. The surface of 
Waterbury is generally IcA'-el, with 
some pleasant swells. The soil is warm 
and fertile ; the meadow lands on the 
rivers, of which there are large tracts, 
are not excelled in richness by any in 
the State. 

Waterbury is separated from Dux- 
bury by Winooski River, which, with 
Waterbury River and other streams, 
afford the tovm a good water power. 

In the south-west corner of the 
tOAvn, the passage of. Winooski River 
throixgh a considerable hill is consider- 
ed a curiosity. The stream has here 
worn a channel through the rocks, 

which, in times past, undoubtedly, 
formed a cataract below of no ordinary 
height, and a considerable lake above. 
The chasm is at present about 100 feet 
wide, and nearly as deep. On one 
side, the rocks are nearly perpendicu- 
lar, some of which have fallen across 
the bed of the stream in such a man- 
ner as to form a bridge, passable, how- 
ever, only at low water. On the same 
side, the rocks which appear to have 
been loosened and moved by the un- 
dermining of the water, have again 
rested, and become fixed in such a 
posture as to form several caverns, or 
caves, some of which have the appear- 
ance of rooms fitted for the conve- 
nience of man. Several musket balls 
and flints were found in the extreme 
part of one of them, a few years since, 
Arith the appearance of having lain 
there many years, which makes it 
evident that they were known to the 
early hunters. 

Waterbury River rises in Morris- 
town, and runs south through the west- 
ern part of Stowe and Waterbury into 
Winooski River. In Stowe it receives 
one considerable tributary, from the 
east, which rises in Worcester, and 
two from the west, which rise in Mans- 
field. It also receives several tributa- 
ries from the west, in Waterbury, 
w^hich originate in Bolton. The whole 
length of the stream is about sixteen 
miles, and it affords a number of good 
mill privileges. 

Boundaries. North by Stowe, east 
by Middlesex, south by Winooski Ri- 
ver, which separates it from Duxbury, 
and a part of Moretown, and west by 

First Settla-3. In June, 1784, Mr. 
James Marsh moved his family, con- 
sisting of a wife and eight children, 
into Waterbury, from Bath, N. H., and 
took possession of a surveyor's cabin, 
which was standing near Winooski 
River. Mr. Marsh was induced to 
move his family here, at the time he 
did, by the promise of the proprietors, 
that several other families should be 
procured to move into the town in the 
folloAving fall. This pi-omise was not 
fulfilled; and for nearly a year tlm 
solitary family scarcely saw a hiunan 



being but themselves, and, for more 
than two years, their nearest neigh- 
bors were in Bolton, seven miles dis- 

First Ministers. About the year 
1800 a revival of religion commenced 
in this town, which continued through 
that and the following year ; and dur- 
ing that time Congregational, Baptist, 
and Methodist Churches were organ- 

Productions of the Soil. ^Yheat, 2,3 2 9 
bushels ; Indian cora, 4,070 bushels 
potatoes, 21,389 bushels; hay, 3,327 
tons ; maple sugar, 25,502 pounds ; 
wool, 9,001 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles north-west 
from Montpelier, and twenty-six east 
south-east from Burlington. 

The great Northern Railroad, from 
Boston to Burlington, passes through 
this to^vn. 


Caledonia Co. The west part of 
Waterford is watered by the Passump- 
sic, and the north border by Moose 
Eiver. Here is a water power and 
some manufactures. A part of the 
tovm borders on Fifteen Mile Falls, in 
Connecticut River. The banks of 
that river are steep at this place, 
and form but little intervale. The 
uplands are rough and stony, but good 
for sheep. 

The settlement of the town was 
commenced in 1787. The Rev. Asa 
Carpenter was ordained over the Con- 
gregational Church in 1798 ; dismissed 
in 1816. 

Boundaries. North-east by Concord, 
south-east by Connecticut River, which 
separates it from Lyman, N. H., south- 
west by Barnet, and north-west by St. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,750 
bushels ; Indian corn, 5,022 bushels ; 
potatoes, 64,265 bushels; hay, 5,015 
tons ; maple sugar, 2,905 pounds ; 
wool, 12,032 pounds. 

Distances. Eighteen miles south- 
east from Danville, and forty-eight 
north-east from Montpelier. 

The Connecticut River Railroad 
passes through the town. 


Lamoille Co. Waterville is en- 
vironed by mountains, and is itself 
mountainous. It is watered by a 
branch of Lamoille River. 

There are many good mill privileges 
in this tOA\Ti, and some fine land on the 
borders of its streams. 

The settlement commenced here 
about the year 1789. 

Boundaries. North by Bakersfield, 
east by Belvidere and Johnson, south 
by Cambridge, and west by Fletcher. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 697 
bushels; Indian corn, 11,04 bushels; 
potatoes, 23,054 bushels; hay, 1,319 
tons; maple sugar, 11,020 pounds j 
wool, 3,116 pounds. 

Distances. Twelve miles north-west 
from Hydepark, and thirty -nine miles 
north-west from Montpelier. 


Windsor Co, This town lies on 
the west side of Connecticut River, at 
the " Bow," so called from a bend in 
the river. It contains large tracts of 
rich meadow land, and the uplands are 
of a good quality. 

William Jarvis, Esq., for many years 
a resident here, owns a large and supe- 
rior fai-m, and has greatly benefited 
tliis section of countiy, by the intro 
duction of new modes of agriculture, 
and more valuable breeds of stock. The 
agricultural products of Weathcrsfield 
are very valuable. 

This town is large, and contains a 
number of pleasant villages. It is wa- 
tered by several ponds, and by Black 
River, which gives it a water power, 
and which is applied to manufacturing 
operations to some extent In common 
with all the towns on Connecticut Ri- 
ver, Weathcrsfield has its share of de- 
lightful scenery ; and there is no better 
place to find it, in all its richness, than 
on the Ascutnet/y at the north part of 
the town. 

Perkinsville, situated in the south- 
western part of the town, derives its 
name from a Mr. Perkins, a capitalist 
from Boston, who, in 1830, purchased 
a small woollen factory, which he 



greatly enlarged, thus giving an im- 
pulse to the business of the village, 
and attracting the attention of other 
capitalists to improve the favorable 
advantages afforded by the Rapids in 
Black River to engage in the same 

Boundaries. North by Windsor, east 
by Connecticut River, which separates 
it from Claremont, N. H., south by 
Springfield, and west by Cavendish and 

First Settlers. The early settlers of 
this towni emigrated pi-iricipally from 

First Ministers. The Rev. James 
Treadway, of the Congregational or- 
der, the first minister, was settled by 
the town in 1779, and continued their 
pastor till 1 783. Rev. Dan Foster was 
settled in 1787, and dismissed in 1799. 
Rev. James Converse was ordained 
February 10, 1802, and remained their 
pastor until his death, Januarv 7 th, 

Productions of the Soil. 'Wheat, 532 
bushels; Indian com, 14,204 bushels; 
potatoes, 58,498 bushels; hay, 5,921 
tons; maple sugar, 9,185 pounds; 
wool, 30,120 pounds. 

Distances. Seventy miles south by 
east from Montpelier, and about ten 
below Windsor. 

The Sullivan railroad passes on the 
opposite side of the river. 

Rutland Co. A part of this town- 
ship is level, and a part mountain- 
ous. The soil is generally good, and 
productive of grain, and of pasturage 
for sheep. 

The principal stream in the town 
issues from Wells or St. Augustine 
Lake or Pond, a beautiful sheet of 
water, partly in Poultney, five miles 
in length, and covering 2,000 acres. 
At the outlet of this pond is a snug 
village, with some water power machi- 

Boundaries. North by Poultney and 
a part of Middletown, east by a part 
of Middletown and Tinmouth, south 
by Pawlet, and west by Hampton, New 


First Settler. The settlement was 
commenced by Ogden Mallary, about 
the year 1768. 

There are various denominations of 
Christians in this town, a number of 
handsome meeting-houses, and an Epis- 
copal Church. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 742 
bushels ; Indian com, 4,275 bushels ; 
potatoes, 16,360 bushels; hay, 2,261 
tons ; maple sugar, 6,200 pounds ; 
wool, 8,752 pounds. 

Distances. Sixty-five miles south 
south-west from Montpelier, and thir- 
teen south-west from Rutland. 


Essex Co. This mountain town 
gives rise to a principal branch of Nul- 
hegan River. The lands here are too 
elevated for cultivation. 

The to^vn was chartered in 1761. 

Boundaries. Northerly by Lewis and 
Avery's Gore, easterly by Brunswick, 
southerly by Ferdinand and Brighton, 
and westerly by Morgan. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 60 
bushels; Indian com, 12 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 950 bushels ; hay, 76 tons ; 
maple sugar, 1,200 pounds ; wool, 65 

Distances. Thirty miles north-west 
from Grtiildhall,and seventy -three north- 
east from Montpelier. 


Orange Co. West Fau-lee is wa- 
tered by Ompomponoosuc River, and 
by a part of Fairlee Pond. The sur- 
face is rough and mountainous, but ca- 
pable of sustaining a considerable num- 
ber of cattle. 

West Fairlee was chartered, in con- 
nection with Fairlee, in 1761. 

Boundaries. North by Bradford, east 
by Fairlee, south by Thetford, and west 
by Vershire. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 821 
bushels ; Indian com, 3,758 bushels: 
potatoes, 29,641 bushels; hay, 2,775 
tons ; maple sugar, 12,622 pounds ; 
wool, 10,525 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-eight miles south- 



east from Montpelier, and twelve east 
by south from Chelsea. 

The Connecticut River Railroad 
passes near the town. 


Orleans Co. A number of the 
branches of Missisco River meet in this 
town, and afford a good water power. 
A part of the surface of Westfield is 
mountainous, and in the town is the 
pass in the Green Mountains called 
Hazen's Notch. 

Boundaries. North by Jay, east by 
Troy, south by Lowell, and west by 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
Westfield was commenced about the 
year 1790, by Jesse Olds, a IMr. Hobbs, 
and others. 

There are in this to\\Ti a variety of 
religious denominations. 

Productions of the Soil. ^Yheat, 917 
bushels ; Indian corn, 958 bushels ; 
potatoes, 19,190 bushels; hay, 1,221 
tons; maple sugar, 11,375 pounds; 
wool, 3,711 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles north-west 
from Irasburgh, and forty-four miles 
north from Montpelier. 


Chittenden Co. Westford was 
settled soon after the revolutionary 
war, by Hezekiah Parmelee and others. 
The town is well watered by Bro^vni's 
River, a branch of the Lamoille. The 
surface is rough, and the soil good for 

The Rev. Simeon Parmelee was 
settled in Sept. 1809 over the Congre- 
gational Church, and continued many 

Boundaries. North by Fairfax, east 
by Underbill, south by Essex, and west 
by Milton. 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 1,617 
bushels ; Indian corn, 4,780 bushels : 
potatoes, 45,317 bushels; hay, 4,456 
tons ; maple sugar, 21,885 pounds ; 
wool, 13,636 pounds. 

Distances. Thirteen miles north 
north-east from Burlington, and thirty- 
five north-west from Montpelier. 


Rutland Co. West Haven was 
set off from Fair Haven in 1792. It 
is well watered by Hubbardston and 
Poultney Rivers, and Cogman's Creek, 
on the former of which are handsome 
falls and mill sites. The soil is pro- 
ductive of grain and grass ; there is 
much limestone and clay in West Ha- 

The site of the village is pleasant ; 
it is a place of some trade, navigation, 
and manufactures. 

Boundaries. North by Benson, east 
by Fair Haven, south by Poultney Ri- 
ver, which separates it from Whitehall, 
New York, and west by Lake Cham- 

First Settlers. — See Fair Haven. 

First Ministers. The Rev. Ebenezer 
Hibbard was installed over the Con- 
gregational Church in 1822, and dis- 
missed in 1829. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,1 96 
bushels; Indian corn, 2,458 bushels; 
potatoes, 7,895 bushels ; hay, 2,578 
tons ; maple sugar, 340 pounds ; wool, 
16,153 pounds. 

Distances. Nineteen miles west from 


Windsor Co. The western part 
of the beautiful town of Windsor was 
set off in the year 1 848, and called by 
the above name. 

The act creating this a new town is 
in common form, but a better name 
might hav§ been selected. 


Windham Co. The surface and 
soil of Westminster are fiivorable for 
agriculture, and various articles of pro- 
duce are annually sent to market. 

The principal and oldest village is 
delightfully situated in the East Parish, 
on the bank of Connecticut River. 
The main street, which is perfectly 
level, crosses a table of land about 
one mile in diameter, considerably ele- 
vated above the river, and also above 
the large and fertile meadows by which 



it is approached on the north and 
south ; and the whole is enclosed by 
a semi-cii-cle of hills, which touch the 
river about two miles above and below 
the town. It is this barrier which, 
while it contributes to the natural 
beauty of the place, has, by turning 
the water course in another direction, 
deprived it of all those facilities of 
access and of water power, which 
have so much contributed to the rapid 
growth of some of the neighboring vil- 

Boundaries. JCorth by Rockingham, 
east by Connecticut River, which sepa- 
rates it from Walpole, N. H., south by 
Putney, and west by Brookline and 

First Settlers. The earliest perma- 
nent settlers came from Northtield, in 
Massachusetts, and from Ashford and 
Middletown, in Connecticut, about 
1741, and were soon followed by others 
from the same States. The pleasant 
situation of the town, and its proximi- 
ty to the fort maintained by the New 
Hampshire government, in what is 
now called Walpole, caused the settle- 
ment to proceed with considerable ra- 
pidity, and it was, at an early period, 
one of the principal tovims west of the 
Connecticut. A jail formerly stood 
in this place, and a court house, in 
which were held some of the earliest 
courts of justice 5 and when Yeraiont 
subsequently set up an independent 
jurisdiction, several sessions of the le- 
gislature were also held here. It was 
here that the famous massacre of the 
13th of March, 1775 took place, and 
that the first regular measures were 
adopted to resist by force the govern- 
ment of New York. And after the 
erection of the county of Windham, 
the courts Avere held alternately at 
Westminster and Marlborough, for 
many years, until they were removed 
to Newfane. 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized here, and Rev, 
Jesse Goodel settled in 1767, who left 
in 1769. Rev. Joseph Bullen, from 
1774 to 178.5. Rev. Sylvester Sage, 
from 1790 to 1838, with the exception 
of a settlement at Braintree, Mass., in 
the years 1807, 8, and 9. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,893 
bushels; Indian corn, 12,498 bushels; 
potatoes, 30,267 bushels; hay, 4,307 
tons ; maple sugar, 28,670 pounds ; 
wool, 31,382 pounds. 

Distances. Eighty-two miles south 
from Montpelier, and thu'teen north- 
east from Newfane. 

This town lies a little below Bellows 
Falls, and is in the vicinity of two rail- 


Orleans Co. Westmore contains 
Willoughby's Lake, a handsome sheet 
of water, surrounded by Mounts Hor, 
Pico, and other elevations. This lake 
is about six miles in length, and one 
and a half in width. Branches of 
Barton, Clyde, and Passumpsic Ri- 
vers rise in this and other ponds in the 

Westmore appears to be too high 
for the habitation of many people or 

The settlement commenced here 
about the year 1 800 ; it was abandon- 
ed during the war of 1812, but resumed 
on the return of peace. 

Boundoj-ies. Northerly by Brighton 
and Charleston, easterly by Newark, 
southerly by Sutton, and westerly by 

Productions of the Soil Wheat, 308 
bushels ; Indian com, 55 bushels ; 
potatoes, 2,350 bushels ; hay, 92 tons ; 
maple sugar, 48 pounds; wool, 114 

Distances. Twelve miles east from 
Irasburgh, and fifty-two north-east from 


Windsor Co. West River passes 

through this town, and on its banks 
are some good lands, some manufac- 
tures, and two pleasant villages. It 
was set off from Andover in 17 90, and 
organized as a town in 1800. 

A union meeting-house was com- 
pleted here in 1817. 

Boundaries. North by Mount Holly 
and Ludlow, east by Andover, south 



by Londonderry, and west by Mount 
Tabor and Land^crove. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,159 
bushels; Indian com, 631 bushels; 
potatoes, t33,555 bushels : hay, 2,776 
tons ; maple sugar, 13,455 pounds ; 
wool, 6,858 pounds. 

Distances. Sixty-six miles south by 
'west from Montpeiier, and twenty-two 
south-west from Windsor. 

The Southern Railroad passes near 
this to^vn. 


Addison Co. Weybridge is water- 
ed by Otter Creek, Avhich affords it 
good mill sites. Lemonfair River, a 
sluggish stream, also waters it. Some 
parts of the town are mountainous, 
but the soil is generally good ; the 
basis being limestone, it yields good 

Boundaries. North and east by Ot- 
ter Creek, which separates it from 
New Haven and Middlebury, south by 
Cornwall, and west by Bridpon and 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced about the beginning of the 
revolutionary war, by David Stow and 
John Sanford, but the settlers were 
60on after dispersed, or made prisoners 
by the enemy. The settlement was 
recommenced on the return of peace. 
The first settlers were mostly from 

First Minister. A Congregational 
Church was organized in 1794. Rev. 
Jonathan Hovey was settled over it, 
from 1806 to 1816. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 717 
bushels ; Indian com, 4,808 bushels ; 
potatoes, 14,215 bushels; hay, 2,776 
tons : maple sugar, 896 pounds ; wool, 
28,989 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty miles south by 
east from Burlington. It adjoins JVIid'- 
dlebury, through wliich the Southern 
Railroad passes. 


Caledonia Co. There is some 
good land in this town, but a grea' 
part of it is mountainous or hilly, and 

fit only for pasturage. The streams 
flow north-west into the Lamoille, and 
south-east into the Passumpsic. 

This town Avas granted, in 1785, to 
the Charity School at Dartmouth Col- 
lege, and named in honor of John 
Wheelock, who was, at that time presi- 
dent of that institution. 

The first settlers Avere Joseph Page, 
Abraham Momll, and Dudley Swasey, 
in 1790. 

Boundaries. North by Sheffield, east 
by Lyndon, south by Danville, and west 
by Greensborough. 

Productions ofUie Soil. Wheat, 1,967 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,100 bushels j 
potatoes, 57,520 bushels; hay, 3,-334 
tons ; maple sugar, 32,160 pounds ; 
wool, 8,287 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-four miles north- 
east from Montpeiier, ten miles north 
from Danville, and ten miles north- 
west from St. Johnsbury. 

Wheelock lies five miles from Lyn- 
don, through which a railroad passes. 


Addison Co. Otter Creek waters 
the eastern border of the town, but 
affords no mill privileges. 

Otter Ci'eek, till lately, afforded no 
valuable fish. In the spring of 1819, 
Mr. Levi Walker, of Whiting, pro- 
posed to the inhabitants of this and 
the neighboring towns along the creek 
to transfer fish fi-om the lake into the 
creek, above Middlebury Falls. The 
plan Avas carried into execution, and 
the fish have since multiplied exceed- 
ingly. In 1823, not less than 500 
pounds of excellent pickerel were taken 
from the creek, in the distance of two 

Along the eastern part of the tOAvn, 
near Otter Creek, is a swamp, which 
covers 2 or 3,000 acres. It affords 
an abundance of excellent cedar, pine, 
ash, &c. 

The soil is generally of the marly 
kind, and produces good grass and 
grain. In 1810, Mr. Samuel H. Rem- 
mele had a field of five acres of wheat, 
which averaged fifty bushels to the 
acre ; and Mr. Benajah Justin for seve- 
ral years raised an annual crop of 



corn, which averaged 100 bushels to 
the £t<;re. 

Boundaries. North by Cornwall, east 
by Otter Creek, which separates it 
from Leicester and Salisbury, south by 
Sudbury, and west by Orwell and 

First Settlers. John "Wilson erected 
the first house in Whiting, in 1772, and 
in June, 1773, a family by the name of 
Bolster moved into it. In 1774, Mr. 
Wilson's and several other families 
moved here. During the revolution 
the settlement was abandoned, but was 
recommenced, immediately upon its 
close, by those persons who had been 
driven off, and by others. Among the 
first settlers were a Mr. Marshall, Gid- 
eon Walker, Joseph Williams, Dan- 
iel Washburn, Joel Foster, Samuel 
Beach, Ezra Allen, Jehiel Hull, Henry 
Wiswell, and Benjamin Andrus. 

First Ministers. Elder David Rath- 
bun was ordained over the Baptist 
Church, in June, 1800, and continued 
three or four years. After this, the 
Rev. John Ransom preached here about 
two years. In Jan. 1810, the Rev. Jus- 
tin Parsons was settled over the Con- 
gregational Church, and continued 
about three years. 

Productions of the Soil. WTieat, 1 ,232 
bushels ; Indian com, 2,255 bushels ; po- 
tatoes, 7,150 bushels ; hay, 2,837 tons; 
maple sugar, 1,590 lbs.; wool, 27,168 

Distances. Forty-miles south-west 
from Montpelier, and ten south from 

The Southern Railroad passes in 
this vicinity. 


Windham Co. Deei-field River 
runs through the whole length of this 
town, along the western part, fertiliz- 
ing some handsome tracts of meadow. 
There are many other smaller streams 
in different parts. There are two na- 
tural ponds. Siwdawda Pond is so 
called from an Indian of that name, 
who fonnerly lived near it, and was af- 
terwards supposed to have been drown- 
ed in going down Deerfield River. 
This pond has been gradually decreas 

ing for fifty years past, by land form- 
ing over the water, which, to the ex- 
tent of seventy or eighty acres, rises 
and falls with the waters of the pond. 

The surface of Whitinghara is un- 
even, but the soil is generally good, 
and is timbered with maple, beech, 
birch, ash, spruce, and hemlock. 

A mineral spring was discovered 
here in 1822, which was analyzed by 
Dr. Wilson, and found to contain the 
following ingredients, viz. : Muriate of 
lime, carbonate of lime, muriate of 
magnesia, carbonate and per-oxyde of 
iron,, alumina, with .an acid trace. It 
is said to be a specific for cutaneous 
eniptions, scrofulous humors, dropsy, 
gravel, chronic ulcers, liver complaint, 
and a variety of other diseases. 

The western part of the town abounds 
vfiih limestone, which is burnt exten- 
sively into lime, and transported to va- 
rious places. 

Boundaries. North by Wilmington, 
east by Halifax, south by Heath and 
Rowe, Mass., and west by Readsbo- 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1770, by a Mr. Bratlin 
and Silas Hamlinton. In 1773, Messrs. 
Angel, Gustin, Nelson, Lamphire, and 
Pike, emigrants from Massachusetts 
and Connecticut, moved their families 

There have been several instances 
of longevity. Mr. Benjamin Cook died 
here in 1832, aged one hundred and 
six years. His health and strength 
held out remarkably, and he celebrated 
his hundredth birth-day by making a 
pair of shoes without spectacles. Many 
of the first settlers of this town had 
numerous families of children. Mr. 
Pike had twenty-eight children; ten 
by his first wife,' and eighteen by two 

There are the usual number of reli- 
gious denominations in the town. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,1 54 
bushels; Indian corn, 3,270 bushels; 
potatoes, 4,978 bushels; hay, 4,999 
tons ; maple sugar, 30,389 pounds ; 
wool, 6,809 pounds. 

Distances. Seventeen miles west by 
south from Brattleborough, and eigh- 
teen east south-east from Bennington, 





Orange Co. Williamstown lies on 
the height of land between Winooski 
and White Rivers, and contains no 
large streams. A brook, which here 
runs down a steep hill towards the 
west, divides naturally, and while one 
part runs to the north, forming Ste- 
ven's Branch of Winooski River, the 
other runs to the south, forming the 
second branch of White River. 

The turnpike from Royalton to 
Montpelier passes along these streams, 
and is known by the name of the Gulf 
Road, on account of the deep ravine 
through which it passes in this town, 
near the head of the second branch. 
The hills here, upon each side of the 
branch, are very high and abrupt, and 
approach so near each other, as hardly 
to leave space for a road between 
them. In this ravine a medicinal spring 
has recently been discovered, which 
is thought to be equal to that at Cla- 

Williamstown is timbered principally 
with hard wood, and the soil is well 
adapted to the production of grass. 
There is a small but pleasant village 
near the centre of the town. 

Boundaries. North by Barre, east by 
Washington, south by Brookfield, and 
west by Northfield. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this town was commenced in June, 
1784, by Hon. Elijah Paine, John 
Paine, John Smith, Joseph Crane, and 
Josiah Lyman. Penuel Deming mov- 
ed his family here in February, 1785, 
and this was the first family in town. 
Hon. Cornelius Lynde moved here in 

First Ministers. A Congregational 
Church was organized here in 1795, 
and its first minister was the Rev. 
Jesse Olds. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. Nathan Waldo, Benton Perley, 
Joel Davis, Andrew Royce, &c. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 3,712 
bushels ; Indian com, 4,528 bushels ; 
potatoes, 85,066 bushels ; hay, 5,459 
tons ; maple sugar, 33,451 pounds ; 
wool, 20,555 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles south-east from 
Montpelier, and about the same dis- 

tance north-west from Chelsea. The 
Northern Railroad passes through the 
neighboring town of Northfield. 


Chittenden Co. This is an excel- 
lent farming town, of a rich soil, with 
an uneven surface, but not mountain- 
ous. It is very productive of all the 
varieties common to a northern cli- 
mate. Its product of wool, in 1837, 
was 9,225 fleeces. 

Williston is watered by Winooski 
River and some smaller streams, but 
its water power is small. 

Thomas Chittenden was the father 
of this town. He came here in 1774. 
He was a member of the convention, 
which, in 1777, declared Vermont an 
independent State, and was active in 
procuring its admission into the Union. 
When the Vennont Constitution was 
established, in 1778, Mr. Chittenden was 
selected as a candidate for governor, 
to which office he was annually elect- 
ed, with the exception of one year, till 
his death, in 1797. He was sixty-seven 
years of age. 

Boundaries. North by Winooski 
River, which separates it from Essex, 
east by Jericho and Richmond, south 
by St. George, and west by Muddy 
Brook, which separates it from Bur- 

First Minister. Rev. Aaron Collins 
was settled over the Congregational 
Church in 1 800 ; dismissed in 1 803. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,726 
bushels; Indian com, 7,526 bushels; 
potatoes, 42,529 bushels ; hay, 4,926 
tons; maple sugar, 13,167 pounds; 
wool, 23,138 pounds. 

Distances. Twenty-seven miles west 
north-west from Montpelier. 

This town adjoins Burlington, and 
is easy of access to lake and railroad 


Windham Co. The east and west 
branches of Deerfield River unite in 
this town, which, with the waters 
of Beaver and Cold Brooks, and of 
Ray's Pond, a large and beautiful 
sheet of water, a valuable mill power 



is produced. There are some fine 
tracts of land in the town, and a con- 
siderable portion that is rough and 
hard to till. There are a number of 
mills of various kinds in the town, and 
a pleasant and thriving village. 

Wilmington was settled before the 
revolutionary war, but increased but 
slowly until the peace. 

Boundaries. North by Dover and a 
part of Somerset, east by Marlborough, 
south by Whitingham, and west by 

First Ministers. The Congregation- 
al Church was organized here in 1780, 

and has had the following ministers : 
Rev. Winslow Packard, from July 3, 
1781, to October 12, 1784; Rev. Jonas 
Hatch, from March 7, 1787, to Febru- 
aiy 18, 1791 ; Rev, E. Fairbanks, from 
September 11, 1793. to January 3, 
1800, &c. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1,152 
bushels ; Indian com, 1,618 bushels ; 
potatoes, 66,110 bushels; hay, 4,991 
tons ; maple sugar, 81,159 pounds ; 
wool, 5,419 pounds. 

Distances. Seventeen miles east from 
Bennington, and fourteen south-west 
from Newfane. 


Newfane is the shire town. This county is bounded north by Windsor 
County, east by Connecticut River, south by the State of Massachusetts, and 
■west by the County of Bennington. For some years it bore the name of Cum- 

The surface of the county is much broken by hills and valleys ; the west- 
em part is very elevated, and contains a part of the Green Mountain range. 
The geological character of the county is primitive. Immense quantities of 
granite is found in all parts of the county, both in quarries and boulders, 
most of which is of fine grain and very handsome. It also contains gneiss, 
hornblende, serpentine, primitive limestone, and mica, talcose, chlorite, and 
argeUite slates. 

The soil of the county is various ; from the rich and alluvial meadows on 
the Connecticut, to the cold and rugged lands on the sides of the mountains. 
The general character of the soil may be considered as tolerable for grain, and 
excellent for grazing. 

Windham County is finely watered by WOliams', Saxton's, and West Ri- 
vers, with their branches, and by numerous other streams. These waters give 
the county a great hydraulic power, which is rapidly coming into use for man- 
ufacturing purposes. — See Tables. 


The Supreme Court sits at Newfane, on the third Tuesday after the fourth 
Tuesday in January ; and the County Court on the second Tuesday in April 
and September. 




Windham Co. Branches of "West, 
Williams', and Saxton's Rivers give 
this town a good water power. The 
sorface of the to\vn is elevated ; the 
soil, though strong, is better adapted 
for grazing than tillage. 

Windham was formerly a part of 

The actynolit€, embedded in talc, is 
found in this town, in slender four- 
sided prisms of a leek green color. 
The crystals vary in size ; some are six 
inches in length and an inch in breadth. 
These crystals are abundant. Chlo- 
rite, garnets, serpentine, and steatite, 
are also found. 

There is in this town a beautifiil 

Boundaries. North by Andover, east 
by Grafton, south by Jamaica, -and west 
by Londonderry. 

First Settlers. Edward Aiken, James 
McCormick, and John Woodbum. 

First Minister. Rev, John Lawton 
was settled over the Congregational 
Church, in 1809. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,378 
bushels ; Indian com, 1,434 bushels ; 
potatoes, 36,083 bushels; hay, 2,723 
tons; wool, 11,722 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty miles north-east 
from Bennington, and twenty-five 
south-west from Windsor. 


Woodstock is the county town. This county is bounded north by tlie 
county of Orange, east by Connecticut River, south by Windham County, and 
west by Rutland and a part of Addison Counties. 

Windsor County is watered by White, Queechy, Black, West, and WH- 
liams' Rivers, and by other excellent mill streams. The surface of the county 
is uneven, and in some parts mountainous, but generally it is too elevated to 
admit of cultivation. The soil produces fine crops of grain, hay, vegetables, 
and fruits ; the lands are peculiarly adapted for grazing. 

The beautiful Connecticut, which washes its whole eastern boundary, gives 
to this county large tracts of alluvial meadow land, and afibrds it a navi- 
gable channel to the sea board, for its surplus productions and for its wants 
from abroad. 

The hydraulic power of Windsor County is very large, and its local position 
is such as to induce men of enterprise and capital to embark in manufacturing 
operations, which are annually increasing, with fair prospects of success. — See 


T4ie Supreme Court sits at Woodstock, the fourth Tuesday next following 
the fourth Tuesday of January, and the County Court on the last Tuesday of 
November, in each year. 

The United States Circuit and District Courts meet annnally, on (he 21st and 
27th of May, at Windsor. * 




Windsor Co. The surface of this 
delightful town is uneven, but there 
are but few parts of it unfit for cultiva- 
tion. It contains large ti-acts of allu- 
vial meadow, and the uplands are gen- 
erally fertile. Mill Brook waters the 
south part of the town, and fui'nishes 
it with mill sites. 

The manufactures of Windsor are 
numerous and valuable. The agricul- 
tural interests are also valuable ; and 
many neat cattle, horses, and produc- 
tions of the dairy, are annually trans- 
ported to its various markets. 

This town has become the centre of 
an important commerce, both from the 
river and a fertile interior country. 
The favorable position of Windsor, as 
a place of trade, was early discovered ; 
and it has been fortunate in possessing 
a succession of men, who, by their en- 
terprise and wealth, have rendered it 
one of the most flourishing towns on 
Connecticut River. The manufactures 
of Windsor are considerable. 

The village of Windsor is on eleva- 
ted gx'ound, on the bank of the river ; 
it is compactly, and somewhat irregu- 
larly built, but very beautiful. There 
are but few villages in our country 
which make a more delightful appear- 
ance. It contains a great number of 
handsome dwelUng-houses and stores. 
Some of the private houses, churehes, 
and other public buildings, are in a 
style of superior elegance. This is 
the site of the Vermont State Prison 
The streets are wide, and beautifully 

The scenery around Windsor is 
highly picturesque ; from the highlands 
across the river, in Cornish, which is 
united to Windsor by a bridge, or on 
the Ascutney, at the south part of the 
town, some of the best landscapes in 
our country are presented to view. 

For the purpose of affording the 
village the advantages of water power, 
in 1835 a stone dam was constructed 
across Mill Brook, half a mile from its 
mouth. It is 360 feet in length, fifty- 
six in breadth at the base, twelve at 
the top, and forty-two in height, form- 
ing a reservoir of water nearly one 

mile in length, with a surface of 100 
acres, having an available fall of sixty 
feet in the distance of one third of a 
mile. The dam is built on the arc of 
a cu-cle, over which, in flood time, the 
water flows in an unbroken sheet, 102 
feet in length, forming one of the most 
beautiful cascades in the country. 

A new epoch has opened to Wind- 
sor, by the opening of a railroad from 
Boston through it, and to the fertile 
and extensive country beyond it. In- 
stead of the old process of conveying 
passengers and property by teams, 
stages, and river craft, the " Iron 
Horse " comes along two or three 
times a day, carrying in his train a 
burthen of 200 tons, or more, at the 
i-ate of twenty-five miles an hour ; 
smoking his pipe, the while, with as 
much composure as a Mohawk River 
Dutchman. The site of Windsor is 
such as will continue to command a 
large share of the trade of this section 
of country. — See Public Buildings. 

Boundctries. North by Hartland, east- 
erly by Connecticut River, which sepa- 
rates it from Cornish, N. H., south by 
Weathersfield, and westerly by Read- 

First Settlers. The first permanent 
settlement in the town was commenced 
by Capt. Steele Smith, who removed 
his family from Farmington, Ct., in 
August, 1764. At that time there 
was no i-oad north of Charlestown, 
N. H. The next season, Major Elisha 
Hawley, Capt. Israel Curtis, Dea. Hez. 
Thompson, Dea. Thomas Cooper, and 
some others, came on and began im- 

First Ministers. At an early period, 
two religious societies of the Congre- 
gational order were formed in Wind- 
sor ; one in the east, and the other in 
the west parish of the town. About 
the year 1778, the Rev, Martin Tuller 
and the Rev. Pelatiel Chapin were or- 
dained the first ministers over their 
respective churches in those parishes. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 2,864 
bushels; Indian corn, 12,920 bushels; 
potatoes, 61,075 bushels; hay, 5,673 
tons ; maple sugar, 18,320 pounds ; 
wool, 25,343 pounds. 

Distances. Fifty-five miles south by 



east from Montpelier, and eleven south- 
east from Woodstock. 

The Central Railroad between this 
town and Hartford, united with the 
Sullivan Railroad in New Hampshire, 
was opened for travel on the 3 1st of 
January, 1849. The opening of these 
roads completes the line of railroad 
communication between Boston and 
Burlington, via Fitchburg. Ms., Keene 
and Walpole, N. H., and \yindsor and 
Montpelier, Vt. 


Bennington Co. This town was 
chartered in 1761, and its settlement 
commenced during the revolutionary 
war. The surface is rough, and the 
soil not very productive. 

Winhall River rises in this town, and 
affords it a good water power. It pass- 
es through a part of Jamaica, and joins 
West River in Londonderry. 

Boundaries. North by Peru, east by 
Jamaica and a part of Londonderry, 
south by Stratton, and west by Man- 

First Minister. The Rev. B. Barrett 
was settled over the Congregational 
Church, in 1796. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 579 
bushels ; Indian corn, 564 bushels ; 
potatoes, 17,388 bushels; hay, 1,466 
tons ; maple sugar, 11,000 pounds ; 
wool, 1,590 pounds. 

Distances. Thirty-three miles south- 
west from Windsor, and twenty-five 
miles north-east from Bennington. 


Lamoille Co. Wolcott is well 
watered by Lamoille River, and by 
Green and Wild Branch, its branches. 
" Fish Pond," in Wolcott, is a pretty 
piece of water, and bears an appropri- 
ate name. There is some good grain 
land in the town, but most of the lands 
are fit only for pasturage. There are 
some mills in the town. 

Walcott was chartered to Joshua 
Stanton and others, in 1781. 

Boundaries. North by Craftsbury, 
east by Hardwick, south by Elmore, 
and west by Hydepark. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 1 ,733 
bushels ; Indian com, 2,040 bushels ; 
potatoes, 30,101 bushels; hay, 1,728 
tons ; maple sugar, 32,565 pounds ; 
wool, 4,025 pounds. 

Distances. Ten miles south-east from 
Hydepark, and thirty-seven north from 


Washington Co. Woodbury was 
first settled in 1800. The town is wa- 
tered by branches of Winooski and 
Lamoille Rivers, and probably con- 
tains a greater number of ponds than 
any other town in the State. The sur- 
face is rough, but the soil is good for 

This town has a great variety of 
beautiful scenery, and nowhere can the 
sportsman, for fish or fowl, find a bet- 
ter resort. 

Boundaries. North by Hardwick, 
east by Cabot, south by Calais, and 
west bv Elmore. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 826 
bushels; Indian corn, 1,748 bushels j 
potatoes, 5,935 bushels ; hay, 1,437 
tons ; maple sugar, 18,695 pounds ; 
wool, 2,586 pounds. 

Distances. Fifteen miles north by 
east from Montpelier. 


Bennington Co. Woodford con- 
tains several large ponds, from which 
issue branches of Woloomsack and 
Deerfield Rivers. There is a good 
deal of wild scenery on the. road, in 
crossing the mountains from Benning- 
ton through Woodford and Sears- 
burgh. The gurgling of the streams 
down the mountain sides allays, in a 
great degree, the fatigue of the jour- 
ney. The greater part of this tovm is 
too elevated and broken for cultiva- 
tion. It is a good location for the 
sportsman ; for fish and fowl are abun- 
dant, and the deer, the bear, and other 
wild animals, roam with almost undis- 
puted sway. 

The town began to be settled imme- 
diately after the revolutionary war. 

Boundaries. North by Glastenburj^ 



east b J Searsburgli and a part of Reads- 
borough, south by Stamford, and west 
by Bennington. 

Productions of the Soil. Buckwheat, 
27 bushels; Indian com, 40 bushels; 
potatoes, 1,900 bushels ; hay, 193 tons ; 
maple sugar, 515 pounds; wool, 350 

Distances. Seven miles east from 
Bennington, on the road to Brattlebo- 


Windsor Co. This is the shire 
town of the county. Woodstock is 
well watered by Queechy River and its 

The soil of the town is generally 
very fertile, with a pleasant surface ot 
hills and vales. The agricultural pro- 
ductions are large and valuable. 

" Woodstock Green," so called, is a 
beautiful village. It is the seat of a 
flourishing country trade, and contains 
many very handsome buildings. The 
court house, planned and built under 
the supervision of Ammi B. Young, 
Esq., a native architect of great pro- 
mise, and the architect of the custom 
house in Boston, is one of the most 
chaste and classical structures in New 

The South Village is neat and plea- 
sant; it is about five miles from the 
" Green." 

Woodstock is a delightful place of 
residence, and its growth in commerce 
and manufactures is such, as to war- 
rant the construction of a branch rail- 
road to the Central Railroad at Wind- 

Boundaries. North by Pomfret, east 
by Hartland, south by Reading, and 
west by Bridgewater. 

First Settlers. The settlement of 
this town was commenced by Mr. Jas. 
Sanderson, who moved his family here 
about the year 1768. He was soon 
joined by other settlers, and in 1773 
the town was organized. 

First Minister. Rev. George Daman 
was ordained over the Congregational 
Church, in 1782. 

Manufactures. Woodstock is a place 
of important manufactures, as much so 
as any town in the State. The articles 
manufactured are numerous ; among 
which are scythes, axes, clothiers' 
shears, and other edged tools; also 
carding machines, jacks, and all other 
articles used in woollen factories. A 
large amount of these articles is an- 
nually made, and transported to vaiious 
parts of the country. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 4,671 
bushels; Indian com, 15,141 bushels; 
potatoes, 82,584 bushels; hay, 8,374 
tons ; maple sugar, 32,072 pounds ; 
wool, 39,072 pounds. 

Distances. Forty-six miles south 
from Montpelier, and eleven north- 
west from Windsor. 


Washington Co. A branch of 
Winooski River gives this town a good 
water power, which is used for various 
purposes. Much of this township is 
mountainous ; but there is some good 
land along the stream, and the high- 
lands afford good pasturage for cattle. 

Boundaries. North by Elmore, east 
by Calais, south by Middlesex, and west 
by Stowe. 

First Settlers. The settlement was 
commenced in 1 797, by George Martin 
and John Ridlan, emigrants from Ken- 
nebec, Me. The town was organized 
March 3, 1803. 

First Minister's. A Congregational 
Church was gathered here, in 1804. 
There are also societies of Freewill 
Baptists and Methodists. 

Productions of the Soil. Wheat, 883 
bushels ; Indian com, 1 ,386 bushels ; 
potatoes, 3,305 bushels ; hay, 415 tons ; 
wool, 267 pounds. 

Distances. Eight miles north from 
Montpelier, and thirty-one east from 

The great Northern Railroad, which 
passes through Montpelier and its 
neighboring toAvn of Middlesex, gives 
the citizens of this and the towns in its 
vicinity an easy access for transporta- 
tion to all parts of the country. 




There are in this State, certain tracts of land, denominated " Gores," which 
are thus described by ]VIr. Thompson, in his Gazetteer of the State. 

Aikin's Gore, called also Virgin 
Hall, a small tract of only 930 acres, 
granted February 25, 1782, to Edward 
Aikin, and lying upon the Green Moun- 
tains between Winhall and Landgrove. 

Avery's Gores. A considerable 
number of tracts of land situated in 
different sections of the State were 
granted to Samuel Avery in 1791, and 
received the name of Avery's Gores. 
Several of these have since been an- 
nexed to townships. 

Benton's Gore is a tract of 5000 
acres, lying in the south-western part 
of Windsor County, now forming the 
westerly part of Weston, granted to 
Samuel Benton and twenty-three asso- 
ciates, October 26, 1781. 

Btjel's Gore, a tract of 4273 acres 
lying between Avery's Gore, in Chit- 
tenden County, and Starksborough. A 
part of it has been annexed to Hun- 
tington, the remaining part containing 
eighteen inhabitants in 1840, 

Coventry Gore, a tract of 2000 
a<;res of land belonged to Coventry, 
(now Orleans,) lying in Orleans Coun- 
ty, a few miles to the south-west of 
that town. It is bounded north by 
Newport, east by Irasburgh, south by 
Lowell, and west by Troy, and con- 
tained ten inhabitants in 1840. 

Goshen Gores. There are two gores 
of this name, and both in Caledonia 
Co. The largest contains 7.339 acres, 
and is bounded north by Wheelock, 
east by Danville, south by Walden, and 
west by Green sborough. The first per- 
manent settlement was made here in 
1802, by Elihu Sabin, and his daughter 
Mary was the first child born. In the 
north-east corner of the gore is a pond 
covering about eighty acres. It is wa- 
tered by a branch of the Lamoille Ri- 

ver. Statistics of 1840 — Horses, 27; 
cattle, 180; sheep, 429; swine, 100; 
wheat, bush. 265; barley, 100; oats, 
1,420 ; Indian com, 56 ; potatoes, 7,920; 
hay, tons, 559; sugar, pounds, 7,760; 
wool, 912. Population, 143. The other 
gore of this name is situated in the 
south-west corner of Caledonia Coun- 
ty, and contains 2,828 acres. It is 
bounded north by Marshfield and a 
part of Harris' Gore, east by Harris' 
Gore, south by Orange, and west by 
Plainfield. Gunner's Branch passes 
through the south part of this gore. 
Population, 44. 

Harris' GtOre, a tract of land con- 
taining 6,020 acres, lying in the south- 
west corner of Caledonia County, is 
bounded north-west by Marslifield and 
Goshen Gore, north-east by Groton, 
and south-west by Orange. It was 
granted February 25, 1781, and char- 
tered to Edward Hairis, October 30, 
1801. It is mountainous, and contain- 
ed, in 1840, only sixteen inhabitants. 
Gunner's Branch originates in this 
gore, and unites with Stevens' Branch 
in Barre. 

Warner's Gore, a tract of 2,000 
acres of land, lying in the north-western 
part of Essex County, is bounded north 
by Norton, cast by Warren's Gore, 
south by Morgan, and west by Holland. 
It was 'granted October 20,1787. It 
contains no streams of consequence, 
and is uninhabited. 

Warren Gore, an uninhabited tract 
of 6,380 acres, lying in the north-wes- 

, tern part of Essex County, and belong- 
ing to Warren, is bounded north by 
Norton, east by Avery's Gore,^ south by 
Morgan, and west by Warner's Gore. 
On the line between this gore and Nor- 

' ton is a considerable pond, the waters 
of which flow to the north into Ma- 
suippi River in Canada. 
















1,229 y 













1,344 / 

878 -// 

1,035 v^ 






Arlington, . 






Athens, . 






378 / 

AveriU, . 



Bakersfield, . 




















1,774 - 








Barre, . 
























3,429 / 
1,403 7 







Berkshire, . 






Berlin, . 






1,.598 • 








Bloomfield, . 






























Brandon, . 




























Brighton, . 



Bristol, . 







































Burlington, . 














Calais, . 

, . 




























Cavendish, . 












Charlotte, . 






Concord, . 


Cornwall, . 


Crafts bury, 

Danby, . 

Danville, . 

Derby, . 


Dover, . 



East Haven, 

East Montpelier, 


Elmore, . 


Essex, . 



Fair Haven, 

Fairlee, . 





Franklin, . 







Grand Isle, 

Granville, . 




Guilford, . 


Hancock, . 

Hard wick, 

Hartford, . 




1791. 1800. 1810. 1820. 1830. 1840. 


































































































































































461 702 
442 476 


2,341 . 




















• 724 




Huntington, . 














Im, . . 







Irasburgh, . 






Isle la Motte, 






Jamaica, . 

























Kirby, . . - . 






Landgrove, . 







Leicester, . 







Lemington, . 
Lewis, . 



















Lowell, . 












Lunenburgh, . 









































Marshfield, . 






Mendon, . 







Middlebury, . 














Middletown, . 





















































Mount Holley, 






Mount Tabor, . 













Newbury, . 














New Haven, 




















North Hero, . 





















Orwell, . 














Pawlet, . 






















































1,112| 1,237 












































Readsborough, .... 






























Rockingham, .... 














Royalton, . . 


































Salisbury, . . . . 














Searsborough, .... 




Shaftsbury, . . . . . 














Sheffield, . . . 




















Sherburne, .... 














Shrewsbury, .... 







Somerset, . . . . • 







South Hero, .... 














St. Albans, .... 














Starksborough, .... 













St. George, .... 







St. Johnsbury, .... 







Stockbridge, .... 








































































973! 1,001 


















Troy, . 








1,6401 2,003 



UnderhiU, . 





1,052! 1.441 















Vershire, . 





































Wardsborough, . 




















Waterbury, . 

• • • • 














Waterville, . 







Weathersfield, . 














Wenlock, . 



West Fairlee, 







Westfield, . 




































West Windsor, . 

Weybridge, . 





















Whitingham, . 














Williston, . 







Wilmington, . 







Windham, . 













Winhall, . 




















Woodford, . 














Worcester, . 

















Addison, .... 














Chittenden, . 







Caledonia, . 







Essex, .... 







Franklin, . 







Grand Islb, 














Orange, .... 














Rutland, . 




























Total, .... 


154,465 217,2041235,749 



OF THE population OF VERMONT. 

Number of white Males, 
" " Females, 

Colored persons, I ^;^^^f^^- 

Males over 100 years of age, 
Females, " " " 

Males between 90 and 100, . 
Females, " " « 
Engaged in 

Mining, .... 

Manufactures and Trades, 
Navigating the Ocean, 
Navigating canals, lakes and 
rivers, . ._ . 















Learned professions, . . 1,563 
Pensioners, . . . 1,320 

Deaf and dumb, . . 137 

Blind, ..... 103 
Insane and idiots. 

At public charge, . . . 148 
At private charge, . . 263 

Universities or colleges, . . 3 
Students in universities or colleges, 233 
Academies and grammar schools, 46 
Students in academies and gram- 
mar schools, . . . 4,113 
Primary and common schools, 2,402 
Scholars in primary schools, 97,518 
White persons over 20 years of 
age who cannot read and write, 2,270 




AscuTNET Mountain is situated 
partly in Windsor and partly in Wea- 
therstield, being crossed by the line 
between those townships.. It is an 
immense mass of granite, producing 
but little timber, or vegetation of any 
kind, particularly on the southern por- 
tion of the mountain. The name of 
this mountain is undoubtedly of In- 
dian origin, but writers are not agreed 
with regard to its signification. Dr. 
Dwight says that it signifies the three 
brothers, and that it was given in allu- 
sion to its three summits. Kendall 
tells us that the true Indian name is 
Cas-cad-nac, and that it means a peak- 
ed mountain with steep sides. 

From the summit of this mountain, 
the prospect is extensive and beautiful, 
and richly repays the labor of climb- 
ing its rugged ascent. The Connecti- 
cut, which is easily traced, winding its 
way through the rich and highly cul- 
tivated meadows, adds much to the 
interest and charm of the scenery. 

Camel's Hump, next to the Chin, 
in Mansfield, is the most elevated sum- 
mit of the Green Mountains. It is 
situated in the eastern part of Hun- 
tington, near the west line of Dux- 
bury. It lies seventeen miles west of 
Montpelier, twenty-five north-easterly 
from Middlebury, and twenty south- 
east from Burlington. The summit is 
conspicuous from the whole valley of 
Lake Champlain, and the prospect 
which it commands is hardly surpassed 
in extent and beauty. The summit is 
hardly accessible, except from the 
north. It is usually ascended by way 
of Duxbury, where carriages can ap- 
proach within about three miles of the 
summit. The remainder of the way 
can be passed on foot, without diflB- 
culty, excepting about half a mile, 
which is very steep and rugged. The 

rocks which compose the moantain are 
wholly of mica slate, and the Hump is 
nearly destitute of soil or vegetation, 
only a few mosses, stinted shrubs, and 
alpine plants, being met with. This 
mountain is often erroneously called 
CameVs Rump. 

Chin, the name given to the north 
peak of Mansfield Mountain, in the 
township of Mansfield. This is the 
highest summit in the State, being, 
according to Captain Partridge, 4,279 
feet, and according to E. F. Johnson, 
Esq., 4,359 feet above tide water. 

Green Mountains. The celebra- 
ted range which gives name to the 
State, extends quite through it from 
south to north, keeping nearly a raid- 
die course between Connecticut River 
on the east and Lake Champlain on 
the west. From the line of Massa- 
chusetts to the southern part of Wash- 
ington County, this range continues 
lofty, and unbroken through by any 
considerable streams ; dividing the 
counties of Windham, Windsor, and 
Orange, from the counties of Benning- 
ton, Rutland, and Addison. In this 
part of the State, the communication 
between the eastern and western sides 
of the mountain was formerly diflBcult, 
and the phrase, going over the mountain^ 
denoted an arduous business. But on ac- 
count of the great improvement of the 
roads, more particularly in their more 
judicious location near the streams, the 
difficulty of crossing the moimtain has 
nearly vanished. 

In the southern part of Washington 
County, the Green Mountains sepa- 
rate into two ranges. The highest of 
these ranges, bearing a little east of 
north, continues along the eastern 
boundaries of the counties of Chitten- 
den and Franklin, and through the 



county of Lamoille to Canada line ; 
while the other range strikes off much 
more to the east, through the southern 
and eastern parts of Washington coun- 
ty, the western part of Caledonia 
County, and the north-western part of 
Essex County, to Canada. This last 
is called the height of lands, and it 
divides the waters, which fall into Con- 
necticut River, in the north part of the 
State, from those which fall into Lake 
Champlain and Lake Memphremagog. 
This branch of the Green Mountains, 
though it nowhere rises so high as 
many points of the western branch, is 
much more uniformly elevated ; yet 
the acclivity is so gentle as to admit of 
easy roads over it in various places. 
The western range, having been broken 
through by the rivers Winooski, La- 
moille, and Missisco, is divided into 
several sections, these rivers having 
opened passages for good roads along 
their banks, while the intervening por- 
tions are so high and steep as not to 
admit of roads being made over them, 
with the exception of that portion 
lying between the Lamoille and Mis- 
sisco. This part of the Green Moun- 
tains presents some of the most lofty 
summits in the State ; particularly the 
Nose and Chin, in Mansfield, and Ca- 
mel's Hump, in Huntington. The sides, 
and, in most cases, the summits of the 
mountains in Vermont, are covered 
with evergreens ; such as spruce, hem- 
lock, and fir. On this account the 
French, being the first civilized people 
who visited this part of the world, 
early gave to them the name of Verd 
Mont, or Green Mountain ; and when j 
the inhabitants of the New Hampshire 
Grants assumed the powers of govern- 
ment, in 1777, they adopted this 
name, contracted by the omission of 
the letter d, for the name of the new 

Hazen's Notch, a remarkable notch 
in the mountain between Lowell and 
Montgomery, through which Hazen's 
Boad passed. 

KiLLiNGTON Peak is a summit of 

the Green Mountains, in the south part 
of Sherburne. It is the most northerly 
of the two similar peaks situated near 
each other. The south peak is the 
highest ; is in Shrewsbury, and is call- 
ed Shrewsbury Peak. 

Mansfield Mountains extend 
through the town of Mansfield, from 
north to south. They belong to the 
Green Mountain range, and the Nose 
and Chiri, so called, from their resem- 
blance to the face of a man lying on 
his back, exhibit some of the loftiest 
summits in the State. 

Mount Liidependence lies in the 
north-west comer of the township of 
Orwell, and about two miles south-east 
of Ticonderoga Fort. It is an incon- 
siderable mountain, and worthy of no- 
tice only on account of the fortifications 
formerly erected upon it, and its con- 
nection with the early history of our 

Mount Nebo, an eminence in Mid- 
dlebury, resting on a base of about two 
miles by one, and rising gradually 439 
feet above the level of Otter Creek. 
Upon its southern declivity the north- 
east part of the village rests. It af- 
fords some of the best arable land in 
the township, and is cultivated to its 
summit, where it exhibits to view Lake 
Champlain. It is a place of much 
resort to those who love to take an 
extended view of natural scenery ; see 
" Alps on Alps arise ; " and gaze at 
the mountains, which stretch off to a 
great distance north and south, both in 
New York and Vermont. This emi- 
nence is sometimes called Chipman^s 

Mount Tom, a considerable emi- 
nence in Woodstock. 

Sterling Fbak. — See Sterling* 




Barton River is foimed in the 
township of Barton. One of the head 
branches of this river originates in 
Glover, from the fountains of Run- 
avxiy Pond, and runs northerly into 
Barton ; the other rises from two small 
ponds, on the line between Sutton and 
Sheffield, and after passing through 
Belle Pond, unites ^vith the stream 
from Glover. Their united waters take 
a northerly direction, and, just before 
they reach the north line of Barton, 
receive Willoughby's River, a con- 
siderable stream which arises from a 
large pond of the same name in West- 
more, and runs westerly eight or nine 
miles, through the south part of Brown- 
ington and north part of Barton. From 
Barton, Barton Bfver continues a north 
course, passing through the north-east 
corner of Irasburgh and eastern part 
of Orleans, into Memphremagog Lake. 
This river waters about 160 square 

Battenkill River. This river is 
about forty-five miles in length. It 
rises in Dorset, and passing Manches- 
ter, Sunderland, and Arlington, it re- 
ceives Roaring Brook, and other tribu- 
taries, in Vermont ; it then passes into 
the State of New York, and falls into 
the Hudson, three miles below Fort 
Miller, and about thirty-five miles north 
from Albany, N. Y, 

Black Rivers. Black River, in 
Windsor County, is thirty-five miles in 
length. It rises in Plymouth, passes 
Ludlow, Cavendish, and Weathers- 
field, and falls into the Connecticut at 
Springfield. This river passes through 
many natural ponds, and affords a great 
number of mill sites. 

Black River, in Orleans County, is 
about thirty miles in length. It rises 
in some ponds in Craftsbury, and pass- 
ing through Albany, Irasburg, and 

Coventry, it falls into Memphremagog 
Lake, at Salem. 

Black Creek. — See Fairfidd. 

Broad Brook, a small mill stream, 
which rises in the eastern part of Bar- 
nard, runs across the south-eastern 
comer of Royalton, and falls into 
White River in Sharon. 

Brown's River originates among 
the Mansfield Mountams, runs west- 
erly through the south part of Under- 
bill, and north part of Jericho, into 
Essex, and thence northerly through 
Westford, and empties into LamoiUe 
River in Fairfax. Its length is about 
twenty miles, and it derives its name 
from a family by the name of Brown, 
which settled upon its banks in Jeri- 

Castleton River originates in 
Pittsford, runs south into Rutland, 
thence west, through Ira, Castleton, 
and Fair Haven, into Poultney River. 
In Castleton, it receives the waters of 
Lake Bombazine, and another consi- 
derable mill stream from the north. 
The road from Rutland to Whitehall, 
through Castleton village, passes along 
this river for a considerable part of the 
distance. Length of the stream about 
twenty miles. 

Clyde River has its source in Pit- 
kin's and Knowlton's Ponds, in the 
north-east part of Brighton, and runs 
a north-westerly course through Brigh- 
ton, Charleston, Salem, and Derby, to 
Lake Memphremagog. Excepting a 
few short rapids, this is a dead, still 
river, until it comes within three miles 
of Lake Memphremagog. This stream 
runs through Round Pond, in Charles- 
ton, and through Salem Lake, a beau- 
tiful sheet of water, near two miles in 



length and one in width, lying partly in 
Salem and partly in Derby. It waters 
about 150 square miles. 

Connecticut Riveh. This beau- 
tiful River, the Quonektacut of the In- 
dians, and the pride of the Yankees, 
has its sources in New Hampshire and 
the mountainous tracts in Lower Can- 
ada. Its name in the Indian language 
is said to signify Long River, or, as 
some render it, River of Pines. Its 
general course is north and south. 
After forming the boundary line be- 
tween New Hampshire and Vermont, 
it crosses the western part of Massa- 
chusetts, passes the State of Connecti- 
cut, nearly in its centre, and, after a 
fall of 1,600 feet, from its head, north 
of latitude 45°, it falls into Long Is- 
land Sound, in latitude 41° 16'. The 
breadth of this river, at its entrance 
into Vermont, is" about 150 feet, and in 
its course of sixty miles it increases to 
about 390 feet. In Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, its breadth may be esti- 
mated from 450 to 1,050 feet. It is 
navigable to Hartford, forty-five miles, 
for vessels of considerable burthen, 
and to Middletown, thirty miles from 
the sea, for vessels drawing twelve 
feet of water. By means of canals, 
and other improvements, it has been 
made navigable for boats to Fifteen 
Mile Falls, nearly 250 miles above 

The most considerable rapids in 
this river are Bellows' Falls, the Falls 
of Queechy, just below the mouth of 
Waterqueechy River ; the White River 
Falls, below Hanover, and the Fifteen 
Mile Falls, in New Hampshire and 
Vermont ; — the Falls at Montague and 
South Hadley, in Mass., and the Falls 
at Enfield, in Ct, where it meets the 
tide water. The perpendicular height 
of the falls, which have been over- 
come by dams and locks, between 
Springfield, in Mass., and Hanover, in 
N. H., a distance of 130 miles, is 240 
feet. Bars of sand and gravel extend 
across this river in various places, over 
which boats wnth difficulty pass in low 

The most important tributaries to 
the Connecticut, in New Hampshire, 

are Upper and Lower Amonoosuck, 

Israel's, John's, Mascomy, Sugar, and 
Ashuelot Rivers ; in Vermont, Nulhe- 
gan, Passumpsic, Wells, Wait's, Om- 
pomponoosuck. White, Waterqueechy, 
Black, Williams, Sexton's, and West 
Rivers ; in Massachusetts, Miller's, 
j Deerfield, Agawam, Chickopee, and 
Westfield Rivers ; and the Farmington, 
in Connecticut. 

The intervales are generally spread 
upon one or both sides of the river, 
nearly on a level with its banks, and 
extending from half a mile to five 
miles in breadth; but its borders are 
! in some places high, rocky, and preci- 
I pitous. In the spring it overflows its 
j banks, and, through its winding course 
! of nearly 400 miles, forms and fertili- 
! zes a vast tract of rich meadow. In 
I point of length, utility, and beauty, this 
I river forms a distinguished feature of 
New England. 

Large quantities of shad are taken 
in this river, but the salmon, which 
formerly were very i^nty, have en- 
tirely disappeared. Connecticut River 
passes through a basin, or valley, of 
about 12,000 square miles ; it is deco- 
rated, on each side, with towns and vil- 
lages of superior beauty, and presents 
to the eye a wonderful variety of en- 
chanting scenery. 

Deerfield River. This beautiful 
and important Indian stream joins the 
Connecticut, between Greenfield and 
Deerfield. It rises in the high grounds 
of Windham Counf;y, near Stratton, 
Dover, and Somerset, Vermont; and 
proceeding in a south-easterly course, 
it passes through Monroe, Florida, 
Rowe, Charlemont, Hawley, Buckland, 
Shelburne, and Conway. The most 
important 'tributaries to this stream 
are Cold River; a river from Heath 
and Coleraine ; one from Leyden, via 
Greenfield ; and a river from Conway. 
Its whole length is about fifty miles. 
In some places Deerfield River is rapid, 
and its banks very precipitous. Its pas- 
sage through the mountains is very cu- 
rious and romantic. 

Dog River is formed in Northfield, 
by the union of several streams from 



Roxbury, Brookfield, &c., and taking 
a ncrtherly course, through Berlin, 
falls into Winooski River, three quar- 
ters of a mile below the village of 
Montpelier. Its length is about sixteen 
miles, and it waters about eighty square 

Ferrand River. This river heads 
in Avery's and Warner's Gores, runs 
nearly south, through the corners of 
Morgan and Wenlock, and unites with 
Clyde River in Brighton. 

Grassy Brook. — See BrooMine. 

Green River. " There are two 
small streams of this name. One rises 
in Eden, passes through the comer of 
Hydepark, and falls into the Lamoille, 
in Wolcott. The other originates in 
Marlboro', and after running through 
a part of Halifax and Guilford, passes 
off into Massachusetts. 

Hoosic River is formed in Pow- 
nal, and runs north-westerly into the 
township of Hoosic, N. Y., where it 
receives the River Walloomscoik from 
Shaftsbury and Bennington, and, tak- 
ing a westerly course, falls into the 
Hudson, near Stillwater. Its whole 
length is about forty miles, and it re- 
ceives the waters from 182 square miles 
in Vermont. 

HuBBARDTON RivER. This rivcr 
rises from several small ponds in Sud- 
bury, runs south-westerly through Gre- 
gonr's Pond, in Hubbardton, through 
Benson, and falls into the head of East 
Bay, in West Haven. In its course 
it affords several very good mill pri- 
vileges. Its length is about twenty 

Huntington River rises in Lin- 
coln, runs through Starksborough and 
Huntington, and joins Winooski River 
in Richmond. This is a very rapid 
stream, with a gravel or stony bottom, 
especially after it arrives within two or 
three miles of the Winooski. Its length 
is about twenty miles. 

Indian River. This is a small 
stream which rises in Rupert, runs 
through the corner of Pawlet, and 
unites with Pawlet River in Granville, 
N. Y. Another small stream of this 
name rises in Essex, and falls into Col- 
chester Bay, in Colchester. 

Lamoille River formerly origina- 
ted from a pond in the south-east cor- 
ner of Glover. — See Glover. It is now 
formed by the union of several streams 
in Greensborough, and, after running 
south-westerly into Hardwick, pursues 
a north-westerly course till it falls into 
Lake Champlain, in the north-west 
corner of Colchester. This river is 
joined in Hardwick by a considerable 
stream, which issues from Caspian 
Lake, in Gi-eensborough, in Wolcott 
by Green River, from Hydepark, in 
Johnson by Little North Branch, in 
Cambridge by Great North Branch, 
and in Fairfax by Brown's River. 

The current of the River Lamoille 
is, in general, slow and gentle above 
Cambridge. Between this township 
and the lake are a number of conside- 
rable falls. Along this river are some 
very beautiful and fertile tracts of in- 
tervale. It is not quite so large as the 
Winooski and Missisco. It is said to 
have been discovered by Champlain, 
in 1609, and called by him la mouette, 
the French for mew, or gull, a species 
of water fowl, which were very nume- 
rous about the mouth of this stream. 
In Charlevoix's map of the discoveries 
in North America, published in 1774, 
it is called la riviere a la Afonelle, pro- 
bably a mistake of the engraver, in 
not crossing the t's. Thus to the mere 
carelessness of a French engraver we 
are indebted for the smooth, melodious, 
sounding name of Lamoille. 

Laplot River. This stream rises 
in the south-eastern part of Hinesburgh, 
and, running north-westerly through a 
corner of Charlotte, and through Shel- 
bume,^ falls into the head of Shelbume 
Bay. It is a small stream, about fif- 
teen miles in length, and affords several 
mill sites. 

Respecting the origin of the name 
of this stream, tradition has handed 



down the following stories. In the 
fall of 1775 a party of Indians was 
discovered, making their way up Shel- 
bume Bay, in their bark canoes. From 
the head of the bay they proceeded 
about 100 rods up this stream, and 
landed on the west side ; and, having 
drawn their canoes on shore, and con- 
cealed them among the bushes, they 
proceeded cautiously forward, for the 
purpose of surprising and plundering 
the settlement, which was about half a 
mile distant. Their motions having 
been watched, and the alarm spread 
among the settlers, the men were mus- 
tered, to the number of ten, and a con- 
sultation was held, with regard to the 
course to be pursued. Concluding 
that the Indians, if vigorously attacked, 
would make a precipitate retreat to 
their canoes, it was agreed that three 
of their number should proceed to 
their place of landing, and disable their 
canoes, by cutting slits through the 
bark in various places, and then con- 
ceal themselves near by, and await the 
result; while the other seven should 
make a furious and tumultuous assault 
upon the enemy, who had already 
commenced their work of plunder. 
The plot succeeded beyond their most 
sanguine expectatiohs. The onset of 
the seven, favored by the approach of 
night, was made with so much show 
and spirit, as to lead the Indians to 
suppose that they were assailed by a 
force far superior to their own, and 
that their only chance of escape con- 
sisted in a hasty retreat to their canoes. 
They accordingly betook themselves 
to flight, and, being closely pursued, 
when they reached their landing place, 
they seized their canoes, hurried them 
into the stream, and leaped on board 
with the utmost precipitation. But 
what was their surprise, when they 
found their canoes were disabled, and 
were all filling with water I In this 
forlorn condition they were attacked 
by the three men who had lain con- 
cealed on the bank, and the pursuing 
party soon coming to their aid, the 
Indians were all shot, while struggling 
to keep themselves afloat, or sunk to 
rise no more — not an individual being 
allowed to escape, to tell to their kia- 

dred the tale of woe. This well con- 
trived and successful stratagem, gave 
name to Laplot {the plot) River. So 
says tradition. Another, and more 
probable account of the origin of this 
name is, that, during the colonial wars 
and before any settlements were made 
in these parts, an ambush was formed 
near the mouth of this stream, for an 
English scouting party which was ex- 
pected that way ; but the scout getting 
information of the plot, managed to 
surprise and defeat the liers-in-wait, 
and to slaughter the greater part of 
their number, and hence the name La 
Plot. But these traditions to the con- 
trary notwithstanding, this river un- 
doubtedly took its name from the 
point in the west part of Shelbume, 
called, on the early French maps, 
Pointe au Platre, or Plaster Point. 
It was formerly often written La 

Leech's Stream proceeds from a 
small pond in the north part of Ave- 
rill, and runs about north-east across 
the west part of Canaan, and falls into 
Leech's Pond, which is about two miles 
wide and three long, and lies about 
half in Canada and half in Vermont. 
From this pond the stream runs near- 
ly east about three miles, then south- 
east into Connecticut River. Its mouth 
is nearly two rods -wide. 

Lemonfair River is a branch of 
Otter Creek, which rises in Whiting 
and Onvell, runs through the eastern 
part of Shoreham, across the south- 
east comer of Bridport, and joins Ot- 
ter Creek in Weybridge. There are 
some mill sites near the head of this 
river, but it is, in general, a very slug- 
gish, muddy stream. The following is 
the account given of the name of this 

As some of the early settlers were 
coming into this part of the country, 
they arrived at this muddy stream, 
and seeing the difficulty of crossing 
it, an old woman of the company ex- 
claimed, " It is a lam-en-ta-ble affair^ 
and this exclamation, contracted into 
Lemonfair, became ever afterwards the 
name of the stream. 



Lewis Creek rises near the north 
line of Bristol, runs north through the 
western part of Starks borough, and 
eastern part of Monkton, into Hines- 
burgh, thence westerly, through the 
south part of Hinesburgh, and the 
south-east corner of Charlotte, and 
falls into Lake Champlain in Ferris- 
burgh, a short distance north of the 
mouth of Little Otter Creek. The 
mill privileges on this stream are 
numerous, and many of them excel- 

Little Otter Creek rises in 
Monkton and New Haven, and falls 
into Lake Champlain in Ferrisburgh, 
three miles north of the mouth of Ot- 
ter Creek. This stream, towards its 
mouth, is wide and sluggish, and runs 
through a tract of low, marshy ground. 
It affords but few mill privileges. 

Locust Creek is a small mill 
stream which rises in Barnard, and 
falls into White River in Bethel. It is 
in general a rapid stream, and affords 
several good mill sites. 

Mad River, a rapid stream which 
rises in the highlands south of War- 
ren, and, after passing through Waits- 
field, falls into Winooski River at 

Merritt's, or Joe's River. — See Joe^s 

Middles URT River rises in Han- 
cock, passes through Ripton, and di- 
recting its course westerly, mingles its 
waters, in the south part of Middle- 
bury, with those of Otter Creek. The 
turnpike from Vergennes to Bethel is, 
for a considerable distance, built on, or 
near, one of the banks of this stream, 
which presents to the eye of the tra- 
veller a number of highly romantic 
prospects. A large proportion of the 
land contiguous to this stream, after it 
leaves the mountain, is alluvial, and 
there are some small patches of allu- 
vial land among the mountains. The 
length of this stream is about fourteen 
miles, and it affords several mill privi- 


Miles' River rises near the west 
corner of Lunenburgh, and, pursuing a 
southerly direction into Concord, where 
it receives the stream from Miles' 
Pond, which is a considerable body of 
water, bends its coui-se easterly, and 
falls into Connecticut River by a'mouth 
seven or eight yards wide. 

Mill Brook. — See Wmdsor. 

Miller's River rises in SheflBeld, 
runs through a part of Wheelock, and 
falls into the Passumpsic near the cen- 
tre of Lyndon. It is, generally, a ra- 
pid stream, and affords some good mill 
privileges, particularly in Wheelock, 
where there is a considerable fall. 

Missisco River rises in Lowell, 
and, pursuing a north-easterly course 
through a part of Westfield and Troy, 
crosses the north line of the State into 
Potton, in Canada, where it receives a 
large stream from the north-east. Af- 
ter running several miles in Canada, it 
returns into Vermont about a mile 
west from the north-east comer of 
Richford. Thence it runs south-wes- 
terly through the comer of Berkshire, 
where it receives Trout River, into 
Enosburgh. It then takes a westerly 
course through Sheldon, into High- 
gate, where it bends to the south into 
Swanton, and, after performing a cir- 
cuit of several miles in that town, 
returns into Highgate, and, running 
north-westerly, falls into Missisco Bay, 
near Canada line. There are several 
falls and rapids in this stream, but the 
current is, generally, moderate, and 
the river wide and shallow. It affords 
a considerable number of valuable 
sites for mills, and the alluvial flats 
along its margin are extensive, and 
very fertile. Besides those abovemen- 
tioned, Black Creek and Taylor[» 
Branch are its most considerable tri- 
butaries. The length of this river, in- 
cluding its windings, is about seventy- 
five miles, and it receives the waters 
from about 582 square miles in Ver- 
mont. This river is navigable for ves- 
sels of fifty tons burthen, six miles, to 
Swanton Falls, at which place is aa 
hydraulic power of great value. 



Moose River is an eastern branch 
of the Passumpsic, and rises in Gran- 
by and East Haven. Taking a south- 
westerly course through Victory, Brad- 
leyvale, Concord, and a part of St. 
Johnsburj', it falls into the Passumpsic 
opposite to St. Johnsbury Plain. It 
is generally a rapid stream, except 
through Bradleyvale and a part of 
Concord, where it is sluggish through 
fiat land. Length twenty-four miles. 

Muddy Brook. This stream di- 
vides Williston from Burlington, and 
falls into Winooski River. 

Neal's Brook rises near the north 
comer of Lunenburgh, in several 
branches, and, running south, falls into 
a pond of the same name, which is 
about a mile long and half a mile 
wide, and lies near the centre of Lu- 
nenburgh. It then continues its course 
south, meets a westerly branch, and, 
after running about half a mile further, 
falls into Connecticut River, by a 
mouth nearly two rods wide. On this 
stream are several mills, and other 

NuLHEGAN River rises partly in 
Averill and partly in Wenlock. The 
North Branch runs a southerly course 
through Averill, Levns, and a part of 
Bloomfield, the West branch runs an 
easterly course through Wenlock, and 
a part of Brunswick. They unite in 
Bloomfield, and, taking a south-easter- 
ly course, fall into Connecticut River 
a little above the north-east corner of 
Brunswick. This river is generally 
rapid, except that part of the West 
Branch that rans through Wenlock 
and Brunswick, which is very still and 
deep, and bordered by alder meadows. 
Through this and Clyde River, which 
runs a north-west course into Lake 
Memphremagog, the Indians formerly 
had their navigation from said lake to 
Connecticut River. They had a carry- 
ing place of about two miles, from the 
head of one river to that of the other, 
and several other carrying places by 
the falls and rapids in these streams. 
This river waters about 120 square 

miles, and is about three rods wide at 
its mouth. 

Ompompakoosuck River rises in 
the north-western part of Vershire, and 
runs easterly into West Fairlee. It 
then takes a south-easterly coui-se into 
Thetford, where it receives a consi- 
derable stream from Fairlee Lake, 
which is a large body of water, lying 
partly in Fairlee and partly in Thet- 
ford. Continuing a south-easterly 
course through the township, the Om- 
pompanoosuck mingles its waters with 
Connecticut River in the north-eastern 
part of Nonvich. In the south part of 
Thetford, it receives a considerable 
mill stream from the west, which ori- 
ginates in the western part of Tun- 
bridge and in Strafi^brd. The whole 
length of this river is about twenty 
miles, and it affords a number of valu- 
able mill privileges. The name, which 
is Indian, is said to signify a stream 
where many onions are found. 

Otta Qdechee River, (called also 
Wajter Quechee and Queechee River,) 
rises in Sberburae, runs nearly east 
through the south part of Bridgewater, 
thence east north-east through Wood- 
stock, into the south part of Hartford, 
and thence south-east, through the 
north-east corner of Hartland, into 
Connecticut River, about two miles 
above Quechee Falls. In Bridgewater 
it receives two considerable branches, 
namely. North Branch, which rises in 
the north part of this township, from 
the north, and South Branch, which 
rises in Plymouth, from the south, 
both considerable mill streams. In 
Woodstock, it receives two other 
branches, of considerable size ; one 
rising in the north-east corner of 
Bridgewater, and south-east comer of 
Barnard, falls into Quechee River from 
the north, just below the north village 
in Woodstock ; the other rising in the 
the south part of Woodstock, passes 
through both the villages in that town, 
and empties into it from the south, Just 
above the mouth of the last mentioned 
stream. Both these streams afford ex-* 
cellent mill sites. 

Quechee River, in its course, re- 



ceives numerous other tributaries of 
less note. It is a dear and lively 
stream, ^vith a gravel or stony bottom. 
This stream is about thirty-five miles 
in length, and waters a1x)ut 212 square 
miles. The name of this stream is of 
Indian origin, and is said to signify 
quick whirling motion, and was pi-o- 
bably given, on account of appear- 
ances exhibited at the falls near its 

Otter Creek is the longest stream 
in Vermont. It originates in Mount 
Tabor, Pern, and Dorset, within a few 
rods of the head of the Battcnkill. In 
Dorset it turns suddenly towards the 
north, and returns into Mount Tabor, 
running nearly north through the wes- 
tern part of tliis township and Wal- 
lingford, and through tlie central part 
of Clarendon into Rutland ; it then 
takes a nortli-westcrly course through 
Fittsford and Brandon ; between Lei- 
cester and Salisbury on the east, and 
Whiting and Cornwall on the west; 
through the westera part of Middle- 
bury ^ between Xew Haven and Wey- 
bridge; through the north-east corner 
of Addison ; between Waltham and 
Panton ; and through Vergennes and 
Ferrisburgh, into Lake Champlain. 
From the south-west, it receives in 
Ferrisburgh a large ci^eek which ori- 
ginates in Bridport : in Wey bridge, 
Lemonfair River, from Oi"well and 
Shoreham; in Rutland, Little West 
River, or Furnace Bixwk, from Tin- 
mouth ; and in Mount Tabor^ Mill Ri- 
ver, from Danby. From tlie east, it 
receives New Haven River in New 
Haven, Middlebury River in Middle- 
bury, Leicester River in Leicester, Fur- 
nace River in Pittsford, East Ci-eek in 
Rutland, and Cold River and Mill Ri- 
ver in Clarendon, all of which are con- 
siderable mill streams. 

Otter Creek, above Middlebury, is a 
very still stream, and its waters deep, 
affording very few mill privileges. 
From Middlebury to Pittsford, a dis- 
tance of twenty-five miles, it is naviga- 
ble for boats. At Middlebury, Wej"^- 
bridge, and Vergennes, are falls in the 
creek, which afford excellent sites for 
mills, and on which are some of the 

finest manufactm-ing establishments in 
I the State. From Vergennes to the 
I mouth, a distance of eight miles, the 
creek is navigable for the largest ves- 
I sels on the lake. 

j The alluvial flats along this stream 
I are very extensive, and are inferior to 
I none in the State. Its whole length is 
about ninety miles, and it waters about 
900 square miles. Otter Creek was 
named by the French Riviere aux Lou- 
tres^ the River of Otters, long before 
any settlements were made by the Eng- 
lish in this State. 

Passumpsic River has its source in 
a pond on the easterly line of West- 
more, and, running a southerly course 
through Newark, passes into the west 

\ corner of East Haven ; thence it pm- 

' sues nearly a south course through 
Burke, Lyndon, St. Johnsltury, Water- 
ford, and Barnet, and falls into the 

: Connecticut a mile below the foot of 
the Fifteen Mile Falls. From its 
source till it approaches near the cen- 
tre of LjTidon, it is a swift stream. 
It then meanders through a rich tract 
of intervale till it approaches the south 

' line, where there is a high fall. The 

■ greatest part of the way through St. 
Johnsbury it is swift, but in a few 

' places it runs slow, through excellent 

■ intervale land ; and through Water- 
ford and Barnet it runs slow, through 

[rich, flat land, though there are 
; some large falls in Baniet. It is gen- 
! erally deep, and it is between four 
I and six rods wide below St. Johnsbury 
' Plain. 

i It receives several lai-ge branches in 
, Lyndon, two in St Johnsbury, and one 
j in Barnet. Its length is about thirty- 
: four miles. The name of this stream 
is said to be derived from the In- 
dian phrase, Bas-soom-svu;, signifying a 
stream, where there is much medi- 

Pawlet River is a small stream 
which rises in Dorset, runs north- 
westerly across the north-east corner 
of Rupert, diagonally across the town- 
j ship of Pawlet, and unites with Wood 
I Creek, in the State of New York, two 
or three miles above its mouth. This 



Stream affords a number of eligible 
mill sites in Vermont. 

Philadelphia River is a small 
stream which rises in the south part of 
Groshen, runs south-west through Chit- 
tenden, and unites with East Creek in 

Pike River. — See Berkshire. 

Platt, or Plott River. — See La-plot. 

PouLTNET River rises in Tin- 
mouth, and runs a westerly course, 
through Middleto^\^l and Poultney. On 
arriving at the west line of Poultney, 
it begins to form the boundiu-y be- 
tween Vermont and New York, and, 
running between Fair Haven and West 
Haven, on the north, and Hamptoj< 
N. Y., on the south, falls into the h 
of East Bay, which is an arm of Ea^ 
Champlain. From Fair Haven i^ re- 
ceives Castleton River, and from W4st 
Haven, Hubbardton River. The whedjp 
length of Poultney River is about tMie^> 
ty-tive miles, and it affords a numft^ 
of excellent mill sites. 

A remarkable change took place in 
this stream in 1783. A little above 
its junction with East Bay, a ridge of 
land crosses in a northerly direction. 
The river running a northwesterly 
course, on meeting the ridge, turned 
fjuddenly towards the north-east, and, 
after keeping that course about half a 
mile, turned westerly, rushing down a 
Bteep ledge of rocks, and forming a 
number of fine mill privileges. The 
river had, for some years, been ob- 
served to be making encroachments 
upon the ridge, at the place where it 
turned to the north-east ; and in May, 
1783, during a violent freshet, the river 
broke through the ridge, and, meeting 
with no rocks, it cut a channel 100 feet 
deep, lowering the bed of the river for 
some distance above, and caiTying im- 
mense quantities of earth into East 
Bay. The bay, which was before nav- 
igable for vessels of forty tons burthen, 
■was so completely filled, for several 
miles, that a canoe could with difficulty 
pass at low water, and the navigation 
much obstructed at Fiddlei-'s Elbow, a 

narrow place in the lake, near Sontii 
Bay. The obstructions have since been 
mostly removed by the force of the 

Queechee River. — See Otla Qsm- 

Rock River. This river rises in 
Franklin, and runs through Highgate 
into Missisco Bay. 

Saxton's River is formed in Graf- 
ton, by the union of several streams 
from Windham, and running an east- 
erly coui-se about ten miles, through 
the south part of Rockingham, falls 
into Connecticut River in the north- 
east corner of Westminster, about one 
Bellows' Falls. It derives 
i^fiWa a Mr. Saxton, who un- 
luckily fdV^rfto it while crossing it on 
a \ja^ &r ifi^S^rpose of surveying the 
li«7betWeen^Hockingham and West- 
mil's terTbut i^ap not drowned. 

StevenIj^'B'ranch. — See Barre. 

Ns' River. This excellent 
mill stream rises in Peacham and Rye- 
gate. It received its name in compli- 
ment to Capt. Phineas Stevens, the 
brave defender of Charlestown, N. H. » 
The waters of this river are remark- 
ably clear, and its banks luxuriant and 
romantic. It meanders about fifteen 
miles, and in its course through Bar- 
net it receives Harvey's Lake, a pellu- 
cid sheet of water, covering an area of 
300 acres. This beautiful river min- 
gles its crystal waters with those of 
the Connecticut, at Barnet, by a leap 
of 100 feet, in the distance of ten 
rods, as it were in joy to meet a sister 
stream on its passage to the bosom of 
the ocean. 

Trout River. This river is form- 
ed in Montgomery, by several branch- 
es ; it runs in a north-west direction, 
and falls into the Missisco on the bor- 
der of Enosburgh and Berkshire. This 
is a good mill stream, and, with its 
tributaries, fertilizes considerable tracts 
of country. 



"Wait's River. The main branch 
of this river rises in Harris' Gore, and 
runs south-easterly along the west line 
of Topsham. Another branch, called 
Jail Branch, rises in Washington, and 
running noith-easterly, joins the main 
branch in the south-west part of Top- 
sham. Another stream rises from sev- 
eral heads in the north part of Top- 
sham, and, running southerly unites 
with the main stix-am, near the north- 
east corner of Corinth. Another stream 
called the South Branch, rises near the 
middle of Washington, and pursuing a 
south-easterly course, joins the river at 

Wait's River, and all its branches, 
are lively streams, and afford a num- 
ber of very good mill privileges. In 
Bradford, where this river is crossed 
by the main road leading up the 'Con- 
necticut, is a fall, which furnishes a 
number of fine mill sites. This river 
is said to have derived its name from 
a Captain Wait, belonging to Major 
Rogers' Rangers, who killec^ a deer 
near its mouth, on the return from St. 
Francis, in 1759, which was probably 
the means of saving the lives of seve- 
ral of that famishing party. 

Walloomscoik River is a small 
stream which is formed in Bennington, 
by the union of several branches which 
rise in Glastenbuiy, Woodford, and 
Pownal. It takes a north-western di- 
rection, leaves the State near the north- 
west comer of Bennington, and unites 
with Hoosic River nearly on the line 
between Washington and Rensalaer 
Counties, N. Y. 

Between this stream and Hoosic 
River was fought the Bennington bat- 
tle. On the Walloomscoik and its 
branches are many good mill privileges 
and some fine meadows. 

Waterburt River rises in Mor- 
ristown, and runs south through the 
western part of Stowe and Waterbury, 
into Winooski River. In Stowe it re- 
ceives one considerable tributary from 
the east, which rises in Worcester, and 
two from the west, which rise in Mans- 
field. It also receives several tributa- 
ries from the west in Waterbury, which 

originate in Bolton. The whole length 
of the stream is about sixteen mUes, 
and it affords a number of good mill 

Water Quechee River. — See Ot- 
ta Quechee. 

Wells River has its source in 
Kettle Pond, which lies at the north- 
west comer of Groton, and a part of 
it in Marshfield. It runs nearly south- 
east about two miles, and falls into 
Long Pond in Groton, which is about 
two miles long and 100 rods wide. 
From this pond it continues its south- 
easterly course half a mile, and falls 
into another pond, which is about half 
a mile long and a quarter of a mile 
wide. It then runs a mile and a half, 
and meets the South Branch, which 
rises near the south-west comer of the 
town, and runs nearly east to its junc- 
tion with the main stream; it then 
runs east south-east about a mile, and 
receives the North Branch, which has 
its source near the north-east cor- 
ner of the town. Continuing the 
same course, it passes through the 
north-west part of Ryegate into New- 
bury, and running near the line be- 
tween Newbury and Ryegate about 
four miles, falls into Connecticut River 
about half a mile south of the north- 
east comer of Newbury. 

This is generally a rapid stream, fur- 
nishing many excellent mill privileges, 
on which mills are erected. 

West River. This river is also 
called Wantasticook. It rises in Wes- 
ton, and runs south into Londonderry. 
Near the south line of this township 
it receives Winhall River from Win- 
hall. It then takes a south-easterly 
course through Jamaica, Townshend, 
Newfane, and Dummerston, and unites 
with Connecticut River in the north- 
east part of Brattleborough. In Ja- 
maica, it receives from the west Bald 
Mountain Branch, which rises in Strat- 
ton, and another large branch from 
Wardsborough ; and from the east, 
Meadow Branch, which rises in Wind- 
ham. In Newfane, it receives South 
Branch and Smith's Branch. This 



Btream affords but few mill privileges, 
but there are a great number on its 
branches. Along its banks are some 
fine tracts of intervale. This river re- 
ceives the waters from about 440 square 

Whetstone Bkook is a small mill 
Btream which rises in Marlborough, 
and runs nearly east through Brattle- 
borough into Connecticut River. It 
affords a considerable number of good 
mill privileges. 

White Creek is formed in Rupert, 
by the union of a number of small 
branches, and, taking a south-westerly 
course, unites with the Battenkill in 
Washington County, N. Y. 

White River rises in Granville, 
and running a south-easterly course 
through the north-east corner of Han- 
cock, the south-west part of Roches- 
ter, and the north-east corner of Pitts- 
field, enters Stockbridge. It then turns 
to the north-east, and, after running 
through the south-east comer of Bethel, 
into Royalton, bears to the south-east, 
through Sharon and Hartford, and 
falls into Connecticut River about five 
miles above the mouth of Otta Que- 
chee River. From Granville this river 
runs slowly through a narrow tract of 
intervale, till it arrives at the eastern 
part of Stockbridge, after which the 
current is very rapid, till it reaches 
Bethel Village. From Bethel to its 
mouth the channel of the river is from 
sixteen to eighteen rods in width, and 
the current generally rapid, and the 
water shallow. 

On account of its proximity to Otta 
Quechee River, White River receives 
no large tributaries from the south. 
Broad Brook and Locust Creek are 
the most important. From the north 
it receives three large branches, called 
the first, the second, and the third 
branch. The First Branch rises in 
Washington, near the head branches 
of Wait's and Winooski River, and, 
running through Chelsea and Tun- 
tridge, unites with White River in the 
eastern part of Royalton. The Second 
Branch rises in Williamstown, in con- 

junction with Stevens' Branch of Win- 
ooski River, and. running southerly 
through Brookfield and Randolph, en- 
ters White River a little west of the 
centre of Royalton. This stream runs 
with a gentle current through a nar- 
row tract of fine intervale. The Third 
Branch originates in Roxbury, runs 
through the corner of Granville, 
through Braintree and the comer of 
Randolph, and joins White River at 
Bethel Village. Each of these streams 
is about twenty miles in length, and 
on each are several very good mill 
privileges, particularly on the latter, in 
Bethel Village. White River is the 
largest stream in Vermont on the east 
side of the mountains. Its length is 
about fifty-five miles, and it waters 
about 680 square miles. This stream 
Avas known by the name of White Ri- 
ver, long before any settlements were 
made in Vermont. 

Wild Branch. This stream rises 
in Edeii, runs through the western part 
of Craftsbury, and unites with the Ri- 
ver Lamoille in Wolcott. 

Williams' River is formed in 
Chester, by the union of three consi- 
derable branches, which originate in 
small streams in the townships of Lud 
low, Andover, Windham, and Grafton. 
These three branches unite about a 
mile and a half to the south-east of 
the two villages in Chester, and their 
united waters, after running fifteen 
miles in a south-easterly direction, fall 
into Connecticut River in Rocking- 
ham, three miles above Bellows' Falls. 
Along this river is some fine intervale, 
and it affords several good mill privi- 
leges. Williams' River derives its name 
from the celebrated Rev. John Wil- 
liams, who was taken by the Indians, 
at Deerfield, Mass., in 1 704, and who, 
at the mouth of this stream, preached 
a sermon to his fellow captives. 

WiLLOUGHBY RivER issues frOUL 
Willoughby Lake, in Westmore, runs 
through the south part of Browning- 
ton, and unites with Barton River in 
the north part of Barton. 



WiNHALL River is a small mill 
stream which is collected in Winhall, 
and, after running easterly through 
the corner of Jamaica, unites with 
West River in the south part of Lon- ' 

"WiNOOSKi River, called also Onion 
Elver, is formed in Cabot by the union 
of several small streams, and, taking a 
southerly course, enters Marshfield, 
where it receives a large tributary from 
Peacham and Cabot. 

On this stream is a remarkable cata- 
ract, where the water falls about 500 
feet in the distance of thirty rods. 
Through Marshfield the river conti- 
nues a southerly course into Plainfield, 
where it bends to the south-west, and 
crosses the corner of the township into 
Montpelier. Here it receives King- 
bury Branch, from Calais. After cross- 
ing the south-east coi-ner of Montpe- 
lier, the river takes a north-westerly 
course, which it continues until it falls 
into Lake Champlain. between Col- 
chester and Burlington, five miles north 
of Burlington Village. 

Its most considerable tributaries are 
Dog River and Stevens' Branch, in 
Berlin, North Branch, at Montpelier 
Village, Mad River, in Moretown, Wa- 
terbury River, in Waterbury, Hun- 
tington River, in Richmond, and Mud- 
dy Brook, between WilUston and Bur- 

The alluvial flats along this river 
are narrow, till the river has passed 
through the western range of the Green 
Mountains, when they become much 
more extensive. In Bolton, where it 
passes the range, the mountains ap- 
proach very near the river. 

The channels which have been worn 
in the rocks by this river are a great 
curiosity. One of these, between Mid- 
dlesex and MoretoNvn, is about eighty 
rods in length, sixty feet in width, and 

thirty feet deep ; the rock appearing 
like a wall on each side. Another of 
these channels is between Waterbury 
and Duxbury, four miles below Water- 
bury Village. Its depth is about 100 
feet, and the rocks on the south side 
are perpendicular. The rocks have 
here fallen into the chasm, and formed 
a natural bndye, which is crossed by 
footmen at low water. 

Among the rocks here are also seve- 
ral curious caverns. Holes, also, of 
cylindrical form, are here worn into 
the solid rocks, several feet in depth. 
This chasm is but a few steps from 
the turnpike leading from Montpelier 
to Burlington, and is worthy the atten- 
tion of the curious traveller. A third 
channel of this kind is between Bur- 
lington and Colchester, about three- 
fourths of a mile above Winooski Low- 
er Falls. The channel here is about 
forty rods in length, seventy feet in 
width, and sixty-five feet deep. Across 
the channel a bridge has been thrown, 
which is perfectly secure from floods. 
There is abundant evidence, both here 
and at^the natural bridge above men- 
tioned, that there formerly existed a 
large pond at each place, whose waters 
were drained off" by the wearing down 
of the channels. 

In Winooski River are several falls, 
which afford excellent sites for mills. 
This river is one of the largest in 
the State, being about seventy miles 
in length, and watering 970 square 

That part of the great Northern 
RaUroad, which lies between Mont- 
pelier and Burlington, passes almost 
the whole distance along the banks of 
this most enchanting stream. People 
generally love to travel as fast as the 
fiery courser can carry them ; but on 
this route it is far different, for in al- 
most every mile the traveller wishes to 
stop, to gaze and admire. 




Belle Pond, called also Belle Wa- 
ter Pond, is three miles long, and one 
and a half wide, situated in the south- 
eastern part of Barton. It derives its 
name from the clearness of its water. 

Bombazine Lake. — See Castieton. 

Caspian Lake. — See 

Champlain Lake. This lake com- 
mences at Whitehall, at the junction 
of Wood Creek with East Bay. A 
mile or two north of this it receives the 
waters of South Bay, which projects to 
the south-west. From Whitehall to 
the south part of Orwell, the average 
width of the lake is about half a mile. 
At Sholes Landing about one mile 
sonth of Mount Independence, the lake 
is not more than forty rods wide, and 
between Mount Independence and Ti- 
conderoga, only eighty rods. The wi- 
dest place, in the lake against Orwell, 
is about two miles, and its average 
width about one mile. The distance 
from Whitehall to Ticonderoga, N. Y. 
is about twenty miles. 

The fortress of this name is now a 
heap of ruins. It was built by the 
French, in 1756, on a point of land 
formed by the junction of Lake George 
Creek with Lake Champlain, and was 
two miles north-west from Mount In- 
dependence, and opposite the north- 
west corner of Orwell. Ticonderoga is 
derived from the Indian and signifies 
noisy. The French called the fort Ca- 
rillon. It was a place of great strength, 
both by nature and art. On three 
sides it was surrounded by water, and 
about half the other was occupied by a 
deep swamp, while the line was com- 
pleted by the erection of a breastwork 
nine feet high on the only assailable 
ground. In 1758, Gen. Abercrombie, 
with a British army, was defeated in an 
attempt upon this fortress with the loss 
of 1941 men, but it was the next year 
surrendered to Gen. Amherst. It was 
surprised by Col. Allen, May 10, 1775, 

at the commencement of the revolution, 
and retained till 1777, when it was 
evacuated on the approach of Gen. Bur- 
goyne. Near this place is one of the 
richest localities of minerals in the^ 
United States, and is a most interest- 
ing spot to the man of science. 
" Within the limits of four or five acres 
are found massive and crystalized gar- 
net, several varieties of coccolite, au- 
gite, white and green, crystaUzed and 
massive, very beautiful adularia and 
common feldspar, tabular spar, horn- 
blend, calcareous spar containing bru- 
cite, and elegant crystals of silico cal- 
careous oxyde of titanium." 

From Ticonderoga to Crown Point, 
N. Y., a distance of twelve or fourteen 
miles, the width of the lake continues 
from one to two miles. Croum Point 
Fortress is now in ruins and is opposite 
to the south part of Addison. It was 
built by the French, in 17.31, on a point 
of land between West Bay and the 
lake, and was called Fort St. Frederick. 
In 1759, it was surrendered to the Bri- 
tish troops under Gen. Amherst, and 
was held by the British till May 10, 

1775, when it was taken by Col. Seth 
Warner, on the same day that Ticon- 
deroga surrendered to Allen. It again 
fell into the hands of the British, in 

1776, who kept possession of it till af- 
ter the capture of Burgojiie in 1777, 
This fortress is in lat. 44° 3' and in 
long. 73° 29' west from Greenwich. 
It is nearly a regular pentagon, the 
longest curtain being ninety, and the 
shortest about seventy-five yards in 
length. The ramparts are about twen- 
ty-five feet in thickness, and riveted 
■with masonry throughout. The ditch 
is blasted out of the solid rock. There 
are two demilunes and some small de- 
tached outworks. An arched passage 
led from the interior of the works to 
the lake, and a well about ninety feet 
in depth was sunk in one of the bas- 

The fort erected by the French in 
1731, was a smaller work, and nearer 



the water. The present fort was com- 
menced by the English, in 1759, and 
according to Dr. Dwight, cost about 
two millions of pounds sterling. The 
whole peninsula being of solid rock, 
covered with a thin layer of earth, the 
works cannot be assailed by regular 
approaches, and both in construction 
and position, the fortress is among the 
strongest in North America. It has 
been long dismantled, and is now quite 
dilapidated, but its form and dimensions 
are still easily traced and measured. 

From Crown Point to Split Rock, a 
distance of about nineteen miles, the 
widtli of the lake ^vill average about 
three miles and a half The Avidth 
from Thompson's Point to Split Rock, 
in the town of Essex, N. Y., is only 
three quarters of a mile. Split Rock 
is a considerable curiosity. A light 
house is erected here. At McNeil's 
Ferry, between Charlotte and Essex, 
N. Y., a few miles further north, the 
width of the lake wants twenty rods of 
three miles. 

From this place the lake spreads as 
it flows north, and at Burlington from 
the bottom of Burlington Bay to that 
of Douglas' Bay is nine miles and 
three quarters wide. Upon Juniper 
Island at the entrance of Burlington 
Bay from the south, a light house has 
been erected, and a few miles to the 
north-west of this bay the steamboat 
Phoenix was consumed by fire on the 
morning of the 5th of September, 1819, 
and much property and several lives 

BetAveen Juniper Island and Pot- 
tier's Point, a large rock rises above 
the water, called Rock Dunder, and to 
the south-west of Juniper lie four small 
islands called the Four Brothers. They 
were named on Charlevoix map the 
isles of the Four Winds. The bay op- 
posite Burlington, called Douglas' Bay. 
was called by the French Corlar, and 
the island lying a little to the north, 
called Schuyler's Island, they called 
Iste aux Chapon. The greatest expanse 
of water is between the Four Brothers 
and Grand Isle, but the greatest width 
from east to west shore is further north 
across the islands, where the distance 
is about fourteen miles. 

Cumberland Bay, on the head of 
which stands Plattsburgh, N. Y., is 
about twenty-two miles from Burling- 
ton. This bay is celebrated for the 
signal victoiy of the American squad- 
ron, under Commodore McDonough, 
over the British fleet, on the 11th of 
September, 1814. 

The peninsula lying north of Cum- 
berland Bay called Cumberland Head, 
was called by the French Cape Scou- 
mouton. On this point is a light house. 
From South Hero to the 45th degree 
of lat. the breadth of the lake including 
the islands is from nine to twelve miles. 
Where the lake leaves the State on the 
west side of Alburgh, its width is less 
than two miles. The lake extends in- 
to Canada twenty-four miles to St. 
Johns, where the River Richelieu com- 
mences and conveys the waters to the 
St. Lawrence. The Richelieu is about 
sixty miles long, and joins the St. Law- 
rence near the upper end of Lake St. 
Peters, and about forty-five miles be- 
low Montreal. The navigation of the 
Richelieu is interrupted by the Cham- 
bly Rapids, but the lake is connected 
with the St. Lawrence at Montreal, by 
a railroad eighteen miles in length, 
leading from St. Johns to Laprairie. 

Lake Champlain lies between this 
State and the State of New York, and 
more than half of it within the limits 
of Vermont. It extends in a straight 
line from south to north, 102 miles 
along the western boundary, from 
Whitehall to the 45th degree of lati- 
tude, and thence about twenty-four 
miles to St. Johns in Canada, affording 
an easy communication with that pro- 
vince and with New York. The length 
of this lake from south to north, mea- 
sured in a straight line from one ex- 
tremity to the other, and supposing it 
to terminate northerly at St. Johns, is 
126 miles. Its width varies from one 
fourth of a mile to thirteen miles, and 
the mean width is about four and a 
half miles. This would give an area 
of 567 square miles, two thirds of which 
lie within the limits of Vermont. The 
waters, which this lake receives from 
Vermont, are drained, by rivers and 
other streams, from 4088 miles of its 
territory. Its depth is generally suffi- 



cient for the navigation of the largest 
vessels. It received its present name 
from Samuel Charaplain, a French no- 
bleman, who discovered it in the spring 
of 1609, and who died at Quebec in 
1635, and was not dro\vned in its wa- 
ters, as has been often said. 

One of the names given to this lake 
by the aborigines is said to have been 
Caniaderi- Guarunte, signifying the 
mouth or door of the country. If so, 
it was very appropriate, as it forms the 
gate-way between the country on the 
St Lawrence and that on the Hudson. 
The name of this lake in the Abeniqui 
tongue was Petaivd-bouque, signifying 
alternate land and water, in allusion to 
the numerous islands and projecting 
points of land along the lake. Pre- 
vious to the settlement of the country 
by Europeans, this lake had long been 
the thorough-fare between hostile and 
powerful Indian tribes, and its shores 
the scene of many a mortal conflict. 
And after the settlement, it continued 
the same in reference to the French 
and English colonies, and subsequently 
in reference to the English in Canada 
and the United States. In consequence 
of this peculiarity of its location, the 
name of Lake Champlain stands con- 
nected with some of the most interest- 
ing events in the annals of our coun- 
try; and the transactions associated 
with the names of Ticonderoga, and 
Crown Point, and Plattsburgh, and 
many other places, united with the va- 
riety and beauty of the scenery, the 
neatness and accommodation of the 
steamboats, and the unrivalled excel- 
lency of their commanders, render a 
tour through this lake one of the most 
interesting and agreeable to the en- 
lightened traveller. 

DuNMORE Lake is about four miles 
long and three fourths of a mile wide. 
It is situated partly in Leicester and 
partly in Salisbury, and discharges 
into Otter Creek by what is called 
Leicester River. Trout weighing 
twenty-five pounds have been taken 
out of this lake. It is sometimes call- 
ed Trout Pond. 

Elligo Pond lies partly in Greens- 

borough and partly in Craftsbury. It 
is about two miles long and half a mile 
wide, and has two outlets, one to the 
north and the other to the south. The 
northern outlet constitutes one of the 
head branches of Black River ; the south- 
ern, after passing through Little Elligo 
Pond, communicates with the River 
Lamoille in Hardwick. The scenery 
about Elligo Pond is romantic and 
beautiful. The eastern bank presents 
abrupt, and, in some places, perpendic- 
ular rocks of considerable height, while 
the western rises gradually, and is cov- 
ered with a luxuriant growth of forest 
trees, which contrast finely with the 
naked cliffs of the opposite shore. 

Near the centre of the pond are two 
small islands. This pond is a favorite 
resort for the sportsman and the admi- 
rer of nature in her own simplicity. 
Its waters abound with fine trout, and 
its banks with a plenty of game. It 
was foiTnerly a favorite hunting ground 
of the St. Francis Indians, to whom 
the northern part of Vermont once be- 
longed. These Indians called this 
pond Ellii/o Scootlon, and hence it is 
now sometimes, but improperly, called 
Elligo Scotland. 

Fairlee Lake. — See Fairlee. 

Hosmer's Ponds. — See Crqfisbwy. 

Joe's Pond. — See Danville. 

Knowlton Lake. A considerable 
body of water, nearly on the line be- 
tween Brighton and Wenlock, from 
which issues the principle head branch 
of Clyde River. 

Long, or Runaway Pond. — See 


Memphremagog Lake, is thirty 
miles in length, and two or three miles 
wide. It lies mostly in Canada, only 
seven or eight miles of the south end 
extending into Vermont. It is situated 
about half way between Connecticut 
River and Lake Champlain, and that 
part within this State lies between the 
towns of Derby and Newport. A bay 
extends south into Orleans. These 



waters cover about fifteen square miles 
in Vermont, and receives from this 
State, Clyde, Barton and Black River. 

The waters of this lake are dis- 
charged to the north by what is called 
Magog Outlet, into the River St. Fran- 
cis, and through that into St. Peters 
Lake, about fifteen miles below the 
mouth of the River Richelieu. 

Upon the west side of a small unin- 
habited island situated at the mouth 
of Fitch's Bay, and about two miles 
north of Canada line, is a considerable 
quaiTy of novaculite known by the 
name of the " Magog Oil Stone." The 
vein of novaculite is from two to eight 
feet wide where it has been quarried, 
and the length of the quarry is several 
hundred feet. It is situated beneath a 
cliff, and, at the top, is interspersed 
with quartz. The vein of novaculite 

runs parallel with the cliff and lake 
shore, and is so low that it is usually- 
overflowed by the rising of the lake in 
spring and autumn. Large quantities 
of the " Magog Oil Stone " have been 
prepared for use and vended in various 
parts of the United States. 

The Indian words from which the 
name of this lake was derived, were 
Mem-plow-bouque, signifying a large ex 
pause of water. On the east side of 
this lake the country is beautiful, with 
an easy, rich soil ; on the west it is bro- 
ken, and less productive. 

Molly's Pond. — See Cabot. 

Seymour Lake. — See Morgan. 

Willoughby's Lake. — See West- 


Bellows' Falls. — See Rockingham. 
See Lu- 

Fifteen Mile Falls 

McIndoes Falls, a considerable 
fall in Connecticut River at the head 

of boat navigation on that stream, and 
opposite the south-east comer of Bar- 

WiNOOSKi Falls. — See Wirux^ 


Allen's Point. This is the south- 
em extremity of Grand Isle, in the 
township of South Hero. It takes its 
name from Mr. Allen, one of the early 

Basin Harbor. — See Ferrisburgh. 

Belamaqueen Bay. A small bay 
jutting into the town of Ferrisburgh 
from Lake Champlain. 

Burlington Bay. A large open 
bay lying west of Burlington Village, 

between Appletree Point on the north 
and Pottier's Point on the south, and 
embracing the entrance into Shelbume 

Chimney Point is in Addison op- 
posite to Crown Point and is the most 
westerly land in Veraiont. It was up- 
on this point that the first settlement 
was made in the western part of Ver- 
mont by the French in 1731, and here 
they erected a stone wind mill, which 
was garrisoned during the colonial 
wars, and hence it has sometimes been 



called Windmill Point, but this name 
is now cpnfined to a point in Alburgh. 

McQuAM Bat. A large open bay 
in the western part of Swanton. 

Missisco Bat is a large arm of 
Lake Champlain, which extends into 
Canada between Swanton and High- 
gate on the east, and Alburgh on the 
west. Its width from east to west, on 
Canada line, is about five miles, and it 
extends four or five miles into Canada. 
This bay covers an area of about thir- 
ty-five square miles. 

Pottiek's Point. This point is 
situated on the west side of Shelbume, 
two miles, 182 rods from the south 
wharf in Burlington. It took its name 

from John Pettier, the first settler up- 
on it. It is often called Shelbume 

Sharpshin Point. A high, rocky 
point situated on the north side of Bur- 
lington Bay, one mile and 217 rods 
from the south wharf in Burlington. 

Sheleuene Bat. — See Shelbume. 

South Bat. There are two bays 
of this name, one at the south end of 
Lake Champlain near Whitehall, and 
the other at the south end of Lake 
Memphremagog between Salem and 

Windmill Point. — See Alburgh, 


The following Tables, with the preceding Tables of Population ; comprise 
a large amount of valuable information relating to each county and town ill 
the State. 

These statistics are presented in tabular form, and will be found exceedinglj 
easy of reference. The relative value of every town and county in the State 
ttiay be seen almost at a glance. They are derived from the most authentic 


This Table contains the number of towns in each county in the State with 
the date of incorporation of the counties ; the number of horses, cattle, sheep 
and swine ; also the quantity of some of the most important articles of pro- 
duction in each county, with the area in square miles, and the distance of the 
shire towns from Boston, the capital of New England. 

fl d 



o S g 





Shire Towns. 



Addison, . 











( Bennington & 
( Manchester, 

42° 51' ) 
43° 10' j 








44° 26' 








44° 27' 




Essex, . 




44° 32' 







St. Albans, 

44° 49' 




Grand Isle 



North Hero, 

44° 51' 








44° 37' 
















44° 48' 








43° 37' 








44° 17' 








42° 58' 








43° 36' 






COUNTY TABLE— Continued. 


Addison, . 
Essex, . . 
Franklin, . 
Grand Isle, 
Lamoille, . 
Rutland, . 
Windsor, . 
















14,305 287,321 

9,906 264,324 

18,991 472,987 

25,310 324,838 

3,639 83,185 

8,935 229,262 

3,179' 99,051 

7,287 123,124 

22,516 483,328 

9,750 220,9561 

15,563 398,743] 

12,150 340.369, 

29.435 397,498j 




We now present a copy of the Grand List, which embraces the amount 
and value of every species of property in all the towns and counties in the 
State, subject to taxation. Property of every description in Vermont is liable 
to taxation, except articles of indispensable necessity. 

" Where the revenue of a country is raised, as in Vermont, by a direct tax 
upon the real and personal property of the citizens, the first object undoubtedly 
should be to ascertain what each individual really owns, that the share of the 
public burthen, thrown upon each, may be in proportion to his ability to bear it ; 
but this is found, in practice, to be an object of very difficult attainment. By 
most of the foi-mer listing laws, a large share of the taxable property, has been 
entered by name, with a fixed valuation. But this produced great inequality, 
on account of the great difference in the value of property of the same kind, de- 
pending upon quality and location. Another provision of the old listing laws 
required a person, who had purchased property on credit, and given his note for 
it,' to pay taxes on that property, while the holder of the note was taxed for it 
as money at interest, thus taxing the same property twice, and throwing an un- 
just and heaA^ burden upon the man in debt. The present listing law of 1841, 
was designed to correct these evils, by requiring all rateable property to be ap- 
praised at its cash value, and by allowing the debts due from a person, over and 
above the amount due to him, to be deducted from the appraised value of his 
personal property." 





-^ — inoocGO^OO^o^otocoOCip-'OtM^oaoo 

irf irTrf cc~i>-" ,-^ -^ ao n S t^ oT i^T to" r4" ■*" .-T (?f r-T 





JO ^ Oi^ 


-IV JO sjuarassas 

I1S9J JO -jaaa jad x 



aoc5:oeot^C05CJOt^^oc5-<tC50!St^t^— |«^CT» 
^Ot-cj — <NoC50^00ooa"-ocr5cr30oocx;ococ^«»n 

00^ «- — ^ =0 -^„ OC C5 t^ tC^ tC^ JO^ 10^ -<^ -.^^ — ^ 00 O^ --O C5^ CO, CN, t-„ » 

irro"co''co~t^ i-T ^ oo" jo~ «o t-T cm" irf o" ^ -^ i-T erf ^^ 


-jng puB suBiais 


SS^^g •-§25^=' '"S^S 



44,235 25 




6,003 09 

10,574 74 

13,982 94 

18,807 07 

141,125 99 


203,246 69 

18,755 18 


34,125 26 

29,389 13 





459,579 50 




690,161 24 
523,889 04 
184,452 02 

68,255 05 
114,136 92 
219,899 61 
6,097,977 38 


<o t^ !>j CO t- o^ L'5 o Tf o 00 in t- ri m -* C5 C5 o to t-. 2 in 
^'i- "^ "^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^„ "^ ^^ '":, "-"l "^^ *^ "^ "^ "^ "^^ ^ '^ 1- ^ ^ 

(MC^r^^(Nr-l ^ n-, r^ C<\ ^ 71 CA COr-^IMS^ ^ 




"5$ *« snod 



-HQO-^^-*-*C5-*eo— iinooomtooo^^CTSTi-f-^eoo^ 





Bridport, . 
Bristol, . 
Cornwall, . 
Ferrisburgh, . 
Goshen, . 
Hancock, . 
Lincoln, . , 
Middlebury, . 
New Haven, . 
Orwell, . 
Starksboro', . 




GRAND LIST FOR 1848— Coktinued. 



CO00-<*00«D<NCOTt<'— iOiOOSt^-*if:t--Tj< 


t-OtDt^(M0500S<NO«?QOO-* — 0(M 




gS 2- 



'MOI^-*-<tr^0C00-<*Q0.— C0(NrtOS>n-<t 

ifSi— oo(NTi<tDoso<M005eoo5tOin*^oi 

l^-^00t--*OOO(Minc£:C0O'* — C(M 








r- -.H 00 00 «n o 

■— icio Tt<t-t^05mt^030co — oso>n 

«0(NO C^OOTt<t^co-*^»n— -OSCOOt^ 

kDcNt^ r-o);oootooc^t-OiniM-*r^ 
eo Qo" ■*" d~ c^' o" eo' 00*" a^ o" eo" —' oo" -T <>f 

OS(MeO r-lOi— 1»« *^C^ ^^^-(i— ir-l 







^oo»~-.Tj'o-. 0^05oso>-'eo«oc>)os»nos 
r^ os^ 00 05^ 00 Tj<^ o^ r-j^ «o^ «o^ •«# oo_^ »r5^ o^ oi ^^ r—^ 
r-T 00 jtT -"t" co~ oo" i-T cT od" oT o co" o" co" I—" -1*" ■^'~ 
(Nt^(N eo eo a rt -^ >-i 


















OS t^ o (N eo 
eo 00 CO c^ 00 

Tj. 1^ CO in oo 
eo CO t^ o eo 

in <N eo CO .-1 



92 95 
210 00 


5,052 39 
2,399 87 
3,269 25 
6,715 22 
1,738 83 




28,595 25 
96,321 93 
30.648 50 

Dolls. Cts. 

170,391 .50 
486,400 28 


714 24,586 
392 19,191 
476 1 21,444 
862 34,784 
SI 6 1 23.807 



Barnet, .... 
Burke, .... 
Cabot, .... 
Danville, .... 
Groton, . 



GRAND LIST FOR 1848— Continued. 


oom-^i— ir^Gor-os^Dr^t-l— 1 

t>-c^mmrjioii— tkOt-^-^Oi-H 








t^r- i05;05£30coeoaiC5ioeo 



COi-l't TfCOr-iOr-H^ro 






03 ooinoo 0(Nooo CO 



O (M^O ■<tr-C^l'<* C5 


>-H t-H 1—1 














coi-i-^ -^ CO ^ ^ oi oi n 



eo Oi lOifs t-oo t>-i— 1 


-1 CO -^ 


«5 l^ ,^ 


■* Tj< 




t^^ccoi oioioiOiO^ao^ 






fx (M e<3 CO tD O CO C^TtJ" 00 <m o 


t^ t^ t^eO--^tDC^(Mt^r-< 




00 iCO 


O 00 



oioot^?Or-<t-.05«ot^c>i(M las 







(N CO C^O<PHC0^.-i(N 



t>._i^O«DTf<.-<<NOOOi'-^ (Nl 




t^-^QOicoocomoocc— <m 





(>» p-< S^l (N (M eo CN (?J (M (N 0^ 




«C)«OC£5T*«OTt<0 0)«30CNO 









It's 11 g1^ 22 II 




OS ■'t^ Ol^ .-<_ OJ_ 00 i^ 00^ t^ co^ 

oT io" irT TjT -^ .-T -1*^ o" eo" 


l^OTfOSi— iooscoctjO 

OS lO^os^.— 1 eo_oo 00 crs_r>.__eo^ 

os"~ o" kff TjT TjT _r ^^ irT co~ 



eo <N 

CO i-i 




m — tn 

CO Tf (N 

t-^eo^-<*^Tt o_cx)^o (M ot^ 
o" -<t~ eo" ^ <>f o" o~ o~ oo" t>r 





" bo-*-" ^ 

o c 

a fcX) _^ 

- o 

-r IB c s r --; o 





GEAND LIST FOR 1848— Continued. 


CO -* .-< G^l Tj< 


O la ^ yf CO 


CO 00 --t 00 m 


Tj< t^ t^ O Tf 



p— CO CO t^ -* 

^^ cvf cf TjT 









^ W rj< ^ (>» ■* ,<X> 1 

O »0 -«1< ■* 00 kO 

CO 00 -<* CO »« lO 

Tt t^ CO «£) -* 


^ CO •* t- -<t 



^^ (N C^ Tt 



CO iO <X> (N 



^ l-H 







CI so ^ CO <M »n 1 

. i»o — . o -* C5 to 1 

"3 ' to 00 ci to oi 

p 00 rH (?! 00 

00 1 

CO 1 


. «0 -<*«£> T*« C^ r-< 

iS j CO «5 p-< 00 o Tf 

'-^ 1,^ 00 O 00 — ^CN 

. ,iO CO Tj" Ci o^ o> 

oj 'r^ o <>> -<t »n 05 

"3 'n-^t^rScc <n 

Q OS <?< «D O ■— ' OS 
" ;<?» 1-1 C^ W |OJ 

1 1^ 

O O CJ> "* C5 



■<* Oi 05 CO to 

Cl ^ Ol — OJ 


CO IM to — ' 00 


— CO (M r^ 



o to «o -"t o 


CO »o «o r- <N 


eo »n ^ -tf 


. . . 








St. George, 





»r5^G><in<Nto<Mt-Oto^-* 1 




■* CO o 00 r- c>) <N c, to to_»n (N 





m.— i(N>n(NtO(Nt^OtOi-i'<i< 







<N <N t- r- 



SS S^ S §5 ^ 

T*.co»«— 'OitOTfoo-^int-co 
'^ oo'~ ^ rjT i-T oo" TjT o>f t>r 

rl rf r-l 



cNiM050-<*ooin -^ttoeo-* 

coooooc>»tO(N(Ma>t^Oi — 05 
O5^'^o^t-^»fi !>i,QO„30^'-t'~'^"^"^ 






5i2 2'~^''SS?f^2^'"^'~S" 



r-l eo i-H CO 






GRAND LIST FOR 1848— Continued. 


(n" eo" eo" n cf o\ oi rf Tt" ^ ^ <n ^ « 



"^ O 



(n" eo" of « « c>f <n'~ ^"^ Tj<~ -h" r-n" co" -*" oo" 





00 r^ 

oT d" TO d~ oo" si ■* oo" od" oo" (?f -S c-f t-" 



00 o »n 00 -* 

?0 00 t^ ^ 00 




t^^£)O^^^^^<^^00'^o■*O-^— < 

c>f of irT -T o" o" o" of (-" o c" ci eo" ^" 










'^ O -^ IM (M 

(>) 00 -^ -X Tf 

«5 O 1^ O O 


to t^ 




«o <x> 




■* O 








to O 


»o o 


C^ OJ 


00 eo ixi I— I o 

Tt to 00 00 >o 
t-;^ O, C. ^^ o\^ 
cT-^of eo"t-r 

^ CM ^ CM 

^ C^ O, eo^ eo_ 
O o »o —1 «« 

CM ^ ^ rH 

o r- rf 1-^ in 
«D o kn eo OS 
<o in ■>* CM 50 

-* O O ^ CO 
O O 00 CM OS 
■<* CM rH CM ^ 

■2 1 i" i 

^ 03 oj j? S 



GRAND LIST FOR 1848— Continued. 


Ci i-i Oi a (D OCC«0^t^«Ci 

Tt ^ w 00 CO CO »n C30 ^ ^ CO 

ooo-<i<oooo»rs<N«r> — ccoo 


<N (N 00 Ti< 


T»<^eoooeo eOkT^oo^Tjfco 





•^^ o Tj< »:» eo -^ 




OOOi— itJ<(Mi— 'kOOOOtOOOOS 

Oir-ooco — incoco(NOO(Noo 



oT irT ^"^ rf oT co" «o~ ^^ irT o" -h' (n 

CO _ ,S (M (M ^ 





— (Mooeo»ncoinco'*0<Moo 
osi— icocNeoociiniOknoioo 




QO'*<NQO»nOOO(MOOI:^ — -^ 

<X> a ri ^ ^ iCi 0<NW 




PQ Q pi^ pi; K h5 ^ ^ cc cc {:> f> 



5,059 42 
2,923 93 
4,602 55 
5,181 91 
5,323 12 
1,951 43 
7,416 51 
2,057 49 
9,139 67 
5,394 74 


5^^§| S|^2 




l-H i-« CO ■-< l-H "^ f-< 



■* O O,0i,00^»rt,'-tO„O.kO 
eo"crt^»-^O0 <N 00 05 «f5 »o 



t^ (M «5 t^ »r> «3 «D *^ t- 

F-H in t^ Oi Tjt 1— »n '^^'^•^ 
<© t>r TO f^" <o -* o~ irT t>r irT 

in^eom<?<'nt^to— "CO 



■"toimtocjcoi— loocooo 





GRAND LIST FOR 1 848— Continued. 



CO 05 kO t^ OS CO 

<N 00 00 05 — kO C3 

eo t^ ■* in 
CO (M CO as •<*< t^ 
0^ » » a5_ ai 0^ (M^ 
0" «~ ■*" oi" (N" ^ ■<*~ 



QO (M 
»fj CO 

<* 00 ■* <M 01 



CO t^ 05 05 CO 

3^1 oc Tj« ci ai »n eo 
i^ in 05 !■- CO (N 

CO Ol (r) rj< — t^ 

»n ci oi t- s^ 
>n eo" -* to" so" ^ -^ 


5 t^ m <M t^ CO <M 


00 c^ t> ^ 

-* CO ■?! <M 05 OS r^ 

t^ CO — (N ^ ■* 

CO CO 00 ci 01 

<N t-T 00" t>r 0" CO jo" 

00 Tj< eo CM rt «n 






^ CO CO r^ OS CO 

to t- OS t^ CTl -^i" « 

00 CO •<* (M C5 05 Oi 
Tf ^ 01 00 CO -* 00 

"^^ ®. ^'^ "^^ -l. *"•„ '* 
-H oTco CO i^c^f t^ 

t-1- (N <N CO - 
^ CM CO <N SM ^ CO 





— — < 10 — < r- ^ 

00 00 -^ 
OS irj C5 CT> 00 CM 05 




« 1 






5 I 





-H"c>f .-."^"cM'ec'cM'crf cm" 

Oi 00 Tj. ^ rH 


CM^irscM — cM^TJ<co^>•eooo«OFH^<. 
"^^•^^^ eocoot^co— f-oeoo>«00> 
,-^ CM -H r^"cM co^cm^cm" cm" 


«o ■* o> 

1— ico-<*cM^-*o^oco«neokr5CMoo 


^^int-ot^ — O50oc^oot-Oo» 
r>^ i-<^ o_ -H_ o_ »n_ •»*_ co^ «o_ -^^ t^_^ co_^ co_ i-H^ o>^ 



CO.— C0r»0iQ0(MQ0t--i—O5O'-i0»O 






GRAOT) LIST FOR 1848— Continued. 


460 24 

2,081 71 

815 83 

265 22 




(M (M 


(M t^ 00 <N 

(N « m t^ 




«D Tj< <-! 




r^ t^ (M (N 

t^ CD t^ (N 

— T cq" oT of 

CO CO »n <N 



«o o» — »n 


«N «D O O 
^ 5D !>■ Tf 
^ CO i-H 




(Nicco'-icococo->*^050omvn'tOi— ic^ooo 
ooco-^OTfCiOOOt^cot^oo — ^Dtooeoeo-^ 

(MkO — F-iQOCeO-*-HCOQO»fi»n«000<M'*0 


t^C;(NCCt^O-<^Tj<OtOCOt^«Da>(NOO — OS 


00^ r-^ »n_ m^ ^l "*, ^„ ■*, <^„ '^V ■"! '^ '-n- °^ ^^ ^^ °^^ ^ "-i- 
(>f —T r-T t-T cT oo~ cD~ «c~ oc" -ir CD CO t-rt~-ro'o''cro'co 
»o«D05i-iir5coT}<soc^ eoec »r:i— looooo 

•<*oocDC5t^r^r^eo — (N<Nr-(NC><t^m— -mo 

cT co" cd" cT t^~ G<r r-T of ciT co" -^ -^ —^ CD cd" eo" r-^ CD*" oc? 


Ti<mmco— i<>)cDeo-^a50cDcD(Mt^ — (Ntj<i>. 

O T3 


5S -C 

5 ^ ^ 

"3 ^ >• i- 
<» — _C ^ 

^ ^ 5 =3 

^ i^ V ^ i-\ ?? i^ 

. « 


;^ g g ;^ ph £ S p^ p:^ CO 



GRAND LIST FOR 1848— Continued. 

CO a> ec to ■* I-. 
-^ Tt !.? O e<3 ■<* 

<N — to O 03 O 







CO O — «£) -* t^ 
— Tj< t— O CO ■* 

(N -- <X> O C3 o. 







^ 0^2^* 

Dolls. Cts. 

18,368 60 
~1 ,6 12,9 10 35 


o O CO eo <x> o 

00 00 O >— CO o 

oo eo^r-Tt-Tto"'-"^ 

00 t- .-H (N rt CO 
<N ^ C^ Tt ^ ^ 





Oi CTl CO — O CO 

to ^ 05 00 r- «o 

»0 t^ 00 (M t^ CO 



Tt (N (M to <M <N 





-<*<»ntoeococo-*!M-*oo(N — io-<eO'<*io 




eooj>r;ot^-*CT5t^OtDQO^ »f5_.o o^o* o, 
to^co'co"^" (>f cq^^'cN •<t"-^'~'^''C>< ^ »o F-< ^ 



(M 00 CO S^ 00 00 00 to 00 00 00 




totomoot^"^— iift»notocooo-*03»nio 
CO 03 t^ »n 00 -* 05 00 00 »n to 0^ 0. (^1, 0, 

tO^SOCOr^" (N of ^'(N^rf <N -^(N ^ in -H ^ 



corKio 2S*??:: ::^S 







o>nto<Moo^t-05to-<i^iOQO — (NOo> 
^ (N c^ 00 CO to oi t- CO CO 00 o_ -* c^)^ q, (>!_ 
0" oo" od" co"" -* 0" -^"^ to' 00 rt t^ 00 00 CO oi Tf 
ricoeor-^ G^c^in^o(N.-<Tf.-ico 



lO t^ 


in oi t~- ■* t^ c^^<M^yD^G^^oi^in^m_r-._^ (?<^co_r-._^<N_ 
o'or>-<~-*~in'"r^trrco"to~crQo'"»n"i^' oToi -^a^ 
inooo>— itooo<>JO-<i<co-*OQOOQOoor» 



CO 05 oo Tf in x^ -^ 00 rj. 00^ (M 01 m^ -*■*,-*„»-•„ 00, 

2 i § s § s"5^'~^ ?f s ^ g 2 ?; ?j ?; §} 1 


t- rj. »n (N ^ CO "* ^^eo oo(N(Ncoeotoeo(?< 




pT * * * * 






GRAM) LIST FOR 1848— Continued. 

o^cn 00 '-l,0_<N^05,t^— ^c>i_t^io^'<i^i-H_t- «c «_ »fi^ t>^ <x>^ ^ ^ oo_ 

00Ot^<£>!M— <<NO00-*X)Oir5iX)t^<N;£>O — — i(N00O 

^ -4~ of ed^ e<3~ r^r c>f eo" c>r (^f TjT rjT 00^ -^ oi ox in n ^ <-^ 

O c^ Tj< eo 00 


■^ "^ '":. "i- "^ °^ "-H. ''I- '^ "^ '^^ "^ *^ "^l *^^ *"., "^ ''V ^, ^^ ^- "^^ '^ 
to" F-<" oT co~ ctT crT -n" t-" o~ ^^ «" c^T — T .-T o" kn" -"t^ o" •* o~ (m" -^ r-T 

t^ o ^ « c^ — ' 

CO O Tj< !^ (Tl 

■<*«£>— •^»nt^a50<Mco>-ocO'-<«nrf<.-ioO'*o?DO^t^ 
(Tjiomi^oot^coc^ — CM'*coOeo«X5-<*-*Oi--OS<Ji^-^ 
''^ "^ '~5- '^J- °'-' "^^ ■"!- "*„ ^^ "^^ ■^ ^^ "V*^^ '^^ '^, "-t "^ '"- '"^ ^ '^r. '^ 
t-T oT ocT c<2~ co" 1^" t-' o" 1^" o~ o" ocT in" n oT tj<" cT cT o" — " tc" t— " co" 
t^co«o-^?o-*tooc^«t^— '(>>coa5ir:Tj<-Hooav — I— C5CO 

I t^ i-iC>l!MCOCN«Ni-H(MCOeOO eo—i— i-«*GSiMi-( 

-"t'^OOOOOf-'^i^JOOeC t^ «OaO<N'Mr-<-«tO<N — iTSCO 


^X> .3 >» c C »/ 

!■£ g g o i 2-53 i ^ 



■^ o 



GRAND LIST FOR 1848— Continued. 


eoooQOvna50o«^OGOOJ5— 'OTTjtino-^o — cooc5i?5 

O^^ Tt t-^ r-.^ c» O, CO, CO r-^ O, (M^ (>l CO^ 00_ C^J, -<_ <N^ CO^ l-^ CO^ t1<^ 0_ -<^ 

^ eo" -^ (>f ^iT t-T to r-T -^ irT co" '5l<" eo" eo" o" eo" od~ (n" ?d" (>r oo" cT 



C^ <£> ^ COOO Tt COt^OlMO 




coc^<Nioooco^ai(Moa5i— ■•— oooco-^cjco-^ocoo 
^-T eo" -t" c^" to" t^" (S t-T rjT irT eo~ -*~ eo~ eo" o" eo' cc o* ^ oi od~ o" 


OS«0<N00 500Tj<lf5«3(MOO(N<NOi«eTt(N>0 




»0 O OS 00 CT> t^ 00 O ift O 
t-»^(M^t-.kf5 t>. 00(M t- 

in.— cooo5ooooocoO'-»nooo><MOcooeo^t-»n5£>— < 
oo" oT o" t-" r-" <>r o^ -* ',o TjT ^"^ ^ si^ ^ ^ yf o" >n ^\ ^ t^ o\ t~. 

Oi Tj<?D->5<ir5C0001<400'*QOOOOO-<tCOC^-<*CO — o» 




O to O 1^ -^ 00 

eocJootococoococoo — t^QO — — ,^(M-Hinooo5eo 

■<j<eoosTi<Qooo — QO-^ooeooooo-^ysoOr-^i^t^TfO 



aioot^Oir50r^c><t^eoQOt£>oi-<t(MOsO^'-^t^05-— eo 




(N »n«>o<ot^t-ooo«0'*«o-<i<o»o->4<o»-^cocoo5i-j^ 







GRAND LIST FOR 1848— Coxcludeo. 

•saxBi »}^s joj 

■* CO 00 •«* m CO cc t^ Li — CO (M !C C'J 
QOcooeocnoccD^-csc^i— t^oiM 

CO O 00 OP QC C5 ^^ GO^iC ■n"_^"*,'"„»"^0, 

«d" o~ 5^ 00 o ■<i^ o TjT c^f cf i^co'od'or 
TfQO — C500t^»^mir5-<t(MC^ 




o;t^c^?jt^cooococo>— 1 

•02J 's.Canjo) 
5V JO sjuanissas 

I^ai JO -^aaa aad ^ 

O— '<N«Dt^»c»r:?cco»nOQOOC^ 

r^COt^'-m — COrt-OS^JOOOlCOO 

Tf o in^ — ^ — i~^ oo_^ oo_^ «3 i-^t-^ <^^*"u^ 

vd" — ' eo" o^ — ' tc" o~ «fr co~ cT t^ co" oo" oT 
■"too.— oioor^t^»r5m-<t<N(N 

oeocO!?>OiO»n»n— icseocoooeo 
<?! CO ■* ir: CO c^ c>4 r-i r-c c>j ,-. 



Oi — X. — OOOCOCOCO«:r-00 ■^(M 

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Although most of the towns in Vermont have post offices of their own 
names, yet many have within their limits one or more post offices in villages 
bearing the name of some favored patron, or having one of the cardinal points 
of the compass attached to it. Post villages not having the name of the town 
in which they are situated connected with theirs, are difficult to find. Foi 
instance : — A stranger wishes to go to Perkinsville. He finds, perchance, by 
the Post Office Book, that the flourishing manufacturing village of Perkins- 
ville is in the State of Vermont, and in the county of Windsor ; but not one 
person in fifty, at a distance of twenty miles from it, can tell in what direc- 
tion it lies, or that it is located in the beautiful town of Wcathersfield. 

It is impossible for us to insert the names and locations of all the post 
offices as soon as they are established. The last edition of the Post Office 
Book was published at Washington, in 1846, 

Alburgh, West. 


Arlington, West. 
Barnard, East. 

Barton viJle^ Rockingham. 

Bellows' Falls, . 

Barre, South. 
Bennington, North. 
Berkshire, East. 


Bethel, East. 
Bradford, Centre. 
Braintree, West. 
Brattleboro', West. 
Brookfield, East 
Brownsville, Windsor. 
Calais, East. 

Cuinbridgeport, Rockingham. 
Charleston, East. 


Chimney Pointy Addison. 
C}iipman''s Point, Orwell. 
Clarendon East 


Corinth, East. 
Corners, Wcathersfield. 
Craftshurv, South. 
C'lftingsitille, Shrewsbury. 
Jjanhji Four Corners, Danby. 
Danville, North. 

Derby, West. 


Dorset, South. 



Dummerston, East 


East Mills, New Haven. 
Enosburgh, West 


Factory Paint, Manchester. 
Fairfax, North. 
Fairfield, East. 
Fayetteville, Newfane. 
Fefchville, Reading. 
Ferrisburgh, North. 
Gaijsville, Stocki)ridge. 
GreenbusJi, Wcathersfield, 
Halifax, West. 


Hardwick, South. 


Hartford, West. 
Hartland, North. 
Highgate, East. 


Hudeville, Castleton, 
Houghtonville, Grafton. 
Jacksonville, Whittingham. 
Jefftrsonville, Cambridge. 



Jericho, Cent 
Jjower Watford. 
Lyndon, Centre. 
MeclianicsviUe., Mount Holly. 
Mclndoe's Falls, Barnet. 
Middlebury, East. 
Milton, West. 
Montpelier, East. 


Newbury, South. 
Orwell, Centre. 
Passumsic, Barnet. 
Perkinsville., Weathersfield. 
Post Mills, Thetford. 
Poultney, East. 

' West. 

Proctei-sville, Cavendish. 
Quechee Village, Hartford. 
Randolph, East. 


Reading, South. 
Roxhary, East. 
Rutland, West. 

St. Johnsbury, East. 
St. Johnsbury, Centre. 
Suxe^s Mills, Highgate. 

SdJton River, Rockingham. 
Shnftsbury, South. 
Sheldon, East. 
Simondsville, Andover. 
Snow^s Store, Pomfret. 
Springfield, North. 
Strafford, South. 
Swanton, West. 



Taftsville, Hartland. 
Topshara, West. 
Townshend, West. 
Troy, North. 

- Furnace. 

Tyson Furnace, Plymouth. 
Union Village, Thetfoi'd. 
AYalden, South. 
Wallingford. South. 
Wardsboro', North. 


Waterford, Lower. 
Wells River, Newbury. 
Westminster, West. 
Winooski, Colchester. 
Woodstock, South. 


Although this fourteenth State was not admitted into the Union until after 
the revolutionary contest was over, yet she vigorously resisted British oppres- 
sion. A range of mountains covered with spruce, hemlock, and other ever- 
greens, divides this State nearly in its centre ; hence its name ; and hence the 
epithet •' Green Mountain Boys," celebrated for their bravery in the war of 
independence. — See Mountains. 


This State is bounded north by Lower Canada, east by Connecticut River, 
Bouth by Massachusetts, and west by New York. Situated between 42° 44' 
and 45° north latitude, and 73° 16' and 71° 20' west longitude. 

Vermont is divided into fourteen counties, to wit : Bennington, Windham, 
Rutland, Windsor, Addison, Orange, Chittenden, Washington, Caledonia, 
Franklin, Orleans, Lamoille, Essex, and Grand Isle. — 3ee Population and Sta- 
tistical Tables. 


See Counties^ Towns, Mountains, Rivers, ^c. 


The government of Vermont consists of tlirec parts ; the legislative, the 
executive, and the judicial. 

The Supreme Lc<,n.shiture consists of a Senate and House of representa- 
tives, chosen annually by tlie freemen of the State, on the first Tuesday of 
September. The Senate consists of thirty members ; each county being 
entitled to at least one, and the remainder to be apportioned according to 
population. The House of Representatives is composed of one member from 
each town. The senators arc to be thirty years of age ; and the lieutenant- 
governor is ex officio president of the Senate. 

Tlie body so cliosen is called Tiik General Assembly of the State op 
Vermont. The General AssemUi/ meets annually, on the second Tuesday of 
October. They have power to choose their own officers, to meet on their own 
adjournments, to tenninate their sessions at pleasure; to enact laws, grant 
charters, to impeach state criminals, &c. And, in conjunction with the coun- 
cil, they annually elect the justices of the Supreme, County, and Probate 
Courts ; also the sheriffs, high bailiffs, justices of the peace, &c. ; and, when 
occasion requires, they elect majors and brigadier-generals. The General 
Assembly have full and ample legislative powers, but they cannot change the 

The supreme executive power of the State shall be exercised by the gover- 
nor, or, in case of his absence or disability, by the lieutenant-governor ; Avho 
shall have all the powers and perform all the duties vested in, and enjoined 
upon the govemor and council, by the eleventh and twenty-seventh sections of 
the second chapter [part the second] of the constitution, as at present estab- 
lished, excepting that he shall not sit as a judge in case of impeachment, nor 
grant reprieve, or pardon, in any such case ; nor shall he command the forces 
of the State in person in time of war, or insuiTcction, unless by the advice 
and consent of the senate ; and no longer than they shall approve thereof. 
The governor may have a secretaiy of civil and military affairs, to be by him 
appointed during pleasure, whose services he may at all times command : and 
for whose compensation provision shall be made by law. 

The General Assembly, in joint meeting Avith the governor and council, 
annually elect the judges, justices of the peace, sheriffs, high bailiffs, &c, 

The lieutenant-governor is lieutenant-general of the forces. 



The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court and Court of Chancery, 
a County Court in each county, consisting of one of the justices of tlie 
Supreme Court, and two assistant justices ; a Probate Court in each dis-. 
trict : and justices of the peace, Avho have a limited criminal and civil juris- 

The judges of probate appoint their own registers, and the sheriffs and 
high bailiffs appoint their ovn\ deputies. 

The several town clerks are registers of deeds of conveyance of lands in 
their respective towns ; and if there be no town clerk, the deeds shall be 
recorded in the county clerk's office. 

A council of thirteen censors is chosen by the people once in seven years, 
on the last "Wednesday of March, and meets on the first Wednesday of June 
following. Their duties are, to inquire if the constitution has been violated : 
if the legislature, &c., have perfonned their duty ; if the taxes have been justly 
levied and collected ; and if the laws have been obeyed. They may pass pub- 
lic censures ; order impeachments ; recommend the repeal of laws ; propose 
amendments in the constitution, and call conventions to act on them. Thdr 
power expires in one year after their election. 


Thomas Chittenden, 1791—1796. Isaac Tichenor, 1797—1806. Israel 
Smith, 1807. Isaac Tichenor, 1808. Jonas Galusha, 1809—1812. M. Chit- 
tenden, 1813, 1814. Jonas Galusha, 1815—1819. Eichard Skinner, 1820— 
1822. C. P. Van Ness, 1823—1825. Ezra Butler, 1826, 1827. Samuel C. 
Crafts, 1828—1830. William A. Palmer, 1831—1835, Silas H. Jenison, 
1836—1840. Charles Paine, 1841—1843. John Mattocks, 1844. William 
Slade, 1845, 1846. Horace Eaton, 1847. 


Samuel Knight, 1^91—1793. Isaac Tichenor, 1794, 1795. Nathaniel Chip- 
man, 1796. Israel Smith, 1797. Enoch Woodbridge, 1798— 1800. Jonathan 
Robinson, 1801— 1806. Royal Tyler, 1807—1812. Nathaniel Chipman, 1813, 
1814. Asa Aldis, 1815. Richard Skinner, 1816. Dudley Chase, 1817—- 
1820. C. P. Van Ness, 1821, 1822. Richard Skinner, 1823— 1828. Samuel 
Prentiss, 1829. Titus Hutchinson, 1830—1833. Charles K. Williams, 1834 
—1846. Stephen Royce, 1847. 



No. 1. — Windham, Bennington, and Rutland Counties. 

No. 2. — "Windsor and Orange Counties. 

No. 3. — Addison, Chittenden, Franklin, and Grand Isle Counties. 

No. 4. — Washington, Caledonia, Essex, Orleans, and Lamoille Counties. 

By Counties. 


State House. — We take pleasure in presenting to the public a well 
executed engraving of the Vermont State House, at Montpelier ; designed by 
A. B. Young, Esq., a native of New England, and executed under his imme- 
diate superintendence. 

The engraving represents a south-east front view of the building, which 
stan,ds on an elevated site, about 325 feet from State street, on which it fronts, 
and is alike beautiful in design and execution. The yard and grounds per- 
taining to it are large and spacious, and, in the manner they are laid out, give 
great importance to the building. Through the whole design, a chaste archi- 
tectural character is preserved, which, combined ^vith the convenient arrange- 
ment of the interior and the stability of its construction, renders this edifice 
equal, in eveiy respect, to any in New England, and probably to any in the 
United States. The building is in the form of a cross, showing in front a 
centre, 72 feet wide, and two wings, each 39 feet, making the whole length 
150 feet. The centre, including the portico, is 100 feet deep; the wings are 
50 feet deep. The six cob.imns of the portico are 6 feet in diameter at their 
base, and 36 feet high, supporting an entablature of classic proportions. The 
dome rises 36 feet above the ridge, making the whole height from the ground 
100 feet. The order of architecture used is the Grecian Doric, and is made 
to confoi-m to the peculiar arrangement necessary in this building. The walls, 
columns, cornices, &c., are of dark Ban-e granite, wrought in a superior man- 
ner ; the dome and roofs are covei'cd with copper. 

In the interior, the lower story contains an Entrance Hall, rooms for the 
Secretary of State, Treasurer, Auditor, and numerous committee rooms. The 
second, or principal story, contains a vestibule, and stairways, a Representa- 


tivcs Hall, 57 by 67 feet, with a lobby and galleries for spcctatoi'S ; a Senate 
Chamber, 30 by 44 feet, with lobby and gallery; a Governor's Room, 24 by 20 
feet, Avith an ante-room, and a room for his Secretary adjoining ; a Library 
Room, 18 by 36 feet ; rooms for the several officers of the Senate and Hotise 
of Representatives, and several committee rooms. The cost of this building, 
including all expenses, was about $132,100 ; of which the inhabitants of Mont- 
pelier paid $15,000. 

At the first session of the Legislature of Vermont, within this building, in 
October, 1838, the following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

" Resolved, by the General Assembly of the State of Vermont, that the 
thanks of this Legislature be presented to Ammi B. Young, Esq., as a testi- 
monial of their approbation of the taste, ability, fidelity, and perseverance, 
which he has manifested in the design and execution of the new capitol of this 
State ; which vnW abide as a lasting monument of the talents and taste of Mr. 
Young as an architect." 

State Prison. — The Vermont State Prison is located at Windsor. The 
first building for this pui-pose was commenced in 1808, and nearly completed 
in 1809. A second building for this purpose was erected in 1830. This 
building for the solitary confinement of prisoners, and other buildings located 
in a spacious yard, are well adapted for the purposes designed. The whole 
expenditures for these buildings was estimated at $47,000. In this prison, 
September 1, 1848, there were 52 prisoners in confinement; 51 males and 1 
female. This prison is well conducted, and its finances are in a prosperous 

Asylum for the Insane. — In the fall of 1834, Mrs. Anna Marsh, -widow 
of the late Dr. Perly Marsh, of Hinsdale, New Hampshire, left by will $10,000 
to found an Asylum for the Insane on the bank of the Connecticut, somewhere 
in Windham County, Vermont ; and in October of that year the Hon. Samuel 
Clark and John Holbrook, Epaphri Seymour and John C. Holbrook, Esqrs,, 
were incorporated as trustees of said institution, by an act of the legislature. 
In 1835, the legislature appropriated 810,000 in aid of the benevolent designs 
of the institution, and have since appropriated $6,000 more. 

In 1836, the trustees decided upon its location in Brattlcborough, on the 
place formerly occupied by Joseph Fesscnden, Esq., situated at a short dis- 
tance, in a north-westerly direction from the east village. The old mansion 
was at first enlarged and opened in December, 1836, for the reception of 
patients, with whom it became crowded in the course of about seven months ; 
and in 1838 another more spacious building was erected, adapted especially to 
the objects of the institution. 

The folloAving is a report of the trustees of this Institution, for the year 

" It is nearly twelve years since the Institution was first opened Thirteen 
hundred and twenty-three patients have been admitted, ten hundred and eleven 


discharged, and three hundred and twelve now remam. Of those discharged, 
five hundred and ninety-two have recovered. 

" Three hundred and four were remaining at the commencement of the 
past year. One hundred and fifty-six have been admitted, one hundred and 
forty-eight discharged, and three hundred and twelve remain in the Insti- 

" It has been a year of great prosperity. No serious accident nor epidenaic 
disease has occurred, and the patients have enjoyed a good degree of health. 

"It was foundry sad inconvenience, that the centre building, and especially 
those parts of it which were appropriated for cooking, washing, and the laun- 
dry, were altogether too small. This year we are making a large addition to 
the main building, without injuring its symmetiy or proportions. Additions 
are also making to those parts devoted to the accommodation of patients. 
They will probably be finished in a few weeks. We hope to receive funds from 
donations and other sources sufficient to defray the expenses of their erection, 
without being obliged to call on the State for its aid. 

" One hundred and fifty-eight patients have received their share of the State 
appropriation for the benefit of the insane poor. There were one hundred and 
twenty remaining at the commencement of the year, thirty-eight have been 
admitted, and forty discharged, leaving one hundred and eighteen in the Insti- 
-tution. Of those discharged, eighteen were recovered. 

" When it is considered that nearly all this class continue at home as long 
as they remain quiet, and that few are sent by the towns except those who are 
very troublesome, the care of such must be unusually great. Many are sent 
whose insanity is accompanied by some fatal disease, such as consumption and 
like disorders, to be taken care of in the last few months, and sometimes the 
last few weeks of their lives. These latter cases should not be sent to the 
Asylum, as the design of the Institution is for the restoration of the insane, 
and not merely a hospital of the sick. They, however, have received all that 
kindness and attention which they so much required. 

" For the purpose of giving more exercise in the open air to such of our 
male patients as would be benefitted by agricultural pursuits, forty-five acres 
of cultivated land have been purchased the past year. The farm connected 
with the Institution is yearly increasing in the richness of its soil, and in the 
quantity of its products. The employment that is hereby given to our male 
patients is of great benefit in promoting their restoration. 

" The price of labor, and of provisions of every kind, has been so great the 
past year, that the trustees were apprehensive for the result. By reference to 
the table of expenditure and income of the Institution, we are gratified to learn 
the latter exceeds the former by $319 41, which is nearly equal to the bad 
debts for the same time. 

" In conclusion, the trustees would express their public commendation of 
the neatness, good order, and the kind and judicious management which has 
pervaded every part of the Institution, and recommend it to the continued 
patronage of the State, as worthy of their protection and care." 

Terms of Admission. To those of this State, two dollars per week for 



the first six months, and one dollar and seventy-five cents per week after- 

For those from other States, two dollars per week, or one hundred dollars 
per year, if the patient remain such a length of time. 

When the insanity is connected with epilepsy or paralysis, the terms are two 
dollars and fifty cents per week. 

No charge is made for damages in any case. 

Applications may be made to Dr. W. H. Rockwell, or to either of the Trus- 



of Brattleboro', 
of Burlington, 
of Rutland, 
of Caledonia, 
of St. Albans, 
of Vergennes, 
of Orange Co., 
of Woodstock, 
of Middlebury, 
of Bellows' Falls, 
of Manchester, 
of Newbury, 




























Bank of Orleans, 
Farmers' Bank, Orwell 
Farmers' and Me- 
chanics' Bank, Bur- 
Bank of Montpelier, 
Bank of Poultncy, 
Black River Bank, 
Vermont B'k, Mont- I 
pelier, . . ( 
Brandon Bank,Bran- / 
don, . . f 














The Bennington County Mutual Fire Insurance Office is located at Ar- 
lington ; the Orange County Office in Chelsea ; the Rutland and Addison 
County Office in Brandon ; the Windham County Office in Newfane ; and 
the Windsor County Office at Woodstock. 

The Office of the Vermont Fire Insurance Company is located at Mont- 
pelier. This Office insures about ten millions value of property. The annual 
losses are about twenty-nine thousand dollars. 


There is, perhaps, no section of country in the world where the agricultural 
and manufacturing interests are more closely united than in Vermont. In 
this State are found a surface and soil every way adapted to the growth of 


all the necessaries .md luxuries proper for the use of man, and an hydraulic 
power sufficient to turn every manufacturing wheel in Europe. Let waving 
grain fields and verdant pastures take the phxce of tHe immense forests, which 
now spread over nearly three fourths of the surface of the State : and let the 
delightful streams which everywhere rush in crystal ton-ents down the moun- 
tains and through the valleys, be appropriated to the manufacture of those 
articles which now are supplied, in a great degree, by the labor of foreign 
paupers, and at a loss to the country of vast sums, which good policy re- 
quires should be kept at home, to reward the labors and industrial habits of 
the people, and to place the independence of the country on a more sure foun- 

Vermont possesses ores and minerals of much value, and in great variety 
and abundance ; and its tieautiful white and variegated marble forms the basis 
of its hills. This marble, which was formerly transported to our seaports at 
the slow pace of twenty miles a datj, can now pass to the ocean at the rate of 
twenty miles an hour. So far as Vermont is concerned, her forests laugh at 
all revenue laws on sugar. 

In an address delivered by Henry Stevens, Esq., of Barnet, at the Annual 
Fair before the Agricultural Society of Orange County, held at Chelsea, Sep- 
tember 27, 1848, much good sense and sound judgment was displayed, in 
regard to the internal policy of the State with respect to manufactures. 

We give a few of Mr. Stevens' remarks, and would cheerfully copy the 
whole address, did our limits permit : 

" Vermont is termed an agricultural State. Our territoiy is limited and 
mountainous. Only about one-fifth of the territory of Vermont is yet cleared 
of the forest. Yet I claim that when we take into consideration the number 
of acres of improved land, its appraised value, number of inhabitants em- 
ployed in agriculture, amount of production, we far surpass any other State in 
the American Union. I refer you to the census of 1840, and to our annual 
Grand List." # * * 

"The agi-icultural productions of industry of Vermont, by pursuing a 
proper policy, might with ease be doubled in ten years. Our young men 
must clear one million of acres of our forest lands and bring it under cultiva- 
tion. In so doing, all matters considered, our products of industry would be 
more than doubled." =* # * 

" It has long since become a proverb, that Vermont is the back bone — the 
hip — the shoulder — the kidney and pluck of New England. Vermont has 
pursued a policy materially different from that of any other State. So 
much so, that it has become a proverb that Liberty delights to dwell among 
her mountains — the Star that never sets." * * * 

" As a people, we have from the time our fathers declared the New Hamp- 
shire Grants a free and independent State — 15th January, 1777 — pursued 
this policy. It was the pursuing of this policy that enabled our fathers to 
meet the expenses of the revolutionary war — to redeem the then paper issues 
at par ; and ours was the only State that ever did redeem their paper issues 
even at a discount of forty dollars for one. Not a single bill of purchase of 


woollen blankets or woollen gannents, out of the State, for our brave soldiers 
during the rcAolutionary war, has yet been discovered." * * * 

"I admit, gentlemen, in honor of your fathers, that they cleared the land, 
sowed, planted, and harvested the crops. Who but your mothers manufac- 
tured the flax and wool into cloth — by hand cards, linen, and woollen wheels, 
and hand looms ? It then became a proverb in Vermont, that the woman 
who manufactured for her own household, and one piece of goods for 
sale, did more to retain the solid coin in the State, than all tlie political 
financiers." =* * * 

"From the census of 1810, we learn that there was manufactured in this 
State 1,207,976 yards of woollen cloth, 1,859,931 yards of linen cloth, 131,326 
yards of cotton cloth, 191,426 yards of mixed cloth. There was in this State 
14,801 looms, weaving on an average 240 yards each, or 3,552,240 yards. 
Spinning wheels, 67,756, spinning on an average 70 skeins each, or 4,742,920 
skeins." * * * 

"The county of Orange, at that time, produced 91,100 pounds of wool — 
made 93,707 yards of woollen cloth, and 40,810 yards of mixed cloth — of 
linen cloth 125,763 yards, and of cotton cloth 15,857 yards — in the whole 
276,237 yards." * * * 

" Had we sufficient machinery of the most perfect kind in the State, we 
could compete with any portions of our country. The manufacturing of our 
wool for our own supply, would more than treble the value of our wool in the 
hands of the citizens of this State. It would offer an opportunity for those 
of our citizens who are now abroad, employed in the manufacturing business, 
to return with the skill they have become masters of, and greatly to the inte- 
rest of the State. To multiply our flocks for no other pui-pose but to exchange 
their fleeces for the manufactured article on the sea-board, is a policy which, if 
pursued, will bring poverty to the door of every husbandman," * * * 

"I have to say, that as an individual I have become satisfied that there is a 
manifest impropriety in boasting of our liberty, of the independence of our 
State or country, so long as we exchange the raw material for the manufac- 
tured articles which we ai-e capable of manufacturing ourselves." * * * 

"It is impossible for a farmer — a freeman of Vennont, to speak of our 
liberties, of our independence, as being only upon parchment, until our laws 
give full employment to the artizan, mechanic, and manufticturer, in con- 
verting the raw material, that we as fanners create, into necessary manufac- 
tured articles equal to a full supply — then, and not till then, can we talk of 
our liberties, of our independence, as being a reality." * * * 

"An agricultural community or commonwealth, dependent upon sister 
States, or foreign governments, for food and necessary clothing, are in a mea- 
sure slaves." . * * * 

In the descriptions of to-wns and Statistical Tables in this volume- will be 
found limited, though as full accounts of the products of the soil and manu- 
fiictures of the State, as can at present be given. 



All the commerce connected with navigation belonging to this State, is 
found on Lake Champlain. Burlington is the principal port in Vermont. 

In the year ending the 30th of June, 1847, there were 268 vessels cleared in 
Vermont ; tonnage, 72,064 ; crcAvs, 7,672 men and 7 boys. Total amount of 
American tonnage on the Lake, in Vermont, 2,560 tons. Total amount of 
imports in Vermont, 239,641 tons. Total amount of American and foreign 
produce exported from Vermont, $514,298. All the exports and imports 
were in American vessels. The total tonnage of the Lake, including that of 
New York, was 7,305 tons. 

See Lake Champlain. 


By the Treasurer's Report on State Finances, dated September 1, 1848, it 
appears that " The standing of the State finances, at this date, are as follows : 

Balance in the Treasury, $3,659 40 

Taxes not collected, 34,215 03 

Notes and interest due the State, on account of the late 

School Fund, 6,746 30 

$44,618 73 

The State is indebted to the Safety Fund Banks, . . $35,883 22 

Interest on same, 2,152 98 

Salaries falling due October 1, 1848 : — 

Judges Supreme Court, $3,281 08 

Other officers, 1,108 33 3,281 08 

Due counties, for money received from pedler's li- 
censes, under present law, 1,790 00 

Due Bank of Brattleboro', loan to pay annual appro- 
priation to the Asylum, 5,000 00 

$48,107 28 




By the Report of the State Commissioner on Common Scnools, it appears 
that, in 1848, there were in Vermont 2,616 school districts, with about thirty- 
seven scliolars in each district between the ages of four and eighteen years ; 
that the cost for teaching amounted to about fifty dollars annually for each 
district, and about the same sum for other expenses. 

This gives schoolage to about 100,000 youth of both sexes, at an annual 
cost of not less than two hundred and sixty thousand dollars. 


MiDDLEBURT COLLEGE. — Middlcbury College was incorporated in 1800. 
It is pleasantly situated, on ground elevated 342 feet above Lake Champlain, 
and is a respectable seminary. The funds of the College are not large, having 
been formed solely from individual grants. There are two college buildings, 
one of wood, three stories high, containing a chapel and twenty rooms for 
students ; the other, a spacious edifice of stone, 108 feet by 40, four stories 
high, containing 48 rooms for students. The college library contains about 
8,000 volumes ; — students about 50 ; whole number that has been gradua- 
ted, 862. The philosophical apparatus is tolerably complete. The board 
of trustees, styled " The President and Fellows of Middlebury College," is 
not limited as to number. The executive government is composed of a presi- 
dent, five professors, and one tutor. The commencement is held on the third 
Wednesday in August. Vacations : — From , commencement, four weeks ; 
from last Wednesday in November, one week ; from second Wednesday in 
February, two weeks ; and from third Wednesday in May, two weeks. 

Succession of Presidents. 
Aceessus, Exitua. 

1800, Rev. Jeremiah Atwater, D. D., 1809. 

1810, Rev. Henry Davis, D. D., 1817. 

1818, Rev. Joshua Bates, D.D., ....... 1840. 

1841, Rev. Benjamin Labaree, D. D., 

University op Vermont. — The University of Vermont was incor- 
porated and established at Burlington, in 1791, but it did not go into operation 
till 1800. It is finely situated on the east side of the village, a mile distant 
from Lake Champlain, on ground elevated 245 feet above the surface of the 
water, and commands an extensive and delightful prospect, embracing a view 
of the lake, with the high mountains beyond on the west, and the Green Moun- 


tains on the east. A large college edifice of brick, which was completed in 
1801, was consumed by fire in 1824; since which time three brick edifices 
have been erected, two of them containing rooms for students, the other con- 
taining a chapel, and other public rooms. Its oflScers are, a president, a pro- 
fessor of intellectual and moral philosophy, a professor of mathematics and 
natural philosoi)hy, a professor of the learned languages, and a tutor. 

Commencement on the third Wednesday in August. Vacations: — From 
commencement, four weeks, and from the first Wednesday in January, eight 
weeks. Alumni, 1848, 460. Present number of students, about 120. 

Succession of Presidents. 

Accessus. Exitus, 

1800, Rev. Daniel C. Saunders, D. D., 1814. 

1816, Rev. Samcel Austin, D. D., 1821. 

1822, Rev. Daniel Haskell. M. A., 1824. 

1824 Rev. Willard Preston, M. A., 1826. 

1826, Rev. James Marsh, D. D., lS3a 

1834, Rev. John Wheeler, D. D., 


The State of Vei-mont contains fourteen counties. Each county comprises 
one or more probate districts. The Judges of Probate are appointed annually 
by the Legislature ; they hold their courts at such times and places, within 
their districts, as seems to them most proper. The Registers of Probate reside 
in their own districts, and are appointed by the i-espective District Judges. 
The following are the names of the Probate Districts within the State : — 

Addison Co. — Addison and New Haven Districts. 

Bennington Co. — Bennington and Manchester Districts. 

Caledonia Co. — Caledonia District. 

Chittenden Co. — Chittenden District. » 

Essex Co. — Essex District. 

Franklin Co. — Franklin District. 

Grand Isle Co. — Grand Isle District. 

Lamoille Co. — Lamoille District. 

Orange Co. — Randolph and Bradford Districts. 

Orleans Co. — Orleans District. 

Rutland Co. — Rutland and Fair Haven Districts. 

Washington Co. — Washington District. 

Windham Co. — Marlboro' and Westminster Districts. 

Windsor Co. — Windsor and Hartford Districts. 



The public spirit of the " Green Mountain Boys" will not suffer any State 
in the union to rival them in its patronage to the Monakch Carrier, in its 
successful efforts in cutting the ties of distance between oceans and inland 

Besides the Passumpsic, Central, Northern, Southern, and Connecticut River 
Railroads, and others, the following have recently been chartered. 

Woodstock Railroad. — Incorporated 1847. From Woodstock to some 
point on the Central Railroad. About twelve miles. 

Black River Railroad. — Incorpox-ated 1847. From Perkinsville, in 
Weathersfield, through Springfield, down Connecticut River, to meet the Sul- 
livan Railroad in New Hampshire. 

Rutland and Washington Railroad. — Incorporated 1847. From 
Rutland, through the towns of Ira, Castleton, and Fair Haven, or Poultney, to 
some point on the west side of the State, to meet the Saratoga and Washing- 
ton Railroad in the State of New York. 

Union Railroad. — Incoi-porated 1847. From Montpelier, through Barre, 
to some point in the town of Bradford, as said Company may "designate; also 
through the said to-WTi of Ban-e, thence through the Gulf, so called, in Wil- 
liamstown, to some point in the town of Royalton, as said Company may 
designate, or either of said routes. 

Connecticut River, Brattleboro', and Fitchburg Railroad. — 
Incorporated 1847. 

Rutland AND Whitehall Railroad. — Incorporated 1848. This road 
branches off at or near Castleton, and passes to Whitehall, N. Y. 

Danville and Passumpsic Railroad. — IncorjDorated 1848. From 
Danville Green to meet the Connecticut and Passumpsic River Railroads, in 
. the town of Bamet. 

Vermont Valley Railroad. — Incorporated 1848. From Brattleboro' 
to Bellows' Falls, to connect with the Rutland and Burlington Railroad, and 
with the Sullivan, in New Hampshire. In case the Sullivan Railroad Co. 
refuse this connection, this railroad is permitted to pass up the west side of 
Connecticut River, to meet the Central Railroad at Windsor. 

Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad. — Incorporated 1848. This 
Railroad is permitted to pass through this State to the boundary of Canada, 
there to connect vnth the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Raih-oad to Montreal. 


With the exceptions mentioned below, the militia of Vermont consists of all 
the able-bodied white male citizens of the State, between the age of eighteen 
and forty-five years. The exemptions from military service embrace ministers 
of the gospel, commissioned officers who have been honorably discharged, and 

MILITIA., 197 

such .IS may be so discharged after having served as commissioned officers for 
a period of five years, members of fire companies, to the number of twenty to 
each engine, fiiculties and students of colleges and academies, judges of the 
supreme, county, and probate courts, county clerks, registers of probate, sheriffs, 
deputy sheriffs, high bailiffs, and constables, Quakers, physicians, stated school- 
masters, ferrymen, and millers. 

The whole military force of the State, according to the return of the adju- 
tant and inspector general for 1840, was'26,304, including officers and private 
soldiers. This force, of which the governor is commander in chief, is divided 
into three divisions, with a major general to each division. Each division is 
divided into three brigades, with a brigadier general to each. Each brigade is 
divided into from two to four regiments, and each regiment is designed to 
consist of ten companies, of 100 men in each. Each company is commanded 
by a captain and two lieutenants; each regiment by a colonel, lieutenant- 
colonel, and major ; each brigade by a brigadier general, a brigade inspector, a 
quartermaster, and one aid-de-camp ; each division by a major general, a 
division inspector, a quartermaster, and two aids-de-camp ; and the whole 
by the governor, as captain general, an adjutant and inspector general, a quar- 
termaster general, and two aids-de-camp. The adjutant and inspector gene- 
ral, and the quartei*master general, are appointed by the governor. The 
major generals and brigadier generals are appointed by the legislature ; the 
colonels, lieutenant colonels, and majors, are elected by the captains and lieu- 
tenants of their respective regiments ; and the captains, lieutenants, and non- 
commissioned officers of each company, are elected by their respective com- 
panies. The militia of the State is at present divided into three divisions, nine 
brigades, twenty-eight regiments, including a rifle regiment, and tivo hundred and 
ninety companies. The regiments are numbered in regular progression from 
one up to twenty-eight. 

On the first Tuesday of June in each year, every company is called together 
for the purpose of inspection, drill, and discipline, and a return, of the name 
and equipments of each individual, made to the clerk of the town to which 
the company belongs ; and once in three years, between the 5th of September 
and the 3d of October, the militia of the State may be assembled, for review, 
inspection, and discipline, by regiment, or separate battalion, as the command- 
ant of brigade shall direct. The commissioned and non-commissioned officers 
and musicians of each regiment are required to rendezvous two days annually, 
in their uniforms, for the purpose of training and improvement in military 
discipline. The poll of each person belonging to the militia, who is returned 
fully equipped, is exempted from all taxes, excejit the highway tax ; and each 
officer, non-commissioned officer, and musician, is paid one dollar per day, and 
the adjutant and inspector-general three dollars per day, for attendance at 
regimental drill. 

The militia of Vermont, or Green Mountain Boys, as they have been more 
commonly denominated, have always been proverbial for their intrepidity and 
valor. During the revolutionary war they acted, in proportion to their nuna- 
bers, a very conspicuous and important part ; as the fields of Hubbardton and 




Bennington, and the surrender of Burgoyne, bear Mntness. And when our 
country was invaded during the last war with Great Britain, their previous 
reputation was fully sustained by the promptness and bravery with which they 
met the enemy at Plattsburgh, on the memorable 11th of September, 1814. 


"We copy from Mr. Thompson the following sensible remarks on the climate 
of Vermont: — 

"It has been said, though we do not vouch for its truth, that it was a 
maxim with the aborigines of this country, which had been handed down 
from time immemorial, that there would be thirty smoky days both in the 
spring and autumn of each year ; and their reliance upon the occurrence of 
that number in autumn was such, that they had no fears of winter setting in 
till the number was completed. This phenomenon occurred between the 
middle of October and the middle of December, but principally in November ; 
and it being usually attended by an almost perfect calm, and a high tempera- 
ture during the day, our ancestors, perhaps in allusion to the above maxim, 
gave it the name of Indian Summer. But it apjjears that, from the commence- 
ment of the settlement of the country, the Indian Summers have gradually 
become more and more irregular, and less strikingly marked in their charac- 
ter, until they have almost ceased to be noticed. Now upon the hypothesis 
advanced in the preceding articles, this is precisely what we should expect. 
When our ancestors arrived in this country, the whole continent was covered 
with one uninteiTupted luxuriant mantle of vegetation, and the amount of 
leaves, and other vegetable productions, which were then exposed to sponta- 
neous dissolution upon the surface of the ground, would be much greater than 
after the forests were cut down and the lands cultivated. Every portion of 
the countiy being equally shielded by the forest, the heat, though less intense, 
on account of the immense evaporation and other concun-ing causes, would 
be more uniformly distributed, and the changes of wind and weather would 
be less frequent, than after portions of the forest had been removed, and the 
atmosphere, over those portions, subjected to sudden expansions from the 
influence of the sun upon the exposed sm-face of the ground. It is very generally 
believed that our -winds are more variable, our weather more subject to sudden 
changes, our annual amount of snow less, and our mean annual temperature 
higher, than when the settlement of the country was commenced. And 
causes, which would produce these changes, would, we believe, be sufficient to 
destroy, in a great measure, the peculiar features of our Indian Summers. 
The variableness of the winds, occasioned by cutting down large portions of 
the forests, would of itself be sufficient to scatter and precipitate those brood- 
ing oceans of smoke, and prevent the long continuance of those seasons of 
dark and solemn stillness, which were, in ages that are past, the unerring har- 
bingers of long and dreary winters and deluges of snow." 

CAVES. 199 


There are a number of caves in Vermont worthy the inspection of the 
curious, many of which are described under the towns where they exist. 
Those of Clarendon, Danby, and Plymouth, are the largest ; the two former 
may be found in pages 49 and 53, the latter is thus described by Mr. Thomp- 
son : 

" The Plymouth caves are situated at the base of a considerable mountain, 
on the south-west side of Black River, and about fifty rods from that stream. 
They are excavations among the lime rock, which have evidently been made 
by running water. The principal cave was discoA-ered about the 1st of July, 
1818, and on the 10th of that month was thoroughly explored. The passage 
into this cavern is nearly perpendicular, about the size of a common well, and 
ten feet in depth. This leads into the first room, which is of an oval form, 
thirty feet long, twenty feet wide, and its greatest height about fifteen feet. It 
appears as if partly filled up with loose stones, which had been thrown in at 
the mouth of the cave. From this to the second room is a broad sloping 
passage. This room is a little more than half as large as the first. The 
bottom of it is the lowest part of the cave, being about twenty-five feet below 
the surface of the groxmd, and is composed principally of loose sand, while 
the bottoms of all the other rooms are chiefly rocks and stones. The passage 
into the third room is four feet wide and five high, and the room is fourteen 
feet long, eight -wide, and seven high. The fourth room is thirty feet long, 
twelve wide, and eighteen high ; and the rocks, which form the sides, incline 
towards each other, and meet at the top like the ridge of a house. The fifth 
room, very much resembling an oven in shape, is ten feet long, seven wide, 
and four high, and the passage into it from the third room is barely sufficient 
to admit a person to crawl in. At the top of this room is a conical hole, ten 
inches across at the base, and extending two feet into the rock. From the 
north side of the second room are two openings, leading to the sixth and 
seventh, which are connected together, and each about fifteen feet long, seven 
wide, and five high. From the seventh room is a narrow passage, which 
extends northei-ly fifteen or sixteen feet into the rocks, and there appears to 
terminate. "When discovered, the roof and sides of this cavern were beauti- 
fully ornamented with stalactites, and the bottom with con-esponding stalag- 
mites, but most of these have been rudely bi-oken off" and carried away by the 
numerous visiters. The temperature, both in winter and summer, varies little 
from 44.^°, which is about the mean temperature of the climate of Vermont , 
in that latitude. A few rods to the westward of this cavern there is said to 
be another, which is about two thirds as large." 




Article 1. 

That all men are bom equally free and independent, and have certain 
natural, inherent, and unalienable rights, amongst which are enjoying and 
defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and 
pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety : therefore, no male person bom 
in this country, or brought from over sea, ought to be holden by law to serve 
any person as a servant, slave, or apprentice, after he arrives to the age of 
twenty-one years, nor female, in like manner, after she arrives to the age of 
eighteen years, unless they are bound by their own consent, after they arrive 
to such age, or bound by the law for the payment of debts, damages, fines^ 
costs, or the like. 

Article 2. 

That private property ought to be subservient to public uses when necessitj 
requires it ; nevertheless, when any person's pioperty is taken for the use of 
the public, the owner ought to receive an equivalent in money. 

Article 3. 

That all men have a natural and unalienable right to worship Almighty 
God according to the dictates of their own consciences and understandings, as 
in their opinion shall be regulated by the Word of God : and that no man 
ought to, or of right can, be compelled to attend any religious worship, or 
erect or support any place of worship, or maintain any minister, contrary to 
the dictates of his conscience; nor can any man be justly deprived or abridged 
of any civil right as a citizen, on account of his religious sentiments or pecu- 
liar mode of religious worship : and that no authority can or ought to be 
vested in, or assumed by, any power whatever, that shall in any case interfere 
with, or in any manner control, the rights of conscience in the free exercise 
of religious worship. Nevertheless, every sect or denomination of Christiana 
ought to observe the Sabbath, or Lord's Day, and keep up some sort of reli- 
gious worship, which to them shall seem most agreeable to the revealed will 

Article 4. 

Every person within this State ought to find a certain remedy, by having 
recourse to the laws, for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his 


person, property, or character : he ought to obtain right and justice freely, and 
without being obliged to purchase it ; completely, and without any denial 5 
promptly, and without delay ; conformably to the law. 

Akticle 5. 

That the people of this State, by their legal representatives, have the sole 
inherent, and exclusive right of governing and regulating the internal police 
of the same. 

Akticle 6. 

That all power being originally inherent in, and consequently derived from, 
the people, therefore, all officers of government, whether legislative or execu- 
tive, are their trustees and servants, and at all times, in a legal way, account- 
able to them. 

Article 7. 

That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, pro- 
tection, and security of the people, nation, or community, and not for the 
particular emolument or advantage of any single man, family, or set of men, 
who are a part only of that community ; and that the community hath an 
indubitable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to reform or alter government, 
in such manner as shall be, by that community, judged most conducive to the 
public weal. 

Article 8. 

That all elections ought to be free and without corruption, and that all free- 
men, having a sufficient evidence, common interest with, and attachment to 
the community, have a right to elect officers, and be elected into office, agree- 
ably to the regulations made in this constitution. 

Article 9. 

That every member of society hath a right to be protected in the enjoyment 
of life, liberty, and property, and therefore is bound to contribute his propor- 
tion towards the expense of that protection, and yield his personal service, 
when necessary, or an equivalent thereto ; but no part of any person's pro- 
perty can be justly taken from him, or applied to public uses, without his 
consent, or that of the representative body of freemen ; nor can any man, 
who is conscientiously scrupulous of bearing anns, be justly compelled thereto, 
if he will pay such equivalent ; nor are the people bound by any law but such 
as they have in like manner assented to, for their common good ; and previous 
to any law being made to raise a tax, the purpose for which it is to be raised 
ought to appear evident to the legislature to be of more service to the commu- 
nity than the money would be if not collected. 

Article 10. 
That, in all prosecutions for criminal offences, a person hath a right to be 
heard by himself and his counsel ; to demand the cause and nature of his 


accusation ; to be confronted with tne witnesses ; to call for evidence in his 
favor, and a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of his country ; without 
the unanimous consent of which jury, he cannot be found guilty; nor can he 
be compelled to give evidence against himself; nor can any person be justly 
deprived of his liberty, except by the laws of the land, or the judgment of 
his peers. 

Article 11. 

That the people have a right to hold themselves, their houses, papers, and 
possessions, free from search or seizure ; and, therefore, warrants without oath 
or affirmation first made, affording siifficient foundation for them, and whereby 
any officer or messenger may be commanded or required to search suspected 
places ; or to seize any person or persons, his, her, or their property, not parti- 
cularly described, are contrary to that right, and ought not to be granted. 

Article 12. 

That when an issue in fact, proper for the cognizance of a jury, is joined 
in a court of law, the parties have a right to trial by jury, which ought to be 
held sacred. 

Article 13. 

That the people have a right to a freedom of speech, and of writing and 
publishing their sentiments, concerning the transactions of government, and 
therefore the freedom of the press ought not to be restrained. 

Article 14. 

The freedom of deliberation, speech, and debate, in the legislature, is so 
essential to the rights of the people, that it cannot be the foundation of any 
accusation, or prosecution, action, or complaint, in any other court or place 

' ' Article 15. 

"TThe power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, ought never to be 
exercised but by the legislature, or by authority derived from it, to be exer- 
cised in such parti^lar cases as this constitution, or the legislature, shall pro- 
vide for. 

Article 16. 

That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves 
and the State ; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to 
liberty, they ought not to be kept up : and that the military should be kept 
under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. 

Article 17. 
That no person in this State can, in any case, be subjected to law martial, 
OT to any penalties or pains by virtue of that law, except those employed in 
the army, and the militia in actual service. 


Article 18. 

The frequent rccuiTence to fundamental principles, and firm adherence 
to justice, moderation, temperance, industry, and frugality, are absolutely ne- 
cessary to preserve the blessings of liberty, and keep government free ; the 
people ought, therefore, to pay particular attention to these points, in the choice 
of officers and representatives, and have a right, in a legal way, to exact a due 
and constant regard to them, from their legislators and magisti*ates, in making 
and executing such laws as are necessary for the good government of the 

Article 19. 

That all people have a natural and inherent right to emigrate from one 
State to another that will receive them. 

Article 20. 

That the people have a right to assemble together to consult for their com- 
mon good : to instruct their representatives : and apply to the legislature for 
redress of grievances by address, petition, or remonstrance. 

Article 21, 

That no person shall be liable to be transported out of this State for trial 
of anv offence committed within the same. 


Plan or Form of Government. 

4 1. The Commonwealth or State of Vermont shall be governed hereafter 
by a governor or lieutenant-governor, council, and an assembly of the rejM^- 
sentatives of the freemen of the same, in manner and form follo\ving : 

4 2. The supreme legislative power shall be vested in a house of representa- 
tives of the freemen of the Commonwealth or State of Vermont. 

4 3. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a governor, or, in hi3 
absence, a lieutenant governor, and council. 

§ 4. Courts of justice shall be maintained in every county in this State, and 
also in new counties, when formed, which courts shall be open for the trial of 
all causes proper for their cognizance ; and justice shall be therein impar- 
tially administered, without conniption or unnecessary delay. The judges of 
the supreme court shall be justices of the peace throughout the State ; and 
the several judges of the county courts, in their respective counties, by virtue 
of their office, except in the trial of such causes as may be appealed to the 
count}' court. 

4 5. A future legislature may, when they shall conceive the same to be 
expedient and necessary, erect a court of chancery, with such powers as are 
usually exercised by that court, or as shall appear for the interest of the Com- 


monwealth : Provided they do not constitute themselves the judges of the 
said court. 

§ 6. The legislative, executive, and judiciary departments shall be separate 
and distinct, so that neither exercise the powers properly belonging to the 
other. , 

§ 7. In order that the freemen of this State might enjoy the benefit of elec- 
tion, as equally as may be, each toAN-n within this State, that consists or may- 
consist of eighty taxable inhabitants within one septenary, or seven years 
next after the establishing this constitution, may hold elections therein, and 
choose each two representatives ; and each other inhabited towm in this State 
may, in like manner, choose each one representative to represent them in 
general assembly, during the said septenary or seven years ; and after that, 
each inhabited town may, in like manner, hold such election, and choose each 
one representative, forever thereafter. 

§ 8. The house of representatives of the freemen of this State shall consist 
of persons most noted for wisdom and virtue, to be chosen by ballot, by the 
freemen of every town in this State, respectively, on the first Tuesday in Sep- 
tember annually forever. 

§ 9. The representatives so chosen, a majority of whom shall constitute a 
quorum for transacting any other business than raising a State tax, for which 
two thirds of the members elected shall be present, shall meet on the second 
Thursday of the succeeding October, and shall be styled The General Assembly 
of the State of Vermont : they shall have power to choose their speaker, secre- 
tary of state, their clerk, and other necessary officers of the house — sit on 
their own adjournments — prepare bills, and enact them into laws — judge of 
the elections and qualifications of their owti members : they may expel mem- 
bers, but not for causes known to their own constituents antecedent to their 
own elections : they may administer oaths and affirmations in matters depend- 
ing before them, redress grievances, impeach State criminals, grant charters 
of incorporation, constitute towns, boroughs, cities, and counties ; they may, 
annually, on their first session after theii- election, in conjunction with the 
council, or oftener if need be, elect judges of the supreme and several county 
and probate courts, sheriffs, and justices of the peace; and also with the 
council may elect major generals and brigadier generals, from time to time, 
as often as there shall be occasion ; and they shall have all other powers 
necessary for the legislature of a free and sovereign State : but they shall 
have no power to add to, alter, abolish, or infringe any part of this con- 

§ 10. The supreme executive council of this State shall consist of a gov- 
ernor, lieutenant governor, and twelve persons, chosen in the following manner, 
viz. : The freemen of each town shall, on the day of the election, for choosing 
representatives to attend the general assembly, bring in their votes for gov- 
ernor, with his name fairly written, to the constable, who shall seal them up, 
and write on them, votes for the governor, and deliver them to the representa- 
tives chosen to attend the general assembly ; and at the opening of the general 
assembly, there shall be a committee appointed out of the council and assem- 


bly, wbo, after being duly sworn to the faithful discharge of their trust, shall 
proceed to receive, sort, and count the votes for the governor, and declare the 
person who has the major part of tlie votes to be governor for the year ensuing. 
And if there be no choice made, then the council and general assembly, by 
their joint ballot, shall make choice of a governor. The lieutenant governor 
and treasurer shall be chosen in the manner above directed. And each freeman 
shall give in twelve votes, for twelve councillors, in the same manner, and 
the twelve highest in nomination shall serve for the ensuing year as coun- 

§ 11. The governor, and, in his absence, the lieutenant governor, with the 
council, a major part of Avhom, including the governor, or lieutenant governor, 
shall be a quorum to transact business, shall have power to commission all 
officers, and also to appoint officers, except where provision is, or shall be other- 
wise made by law, or this frame of government ; and shall supply every vacancy 
in any office, occasioned by death, or otherwise, until the office can be filled in 
the manner directed by law or this constitution. 

They are to correspond with other States, transact business with officers of 
government, civil and military, and to prepare such business as may appear to 
them necessary to lay before the general assembly. They shall sit as judges 
to hear and determine on impeachments, taking to their assistance, for advice 
only, the judges of the supreme court. And shall have power to grant par- 
dons, and remit fines, in all cases whatsoever, except in treason and murder ; 
in which they shall have power to grant reprieves, but not to pardon, until 
after the end of the next session of the assembly ; and except in cases of im- 
peachment, in which there shall be no remission or mitigation of punishment, 
but by act of legislation. 

They are also to take care that the laws be faithfully executed. They are 
to expedite the execution of such measures as may be resolved upon by the 
general assembly. And they may draw upon the treasury for such sums as 
may be appropriated by the house of representatives. They may also lay 
embargoes, or prohibit the exportation of any commodity, for any time not 
exceeding thirty days, in the recess of the house only. They may grant such 
licenses as shall be directed by law : and shall have power to call together the 
general assembly, when necessarv', before the day to which they shall stand 
adjourned. The governor shall be captain general and commander in chief 
of the forces of the State, but shall not command in person, except advised 
thereto by the council, and then only so long as they shall approve thereof. 
And the lieutenant governor shall, in virtue of his office, be lieutenant general 
of all the forces of the State. The governor, or lieutenant governor, and the 
council, shall meet at the time and place with the general assembly ; the 
lieutenant governor shall, during the presence of the commander in chief, 
vote and act as one of the council : and the governor, and, in his absence, 
the lieutenant governor, shall, by virtue of their offices, preside in council, 
and have a casting, but no other vote. Every member of the council shall 
be a justice of the peace, for the whole State, by virtue of his office. The 
governor and council shall have a secretary, and keep fair books of their 



proceedings, wherein any councillor may enter his dissent, with his reason to 
support it ; and the governor may appoint a secretaiy for himself and his 

§ 12. The representatives, having met and chosen their speaker and clerk, 
shall, each of them, before they proceed to business, take and subscribe, as 
well the oath or affii-mation of allegiance hereinafter directed, except where 
they shall produce certificates of their having heretofore taken and subscribed 
the same, as the following oath or affirmation, viz. : 

" You , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that, as a member of this as- 
sembly, you will not propose or assent to any bill, vote, or resolution, which 
shall appear to you injurious to the people, nor do or consent to any act or 
thing whatsoever, that shall have a tendency to lessen or abridge their rights 
and privileges, as declared by the constitution of this State ; but will, in all 
things, conduct yourself as a faithful, honest representative, and guardian of 
the people, according to the best of your judgment and abilities : {in case of an 
oath) so help you God. {And in case of an affinnatioti) under the pains and 
penalties of perjury." 

§ 1.3. The doors of the house in which the general assembly of this Com- 
monwealth shall sit, shall be open for the admission of all persons who behave 
decently, except only when the Avelfare of the State may require them to be 

§ 14. The votes and proceedings of the general assembly shall be printed, 
when one third of the members think it necessary, as soon as convenient after 
the end of each session, with the yeas and nays on any question, when required 
by any member, except where the vote shall be taken by ballot, in which case 
every member shall have a right to insert the reasons of his vote upon the 

§ 15. The style of the laws of this State, in future to be passed, shall be: 
It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of^the State of Vermont. 

§ 16. To the end that laws, before they are enacted, may be more maturely 
considered, and the inconvenience of hasty determinations, as much as possi- 
ble, prevented, all bills which originate in the assembh- shall be laid before the 
governor and council, for their revision and concurrence, or proposals of 
amendment ; who shall return the same to the assembly, with their proposals of 
amendment, if any, in writing ; and if the same are not agreed to by the assem- 
bly, it shall be in the power of the governor and council to suspend the passing 
of such bill until the next session of the legislature : Provided, that if the gov- 
ernor and council shall neglect or refuse to return any such bill to the assem- 
bly, with written proposals of amendment, within five days, or before the rising 
of the legislature, the same shall become a law. 

§ 17. No money shall be drawn oixt of the treasury, unless first appropriated 
by act of legislation. 

^18. No person shall be elected a representative until he has resided two 
years in this State ; the last of which shall be in the town for which he is 

^19. No member of the council or house of representatives shall, directly 


or indirectly, receive any fee or reward to bring forward or advocate any bill, 
petition, or other business to be transacted in the legislature ; or advocate any 
cause, as counsel, in either house of legislation, except when employed in be- 
half of the State. 

§ 20. No person ouglit, in any case, or in any time, to be declared guilty of 
treason or felony by the legislature. 

n ^21. Every man of the full age of twenty-one years, having resided in 
tliis State for the space of one whole year next before the election of repre- 
sentatives, ami is of a quiet and peaceable behavior, and will take the follow- 
ing oath or affirmation^ shall be entitled to all the privileges of a freeman of 
this State : 

"You solemnly swear (or affinn) that whenever you give your vote of 
suffrage touching any matter that concerns the State of Vermont, you will 
do it so as in your conscience you shall judge will most conduce to the best 
good of the same, as established by the constitution, without fear or favor of 
any man." 

\ 22. The inhabitants of this State shall be trained and armed for its defence, 
under such regulations, restrictions, and exceptions, as congress, agreeably to 
the constitution of the United States, and the legislature of this State, shall 
direct. The several companies of militia shall, as often as vacancies happen, 
elect their captain and other officers, and the captains and subalterns shall 
nominate and recommend the field officers of their respective regiments, who 
shall appoint their staff officers. 

^ 23. All commissions shall be in the name of the freemen of the State of 
Vermont, sealed with the State seal, signed by the governor, and in his absence 
the lieutenant governor, and attested by the secretary, which seal shall be kept 
by the govcrnor. 

§ 24. Every officer of state, whether judicial or executive, shall be liable to 
be impeached by the general assembly, either when in office or after his resig- 
nation or removal, for nial-administration. All impeachments shall be before 
the governor, or lieutenant governor, and council, who shall hear and deter- 
mine the same, and may award costs ^ and no trial or impeachment shall be a 
bar to a pi'osecution at law. 

§ 25. As every freeman, to preserve his independence, if without a sufficient 
estate, ought to have some profession, calling, trade, or farm, whereby he may 
honestly subsist, there can be no necessity for, nor use in, establishing offices 
©f profit, the usual effects of which are dependence and servility, unbecoming 
freemen, in the possessors or expectants, and faction, contention, and discord, 
among the people. But, if any man is called into public service, to the pre- 
judice of his private affairs, h€ has a right to a reasonable compensation \ 
and whenever an office, through increase of fees, or otherwise, becomes so 
profitable as to occasion many to apply for it, the profits ought to be lessened 
by the legislature. And if any officer shall wittingly and wilfully take 
greater fees than the law allows him, it shall ever after disqualify him from 
holding any office in this State, until he shall be restored by act of legis- 


^ 26. No person in tliis State shall be capable of holding or exercising more 
than one of the following offices at the same time, viz. : Governor, lieutenant 
governor, judge of tlie supreme court, treasurer of the State, member of the 
council, member of the general assembly, surveyor general, or sheriff. Nor 
shall any person, holding any office of profit or trust under the authority of 
congress, be eligible to any appointment in the legislature, or of holding any 
executive or judiciary office under this State. 

4 27. The treasurer of the State shall, before the governor and council, give 
sufficient security to the secretary of the State, in behalf of the general assem- 
bly ; and each high sheriff, before the first judge of the county court to the 
treasurer of their respective counties, previous to their respectively entering 
upon the execution of their offices, in such manner, and in sums, as shall be 
directed by the legislature. 

^ 28. The treasurer's accounts shall be annually audited, and a fair state- 
ment thereof laid before the general assembly at their session in October. 

§ 29. Evciy officer, whether judicial, executive, or military, in authority 
under this State, before he enters upon the execution of his office, shall take 
and subscribe the following oath or affirmation of allegiance to this State, un- 
less he shall produce evidence that he has before taken the same ; and also the 
following oath or affirmation of office, except military officers, and such as 
shall be exempted by the legislature : 

The oath or affii~niation of office. 
" You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that you will be true and faithful to 
the State of Vermont, and that you will not, directly or indirectly, do any act 
or thing injurious to the constitution or government thereof, as established by 
convention: [If an oath) so help you God. [If an affirmation) under the 
pains and penalties of perjury. 

The oath or affirmation of office. 

' You , do solemnly swear (or affirm) that you will faithfully exe- 
cute the office of for the of ; and will therein do equal 

right and justice to all men, to the best of your judgment and abilities, ac- 
cording to law : (If an oath) so help you God. (// an affirmation) under the 
pains and penalties of perjury. ' " 

§ 30. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor or lieutenant 
governor until he shall have resided in this State four years next preceding 
the day of his election. 

§ 31. Trials of issues, proper for the cognizance of a jury, in the supreme 
and county courts, shall be by jur^-, except where parties otherwise agree ; 
and great care ought to be taken to prevent corruption or partiality in the choice 
and return or appointment of juries. 

§ 32. All prosecutions shall commence, hy the authority of the State of Ver- 
mont ; all indictments shall conclude with these words : against the peace and 
dignity of the State. And all fines shall be proportioned to the offences. 

§ 33. The person of a debtor, where there is not strong presumption of 


fraud, shall not be continued in prison after delivering up and assigning over, 
bona Jide^ all his estate, real and personal, in possession, reversion, or remain- 
der, for the use of his creditors, in such manner as shall be hereafter regulated 
by law. And all prisoners, unless in execution or committed for capital 
offences, when the proof is evident or presumption great, shall be bailable 
by sufficient sureties ; nor shall excessive bail be exacted for bailable offences. 

§ 34. All elections, whether by the people or the legislature, shall be free 
and voluntary ; and any elector, who shall receive any gift or reward for his 
vote, in meat, drink, moneys, or otherwise, shall forfeit his right to elect at 
that time, and suffer such other penalty as the law shall direct ; and any per- 
son who shall, directly or indirectly, give, promise, or bestow any such re- 
wards, to be elected, shall thereby be rendered incapable to serve for the ensu- 
ing year, and be subject to such further punishment as a future legislature 
shall direct. 

§ 35. All deeds and conveyances of land shall be recorded in the town 
clerk's office, in their i-espective towns ; and for want thereof, in the county 
clerk's office of the same county. 

§ 36. The legislature shall regulate entails in such manner as to prevent 

4 37. To deter more effectually from the commission of crimes, by con- 
tinued visible punishments of long duration, and to make sanguinary punish- 
ments less necessary, means ought to be provided for punishing by hard labor 
those who shall be convicted of crimes not capital, whereby the criminal shall 
be employed for the benefit of the public, or for the reparation of injuries done 
to private persons : and all persons, at proper times, ought to be permitted to 
see them at their labor. 

§ 38. The estates of such persons as may destroy their own lives shall not 
for that offence be forfeited, but descend or ascend in the same manner as if 
such persons had died in a natural way. Nor shall any article, which shall 
accidentally occasion the death of any person, be henceforth deemed a deodand, 
or in any \vise forfeited, on account of such misfortune. 

§ 39. Every person of good character, who comes to settle in this State, 
having first taken an oath or affirmation of allegiance to the same, may pur- 
chase, or by other just means acquire, hold, and transfer land, or other real 
estate ; and, after one year's residence, shall be deemed a free denizen thereof, 
and entitled to all rights of a natural born subject of this State, except that he 
shall not be capable of being elected governor, lieutenant governor, treasurer, 
councillor, or representative in assembly, until after two years' residence. 

§ 40. The inhabitants of this State shall have liberty, in seasonable times, 
to hunt and fowl on the lands they hold, and on other lands not enclosed ; and 
in like manner to fish in all boatable and other waters, not private property, 
under proper regulations, to be hereafter made and provided by the general 

§ 41. Laws for the encouragement of virtue and prevention of vice and 
immorality, ought to be constantly kept in force, and duly executed ; and a 
competent number of schools ought to be maintained in each town, for the con- 



venient instruction of youth ; and one or more grammar schools to be incor- 
porated, and properly supported, in each county in this State. And all religious 
societies or bodies of men, that may be hereafter united or incorporated for the 
advancement of religion and learning, or for other pious and charitable pur- 
poses, shall be encouraged and protected in the enjoyment of the privileges, 
immunities, and estates, which they in justice ought to enjoy, under such regu- 
lations as the general assembly of this State shall direct. 

§ 42. The declaration of the political rights and privileges of the inhabitants 
of this State, is hereby declared to be a part of the constitution of this Common- 
wealth, and ought not to be violated on any pretence whatsoever. 

§ 43. In order that the freedom of this Commonwealth may be preserved 
inviolate forever, there shall be chosen, by ballot, by the freemen of this State, 
on the last "Wednesday in March, in the year one thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-nine, and on the last Wednesday in March, in every seven years there- 
after, thirteen persons, who shall be chosen in the same manner the council is 
chosen, except they shall not be out of the council or general assembly, to be 
called the council of censors ; who shall meet together on the first Wednesday 
in June next ensuing their election, the majority of whom shall be a quorum 
in every case, except as to calling a convention, in which, two thirds of the 
whole number elected shall agree, and whose duty it shall be to inquire whe- 
ther the constitution has been preserved inviolate in every part during the last 
septenary, including the year of their service, and whether the legislative and 
executive branches of government have performed their duty, as guardians of 
the people, or assumed to themselves, or exercised other or greater powers 
than they are entitled to by the constitution : They are also to inquire, whether 
the public taxes have been justly laid and collected in all parts of tlys Com- 
monwealth ; in what manner the public moneys have been disposed of; and 
whether the laws have been duly executed. For these purposes they shall 
have power to send for persons, papers, and records : they shall have authority 
to pass public censures, to order impeachments, and to recommend to the legis- 
lature the repealing such laws as shall appear to them to have been passed 
contrary to the principles of the constitution : These powers they shall 
continue to have for and during the space of one year from the day of their 
election, and no longer. The said council of censors shall also have power to 
call a convention, to meet within two years after their sitting, if there appears 
to them an absolute necessity of amending any article of this constitution, 
which may be defective : explaining such as may be thought not clearly ex- 
pressed : and of adding such as are necessary for the preservation of the rights 
and happiness of the people : but the articles to be amended, and the amend- 
ments proposed, and such articles as are proposed to be added or abolished, 
shall be promulgated at least six months before the day appointed for the 
election of such convention, for the previous consideration x>f the people, that 
they may have an opportunity of instructing their delegates on the subject. 
By order of Convention, July 9, 1793. 


Attest, Lewis R. Mobris, Secretary. 



Bennington Battle. — From an able address delivered before the Legis- 
lature at Montpelier, October 20th, 18-48, hj the Rev. James D. Butler, of 
Wells River, on the battle- of Bennington, we make a few extracts, which 
show the great importance of this battle to the interests of the country, and 
pay a just tribute to its heroes : 

•' The results of this victory can scarcely be overrated. It was much to cut 
off from Burgoync's army, in a single day, one sixth of its numbers, or more 
than a thousand of killed, wounded, and prisoners, — to capture their anns, 
artillery, and baggage, — to annihilate a detachment to the leader of which 
Burgoyne's words were : ' Always bear in mind that your corps is too valuable 
to let any considerable loss be hazarded.'' The moral effect of this success 
was heightened by various particulars. At Bennington, militia with scarcely 
a bayonet, — for the first time, I believe, — stormed intrenchments, — at Bun- 
ker Hill they had only defended them. Here, raw troops, many of whom had 
never seen a cannon, stormed a battery, ground to powder a coi-ps composed 
of Frazer's marksmen, or ' chosen men from all the regiments,' and German 
dragoons, veterans of the seven years' war, — ' the best I had of that nation,' 
says Burgoyne, or, as described by a Hessian, ' men of tried valor and enter- 
prise.' Moreover here was a victory gained by a beaten army over a success- 
ful one, — by one often beaten over one often successful. How could it fail to 
inspirit and inspire ? True it was a single star, but it was the first star which 
arose in a firmament hitherto the blackness of darkness. Henceforth Bur- 
goyne's honeymoon was over, and Hessian foi-ces were less dreaded than Hes- 
sian flies. 

" Let us further consider the results of this action. It was exactly what 
had been Washington's heart's desii-e, or rather it was twice a,s much as he 
had dared to hope, onward from the loss of Ticonderoga, for on the 22d of 
July he wrote to Schuyler : ' Could we be so happy as to cut off one of his 
detachments, supposing it should not exceed four, five, or six hundred men, it 
would inspirit the people and do away much of their present anxiety. In such 
an event they would lose sight of past misfortunes, fly to arms, and afford every 
aid in their power.' 

" The revolution wTought in Burgo}me's feelings is betrayed by the contrast 
between his letters just before and just after the expedition. In the former 
he writes to the leader of the corps sent against Vermont : ' Mount your 
dragoons, send me thirteen hundred horses, seize Bennington, cross the moun- 
tains to Rockingham and Brattlebo rough, try the affections of the country, 


take hostages, meet me a fortnight hence in Albany.' Four days after the 
battle he writes to England : ' The Hampshire Grants in particular, a country 
unpeopled and almost unknown in the last war, now abounds in the most 
active and rebellious race_of the continent, and hangs like a gathering storm 
upon my left.' Burgoyne was far from overrating the influence of Stark's 
success. Within three days thereafter, Schuyler wrote to Stark : ' The signal 
victory you have gained, and the severe loss the enemy have received, cannot 
fail of producing the most salutary results.' Within a week, a handbill was 
issued at Boston containing an account of Stark's triumph ; the news was 
there proclaimed by criers, and rung out from all the bells. Clinton wrote : 
' Since the affair at Bennington, not an Indian has been heard of; the scalp- 
ing has ceased ; indeed I do not apprehend any great danger from the future 
operations of Mr. Burgoyne.' Washington, writing Putnam, was high in 
hope that New England, following the great stroke struck by Stark, would 
entirely cnish Burgoyne ; and a rumor that Burgoyne was crushed, raised the 
siege of Fort Stanwix and broke his right wing. All this was within one 
week after Baum and Breymann were discomfited. In one day more a rumor 
was rife in New Hampshire that Burgoyne had been taken at Stillwater: 

' As the sun 
Ere he he risen, sometimes paints his image 
In the atmosphere, the shadows of great events 
Precede the events, and in to-day already walks to-morrow.' 

" Three weeks before the Hessian overthrow, Govenieur Morris wrote from 
Schuyler's camp : ' If a body of 3,000 men can be formed somewhere upon 
the New Hampshire Grants ; if General Washington can spare a reinforce- 
ment of 1,500 good troops ; if the governor discharge all of the militia in 
the highlands ; if he be put at the head of one third of the New York militia, 
and two hundred good riflemen sent into Tryon County, w^e may laugh at 
Messrs. Howe and Burgoyne.' None of the consummations wished for by 
these ifs came to pass, yet the day of Bennington, by enabling us to laugh at 
Burgoyne, accomplished what Morris had most at heart. That nothing less 
than this was among the many-sided utilities of that great day, is attested by 
many witnesses. It is the testimony of the Baroness Riedesel, then in the 
British camp, whose words are : ' This unfortunate event [Baum and Brey- 
mann's discomfiture] paralyzed at once our operations.' It is the testimony 
of contemporary jounials, in which we read of the victories at Bennington, 
as ' sowing the seed of all the laurels that Gates reaped during the cam- 
paign.' It is the testimony of Jefferson, who declares them ' the first link in 
the chain of successes which issued in the surrender of Saratoga.' 

" Students of our State history will always behold in this first success, the 
lone star which lit the way to the attacks under Warner and Herrick, at Lake 
George landing, and thus to the capture of the vessels in which Burgoyne 
might have escaped to Canada. Previous to these operations, the*achieve- 
ments of Stark emboldened Green Mountain rangers to infest or break up 
Burgoyne's communications with his depots of provisions, and thus for a 


whole month threw him into a chloroform stupefaction. That enterprising 
general was rearing an arch of conquest huge enough to darken all our land.. 
The repulse on the banks of the Walloomscoik, plucked out the crowning 
keystone from that well-nigh finished arch, so that the whole structure cracked, 
crumbled by piecemeal, tottered, and fell, a wreck of ruin, never to rise again. 
In tAvo months to a day, from that first reverse, Burgojiie's motto : ' This army 
must never retreat,^ was strangely interpreted, for we behold 

' The destroyer desolate, 
The victor overthro%Tii.' 

'One more such stroke,' said Washington, on hearing the tidings, 'one more 
such stroke, and we shall have no great cause for anxiety as to the future 
designs of Britain.'" 

The Rev. gentleman in his address gave the following interesting account 
of an interview with one of the veterans of this battle : 

" Ascertaining that a veteran of Bennington was still living some eight 
miles from my house in ^Yells River, I paid him a visit about a week ago. 
His name is Thomas Mellen, and though upwards of ninety-two years of age, 
he is so far from, being bald or bowed down, that you would think him in the 
Indian Summer of life. His dress was all of grey homespun, and he sat on a 
couch, the covering of which was sheepskins with the wool on. I will repeat 
his statements, as far as possible in his own Avords : 

" ' I enlisted,' said he, ' at Francestown, New Hampshire, in Colonel Stick- 
ney*s regiment, and Captain Clark's company, as soon as I learned that Stark 
would accept the command of the State troops. Six or seven others from the 
same town joined the army at the same time. We marched forthwith to 
Number Four, and stayed there a week. Meantime I received a horn of 
powder, and run two or three hundred bullets. I had brought my own gun. 
Then my company was sent on to Manchester. Soon after I went with a 
hundred others under Colonel Emei-son, down the valley of Otter Creek. On 
this excursion, we lived like lords on pigs and chickens in the houses of tories 
who had fled. When we returned to Manchester, bringing two hogsheads of 
West India rum, we heard that the Hessians were on their way to invade 
Vermont. Late in the afternoon of rainy Friday, we were ordered off for 
Bennington, in spite of rain, mud, and darkness. We pushed on all night, 
each making the best progress he could. About daybreak, I, wdth Lieutenant 
Miltimore, came near Bennington, and slept a little while on a hay-mow. When 
the barn-yard fowls waked us, we went for bread and milk to the sign of the 
Wolf and then hurried three miles west to Stark's main body. 

'• ' Stark and Warner rode up near the enemy to reconnoitre, were fired at 
with the cannon, and came galloping hack. Stark rode with shoulders bent 
forward, and cried out to his men : " Those rascals know that I am an officer ; 
don't you see they honor me with a big gun as a salute ? " We were marched 
round and round a circular hill till Ave Avere tired. Stark said it Avas to amuse 
the Germans. All the Avhile a cannonade Avas kept up upon us from their 
breastwork. It hurt nobody, and it lessened our fear of the great guns. 


After a while I was sent, with twelve others, to lie in ambush on a knoll a 
little nortli, and watch for toiies on their way to join Baura. Presently we 
saw six coming towards us, who. mistaking us for tories, came too near us to 
escape. "\Ye disarmed them and sent them, under a guard of three, to Stark. 
WHiile I sat on the hillock, I espied one Indian whom I thought I could kill, 
and more than once cocked my gun, but the orders were not to fire. He was 
cooking his dinner, and now and then shot at some of our people. 

" ' Between two and three o'clock the battle began. The Germans fired by 
platoons, and Avere soon hidden by smoke. Our men fired each on his own 
hook, aiming wherever they saw a flash. Few on our side had either bayonets 
or cartridges. At last I stole away from my post, and ran down to the battle. 
The first time I fired I put three balls into my gun. Before I had time to fire 
many rounds, our men rushed over the breastwork, but I and many others 
chased straggling Hessians in the woods. We pursued till we met Brcymann 
with eight hundred fresh troops and larger cannon, which opened a fire of 
grape shot. Some of the grape shot riddled a Virginia fence near me, one 
struck a small white oak tree behind which I stood. Though it hit higher 
than my head, I fled from the tree, thinking it might be aimed at again. We 
skirmishers ran back, till we met a large body of Stark's men, then faced 
about. I soon started for a brook I saw a few rods behind, for I had drank 
nothing all day, and should have died with thirst had I not chewed a bullet all 
the time. I had not gone a rod when I was stopped by an officer, sword 
in hand, and ready to cut me down as a runaway. On my complaining of 
thirst, he handed me his canteen, Avhich was full of rum. I drank and forgot 
my thirst. 

" ' But the enemy outflanked us, and I said to a comrade : " We must run 
or they will have us." He said : " I will have one more fire first." At that 
moment a major on a black horse rode along behind us, shouting : " Fight on, 
boys : reinforcements close by." While he was yet speaking, a grape shot 
went through his horse's head, and knocked out two teeth. It bled a good 
deal, but the major kept his seat, and spurred on to encourage others. In five 
minutes we saw Warner's men hurrying to help us. They opened right and 
left of us, and half of them attacked each flank of the enemy, and beat back 
those who were just closing around us. Stark's men now took heart and 
stood J:hcir ground. My gun-barrel was by this time too hot to hold, so I 
seized the musket of a dead Hessian, in which my bullets went down easier 
than in my own. Right in front were the cannon, and seeing an officer on 
horseback waving his sword to the artillerymen, I fired at him twice. His 
horse fell. He cut the traces of an artillery horse, mounted him, and rode off. 
I afterAvards heard that that officer was Major Skeene. 

'"Soon the Germans ran, and we followed. Many of them threw down 
their guns on the ground, or offered them to us, or kneeled, some in puddles 
of water. One said to me : " Wii- sind ein, hruder ! " I pushed him behind 
me and rushed on. All those near me did so. The enemy beat a parley, 
minded to give up, but our men did not understand it. I came to one wounded 
man, flat on the ground, crying icuter, or quarter. I snatched his sword out of 


his scabbard, and, while I ran on and fired, carried it in my mouth, thinking I 
might need it. The Germans fled by the road, and in a wood each side of it. 
Many of their scabbards caught in the brush, and held the fugitives till we 
seized them. We chased them till dark. Colonel Johnston, of Haverhill, 
wanted to chase them all night. Had we done so, we might have mastered 
them all, for they stopped within three miles of the battle-field. But Stark, 
saying he would run no risk of spoiling a good day's work, ordered a halt and 
return to quarters. 

" ' I was coming bacJc, when ordered by Stark himself, who knew me, as I 
had been one of his body guard in Canada, to help draw oiF a field piece. I 
told him I was worn out. His answer was : " Don't seem to disobey ; take 
hold, and if you can't hold out, slip away in the dark." Before we had drag- 
ged the gun far, Warner rode near us. Some one, pointing to a dead man by 
the wayside, said to him : " Your brother is killed." " Is it Jesse 1 " asked 
Warner 5 and when the answer was. Yes,, he jumped ofi^ his horse, stooped, 
and gazed in the dead man's face, and then rode away ^vithout saying a word. 
On my way back I got the belt of the Hessian, whose sword I had taken in 
the pursuit. I also found a barber's pack, but was obliged to give up all my 
findings till the booty was divided. To the best of my remembrance, my 
share was four dollars and some odd cents. One tory, with his left eye shot 
out, was led by me mounted on a horse who had also lost his left eye. It 
seems cruel now — it did not then. 

" ' My company lay down and slept in a cornfield near where we had fought ; 
each man having a hill of corn for a pillow. When I Avaked next morning, I 
was so beaten out that I could not get up till I had rolled about a good while. 
After breakfast I went to see them bury the dead. I saw thirteen tories, 
mostly shot through the head, buried in one hole. Not more than a rod from 
where I fought, we found Captain McClary dead, and stripped naked. We 
scraped a hole with sticks, and just covered him with earth. We saw many 
of the wounded who had lain out all night. Afterwards we went to Benning- 
ton and saw the prisoners paraded. They were drawn up in one long line ; 
the British foremost, then the Waldechers, next the Indians, and hindmost the 

" The old man from whose lips I wrote down the foregoing narrative has 
been a teetotaler for several years, though he was long an inebriate. When I 
surprised him in his sequestered abode, I found him busy with a book in large 
print, entitled ' The Consolations of Religion.' " 

The Address, from which we make the above extract, was on the occasion 
of the receipt of four pieces of cannon taken at this celebrated battle. The 
eloquent orator thus speaks of those trophies of war: 

" Two years ago, addressing the Vermont Historical Society in this capital, 
I was constrained to say : ' The cannon taken at Bennington, in defence of 
our frontier, lie unclaimed at Washington.' I have lived to see a better day, — 
to behold in my native State, yea in this place of honor, — as trophies, those 


death-dealing engines, which my grandsire, now in his grave, jeoparded hig 
life to wrest from his country's invaders. These trophies are ours by many 
titles. Ours, for Vermont blood shed in this battle, at Hubbardton, and else- 
where, — ours, for expenses not reimbursed us by the United States as were 
those of other States, — ours, for their profaning our territory with their hos- 
tile balls, — ours, for supplies furnished Stark's brigade, — ours, for the supe- 
rior skill of Warner and Herrick, who, alone of all the colonels, were named 
by Stark as his most eflScient colleagues. i 

" Where are the two six-pounders ? Who can tell 1 New Hampshire should 
Lave them, — she would have them this day, could she boast an antiquarian 
like him who has ferreted out these our cannon, a senator and a representa- 
tive like those who have pressed our claim upon Congress, — had they but a 
Stevens, an Upham, and a Collamer. 

" When I remember that Stark's donation to Vermont, the Hessian gun and 
bayonet, the broadsword, brass-barrelled drum, and grenadier's cap, were not 
hung up for monuments as in Massachusetts, but vilely thrown away, I am 
glad Congress have kept these trophies so long, lest they should have been 
minted into cents, or beaten into brass littles, by some grovelling utilitarian. 
If we lose these relics, may we be vouchsafed no more ! Some of you have 
marked how Massachusetts delights to honor the revolutionary trophy cannon, 
which are among her perpetual possessions, by enshrining them in the sky- 
climbing chamber of the Bunker Hill Monument. Others of you may have 
observed, that England glorifies with similar spoils the chief places of con- 
course in London. Let us, actuated by a congenial feeling, resolve that the 
time-honored relics so long lost, but now in the midst of us, shall go no more 
out from these walls, of which we have more reason to be proud than of any 
other edifice in our highland homes ; or that if they go hence, it shall be to 
grace a monument erected on the spot where the Hessian battery was formed, 
as the niche they were ordained to fill. Let them rouse an interest in our 
history, as the Swiss bone-houses and the tablets in German churches engraved 
with names of those who died for their father-land, rouse an interest in their 
history. Let them cause us to shudder at the curses of war, till we shall 
study the things which make for peace, and know war only by its trophies. 
Let them fill us with the same resolution to preserve our rich inheritance 
which they are witnesses that our fathers showed in acquiring it. Let them 
open our eyes to look upon all things, as Stark more than once spoke of his 
victory : ' As given by the divine Being who overpowers and niles all things, 
— or as given by the God of armies, who was pleased to make him, his offi- 
cers, and men, instruments in checking the progress of the British forces.' 
Then shall our mountains still be the holy land of freedom, and all our battle- 
fields remain that hallowed ground which speaks of nations saved." 



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